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CO Poisoning

Youn-Jung Kim, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong-Woo Seo, Bum Jin Oh, Kyoung Soo Lim, Jai Won Chang, Won Young Kim
CONTEXT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) can occur after carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication; however, limited data are available. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of the development and progression of AKI in patients with acute CO poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using a prospective registry of CO poisoning between January 2010 and December 2015. AKI was defined and classified according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Ismail-Can Oğuz, Tzonka Mineva, Hazar Guesmi
The reactivity of various Pd ensembles on the Au-Pd(100) alloy catalyst toward CO oxidation was investigated by using density functional theory (DFT). This study was prompted by the search for efficient catalysts operating at low temperature for the CO oxidation reaction that is of primary environmental importance. To this aim, we considered Pd modified Au(100) surfaces including Pd monomers, Pd dimers, second neighboring Pd atoms, and Pd chains in a comparative study of the minimum energy reaction pathways...
January 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Gati Krushna Panigrahi, Neeraj Verma, Nivedita Singh, Somya Asthana, Shailendra K Gupta, Anurag Tripathi, Mukul Das
Consumption of Cassia occidentalis (CO) seeds has been associated with the hepatomyoencephalopathy (HME) in children. Recently, we have characterized the toxic anthraquinones (AQs) such as Emodin, Rhein, Aloe-emodin, Chrysophanol and Physcion in CO seeds and detected these moieties in the bio fluids of CO poisoning cases. As AQs were detected in the serum of HME patients, their interaction with key biomolecules including protein, DNA and glutathione (GSH) is imperative. In this regard, we have previously reported the interaction of these AQs with serum albumin protein and their subsequent biological effects...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Fan Yang, Ruirui Wang, Guangshui Na, Qilun Yan, Zhongsheng Lin, Zhifeng Zhang
In this work, a molecularly imprinted monolithic column was synthesized by a facile procedure and was applied for specific recognition of domoic acid, an amnesic shellfish poison. The poly(4-vinylpyridine-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) molecularly imprinted monolith was synthesized in a stainless steel column by in situ polymerization. Pentane-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid was used as a dummy imprinting template instead of the highly toxic and expensive target molecule. It is the first time that a molecularly imprinted monolith is introduced for separation and detection of domoic acid...
January 9, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Chenwen Lin, Xiaojun Xian, Xingcai Qin, Di Wang, Francis Tsow, Erica S Forzani, Nongjian Tao
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly poisonous gas, which can cause serious health risk. CO monitoring helps protect us from excessive exposure at home and in the workplace, and reduce occupation-related health risks for workers. Conventional electrochemical and metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) based CO sensors have been widely used, but the drawbacks such as poor selectivity and calibration burden also limit their applications, e.g. as wearable exposure monitors. Aiming at the reliable, miniaturized, and easy-to-use personal exposure device development, we report a colorimetric CO sensing platform, which achieves a detection limit of 1 ppm, dynamic range of 0 ~ 500 ppm, and high selectivity to CO over common interferents in air, such as CO2, NO2, SO2, and O3...
January 4, 2018: ACS Sensors
Mitra Asgharian Rezaee, Seyed Adel Moallem, Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Mojtaba Sankian, Mehdi Farzadnia, Hassan Alavi, Mohsen Imenshahidi
Objectives: Cardiotoxicity is one of the major consequences in carbon monoxide poisoning. Following our previous work, in this study we aimed to define the myocardium changes induced by carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication and evaluate erythropoietin (EPO) effect on CO cardiotoxicity in rat. Materials and Methods: Severe carbon monoxide toxicity induced by 3000 ppm CO in Wistar rat. EPO was administrated (5000 IU/Kg, intraperitoneal injection) at the end of CO exposure and then the animals were re-oxygenated with the ambient air...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Seok-Jin Kim, Javeed Mahmood, Changmin Kim, Gao-Feng Han, Seong-Wook Kim, Sun-Min Jung, Guomin Zhu, James J De Yoreo, Guntae Kim, Jong-Beom Baek
Because they provide lower-cost but comparable activity to precious platinum (Pt)-based catalysts, non-precious iron (Fe)-based materials, such as Fe/Fe3C and Fe-N-C, have gained considerable attention as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, their practical application is hindered by their poor stability, which is attributed to the defective protection of extremely unstable Fe nanoparticles. Here, we introduce a synthesis strategy for a stable Fe-based electrocatalyst, which was realized by defect-free encapsulation of Fe nanoparticles using a two-dimensional (2D) phenazine-based fused aromatic porous organic network (Aza-PON)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Kinjal N Sethuraman, Taylor M Douglas, Barbara B Bostick, Angela C Comer, Bennett Myers, Robert E Rosenthal
OBJECTIVES: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common and deadly form of poisoning that is often treated with hyperbaric oxygen. The characteristics of children exposed to CO and then treated with hyperbaric oxygen have not been delineated. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of children treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for CO poisoning at a regional hyperbaric referral center. METHODS: The study is based on a retrospective review of data extracted from the medical records of children (age <19 years) who were referred to our center for hyperbaric oxygen therapy for CO poisoning between 2008 and 2013...
January 2, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Liang Huang, Xueping Zhang, Qingqing Wang, Yujie Han, Youxing Fang, Shaojun Dong
Despite that both electrochemical experiments and density functional theory calculations have testified the superior electrocatalytic activity and CO-poisoning tolerance of platinum-ruthenium (PtRu) alloy nanoparticles toward the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR), the facet-dependent electrocatalytic properties of PtRu nanoparticles are scarcely revealed because it is extremely difficult to synthesize well-defined facets enclosed PtRu nanocrystals. Herein, we for the first report a general synthesis of ultrathin PtRu nanocrystals with tuneable morphologies (nanowires, nanorods and nanocubes) through a one-step solvothermal approach, and systematically investigate the structure-directing effects of different surfactants and the formation mechanism by control experiments and time-dependent studies...
December 28, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Daniel Bidstrup, Erik Christian Jansen, Ole Hyldegaard
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether monitoring of acute carbon monoxide-poisoned (COP) patients by means of quantitative Romberg's test (QR-test) during a hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy regimen could be a useful supplement in the evaluation of neurological status. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study (2000-2014) in which we evaluated data containing quantitative sway measurements of acute COP patients (n = 58) treated in an HBO₂ regimen...
November 2017: Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine: Journal of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society, Inc
Marco Diestelmann, Anna Zangl, Inge Herrle, Eva Koch, Matthias Graw, Liane D Paul
The new psychoactive substance 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) belongs to the group of synthetic cathinones and is purchased mainly as "research chemical" or "bath salt" on the illegal drug market, also in South Bavaria. MDPV was detected in blood and urine samples from 2010 on in 50 authentic routine cases in a forensic setting. Plasma concentrations in 46 cases with available blood specimens ranged from approximately 1.0 to 301μg/L (median 23.7; mean 47.9μg/L), detected by a fully validated LC-MS/MS method...
December 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
Gumaa A El-Nagar, Mohamed A Hassan, Iver Lauermann, Christina Roth
Commercial Pt/C anodes of direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs) get rapidly poisoned by in-situ generated CO intermediates from formic acid non-faradaic dissociation. We succeeded in increasing the Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) stability and activity for formic acid oxidation (DFAFCs anodic reaction) by embedding them inside a chitosan matrix obtained from seafood wastes. Atop the commercial Pt/C, formic acid (FA) is predominantly oxidized via the undesired poisoning dehydration pathway (14 times higher than the desired dehydrogenation route), wherein FA is non-faradaically dissociated to CO resulting in deactivation of the majority of the Pt active-surface sites...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
J M Moon, B J Chun, S D Lee, E J Jung
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether clinical parameters and serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels measured at emergency department (ED) presentation help stratify the risk of acute or delayed persistent severe neurological sequelae after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning induced by charcoal burning. METHODS: This retrospective study included 236 patients who suffered from CO poisoning. Demographic information, serum NSE levels measured in the ED, treatment, clinical course, and long-term neurological outcomes were recorded...
December 14, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Fabio R Negreiros, Avik Halder, Chunrong Yin, Akansha Singh, Giovanni Barcaro, Luca Sementa, Eric C Tyo, Michael J Pellin, Stephan Bartling, Karl-Heinz Meiwes-Broer, Sönke Seifert, Prasenjiy Sen, Sandeep Nigam, Chiranjib Majumder, Nobuyuki Fukui, Hisato Yasumatsu, Stefan Vajda, Alessandro Fortunelli
A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of Ag-Pt sub-nanometer clusters as heterogeneous catalysts in the COCO2 reaction (COox) is presented. Ag9Pt2 and Ag9Pt3 clusters are size-selected in the gas phase, deposited on an ultrathin amorphous alumina support, and tested as catalysts experimentally under realistic conditions and via first-principles simulations at realistic coverage. In situ GISAXS/TPRx demonstrates that the clusters neither sinter nor deactivate even after prolonged exposure to reactants at high temperature, and present comparable, extremely high COox catalytic efficiency...
December 14, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Karin Föttinger, Waltraud Emhofer, David Lennon, Günther Rupprechter
γ-Alumina is widely used as an oxide support in catalysis, and palladium nanoparticles supported by alumina represent one of the most frequently used dispersed metals. The surface sites of the catalysts are often probed via FTIR spectroscopy upon CO adsorption, which may result in the formation of surface carbonate species. We have examined this process in detail utilizing FTIR to monitor carbonate formation on γ-alumina and zirconia upon exposure to isotopically labelled and unlabelled CO and CO2. The same was carried out for well-defined Pd nanoparticles supported on Al2O3 or ZrO2...
2017: Topics in Catalysis
Shuichi Hara, Masamune Kobayashi, Fumi Kuriiwa, Kazuya Ikematsu, Hajime Mizukami
Severe poisoning induced by carbon monoxide (CO) at 3000ppm, but not 1000ppm, enhances hydroxyl radical (OH) production in rat striatum, which is greatly susceptible to inhibitors of NADPH oxidase (NOX), including diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), but not xanthine oxidase. The quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the previous microarray finding that CO at 3000ppm, but not 1000ppm, enhanced mRNA expression of dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2), but not DUOX1, in rat striatum, both of which are NOX family members producing reactive oxygen species...
December 6, 2017: Toxicology
Shaoyun Chen, Hairong Liang, Gonghua Hu, Hui Yang, Kairu Zhou, Longmei Xu, Jiaxian Liu, Bei Lai, Li Song, Hao Luo, Jianming Peng, Zhidong Liu, Yongmei Xiao, Wen Chen, Huanwen Tang
Previous studies have shown that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) were related to human carcinogenesis and might be designated as diagnosis and prognosis biomarkers. Hydroquinone (HQ), as one of the metabolites of benzene, was closely relevant to occupational benzene poisoning and occupational leukemia. Using high-throughput sequencing technology, we investigated differences in lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles between experimental group (HQ 20 μmol/L) and control group (PBS). Compared to control group, a total of 65 lncRNAs and 186 mRNAs were previously identified to be aberrantly expressed more than two fold change in experimental group...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Seyed Mohammad Hosseininejad, Hamed Aminiahidashti, Iraj Goli Khatir, Seyed Khosro Ghasempouri, Ali Jabbari, Mahmoud Khandashpour
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a common cause of emergency department (ED) visits worldwide with high levels of morbidity and mortality. No inclusive nationally statistics of CO poisoning in Iran is available. The present review aimed to describe and review the pattern of CO poisoning in Iran. METHODS: The search of Medline, SCOPUS, Cochrane library, Google Scholar, Magiran, IranDoc and SID (Scientific Information Database) yielded only 10 studies discussing the epidemiology of CO poisoning in Iran...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Qin Li, Xiaoyu Ding, Weikang Bi, Jinglin Wang, Yong Zou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of N-butylphthalide (NBP) on cognitive function in acute severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning rats and its mechanism. METHODS: 120 health Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 40): normal control group (NC group), CO poisoning group (CO group) and NBP treatment group (NBP group). The acute severe CO poisoning model was established in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber by intoxicated with 1 000 ×10-6 CO for 40 minutes, followed with 3 000 ×10-6 CO for another 20 minutes, and then received hyperbaric oxygen therapy 1...
December 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Zichuan Wang, Meiyan Wang, Jingyao Liu, Dongtao Liu, Dongmei Cui
Fluoromonomers are difficult to polymerize through a coordination mechanism owing to the strong chelation between fluorine and catalysts and the electron-deficient double-bond. We report herein the unprecedented polymerization of para-fluorostyrene (pFS) with excellent activity (1.12×107  g molLn-1 h-1 ), distinguished syndioselectivity (rrrr >99 %) and high conversion (98.4 %) using rare-earth-metal catalysts bearing a pyridyl methylene fluorenyl ligand. DFT calculations reveal polar fluorine loses overwhelming coordination priority to the active central metal ion due to the sterically bulky and electron-donating CGC-ligand, thus its power of poisoning the active species is dramatically weakened...
December 4, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
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