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CO Poisoning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445026/chromium-poisoning-effects-on-surface-exchange-kinetics-of-la0-6sr0-4co0-2fe0-8o3-%C3%AE
#1
Yi-Lin Huang, A Mohammed Hussain, Christopher Pellegrinelli, Chunyan Xiong, Eric D Wachsman
The presence of Cr has already been reported in literature to cause severe degradation to La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3- δ (LSCF). However, fundamental understanding of Cr effects on the surface exchange kinetics is still lacking. For the first time in-situ gas phase isotopic oxygen exchange was utilized to quantitatively determine Cr effect on oxygen exchange kinetics of LSCF powder as a function of temperature and water vapor. Our investigations revealed that the formation of secondary phases, such as SrCrO¬4, Cr2O3, Cr-Co-Fe-O, and La-Co-Fe-O, can affect both the oxygen dissociation step and overall surface exchange...
April 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441428/increased-long-term-risk-of-major-adverse-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-a-population-based-study-in-taiwan
#2
Chung-Shun Wong, Ying-Chin Lin, Li-Chin Sung, Tzu-Ting Chen, Hon-Ping Ma, Yung-Ho Hsu, Shin-Han Tsai, Yuh-Feng Lin, Mei-Yi Wu
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning may cause toxicity to the cardiovascular system. However, the association between CO poisoning and the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) remains unestablished. We investigated the incidence of MACE after CO poisoning in Taiwan and evaluated whether CO-poisoned individuals had a higher risk of MACE than did the general population. METHODS: Using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) during 2005-2013, a nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted among patients who experienced CO poisoning between 2005 and 2013...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438480/educating-emergency-department-registered-nurses-edrns-in-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-sbirt-changes-in-attitudes-and-knowledge-over-time
#3
Ann M Mitchell, Irene Kane, Dawn L Lindsay, Holly Hagle, Kathy Puskar, Jim Aiello, Lynn Boucek, Emily Knapp
Alcohol and other drug (AOD) diagnoses in the ED co-occur with injury-related presenting conditions including: falls, motor vehicle accidents, poisonings, and both intentional and unintentional injuries. Clinical attention to ED admissions resulting from hazardous AOD use can significantly improve patient care and reduce high cost utilization of ED visits and treatment. The EDRN-SBIRT project is designed to improve the knowledge and attitudes of ED nurses working in a large academic medical center to identify and address risky AOD use as it relates to an ED visit...
April 21, 2017: International Emergency Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438227/characterization-of-carbon-monoxide-exposure-during-hurricane-sandy-and-subsequent-nor-easter
#4
Amy Schnall, Royal Law, Amy Heinzerling, Kanta Sircar, Scott Damon, Fuyuen Yip, Josh Schier, Tesfaye Bayleyegn, Amy Wolkin
OBJECTIVE: Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless gas produced by fossil fuel combustion. On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy moved ashore near Atlantic City, New Jersey, causing widespread morbidity and mortality, $30 to $50 billion in economic damage, and 8.5 million households to be without power. The combination of power outages and unusually low temperatures led people to use alternate power sources, placing many at risk for CO exposure. METHODS: We examined Hurricane Sandy-related CO exposures from multiple perspectives to help identify risk factors and develop strategies to prevent future exposures...
April 25, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437641/human-neuronal-cell-based-assay-a-new-in-vitro-model-for-toxicity-evaluation-of-ciguatoxin
#5
Teresa Coccini, Francesca Caloni, Uliana De Simone
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are emerging marine neurotoxins representing the main cause of ciguatera fish poisoning, an intoxication syndrome which configures a health emergency and constitutes an evolving issue constantly changing due to new vectors and derivatives of CTXs, as well as their presence in new non-endemic areas. The study applied the neuroblastoma cell model of human origin (SH-SY5Y) to evaluate species-specific mechanistic information on CTX toxicity. Metabolic functionality, cell morphology, cytosolic Ca(2+)i responses, neuronal cell growth and proliferation were assessed after short- (4-24h) and long-term exposure (10days) to P-CTX-3C...
April 14, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426049/a-pt-co3o4-cd-electrocatalyst-with-enhanced-electrocatalytic-performance-and-resistance-to-co-poisoning-achieved-by-carbon-dots-and-co3o4-for-direct-methanol-fuel-cells
#6
Yue Sun, Yunjie Zhou, Cheng Zhu, Lulu Hu, Mumei Han, Aoqi Wang, Hui Huang, Yang Liu, Zhenhui Kang
Highly efficient electrocatalysts remain huge challenges in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Here, a Pt-Co3O4-CDs/C composite was fabricated as an anode electrocatalyst with low Pt content (12 wt%) by using carbon dots (CDs) and Co3O4 nanoparticles as building blocks. The Pt-Co3O4-CDs/C composite catalyst shows a significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity (1393.3 mA mg(-1) Pt), durability (over 4000 s) and CO-poisoning tolerance. The superior catalytic activity should be attributed to the synergistic effect of CDs, Pt and Co3O4...
April 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425705/facile-aqueous-phase-synthesis-of-ptau-bi2o3-hybrid-catalyst-for-efficient-electro-oxidation-of-ethanol
#7
Sumanta Sarkar, Rajkumar Jana, Hiranmayee Vadlamani, Swetha Ramani, Dundappa Mumbaraddi, Sebastian C Peter
In this work, we present a facile aqueous phase synthesis of a hybrid catalyst consists of PtAu alloy supported on Bi2O3 microspheres. Multistep reduction of HAuCl4 and K2PtCl4 salts on Bi2O3 and subsequent annealing leads to the formation of this hybrid catalyst. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of using Bi2O3 as a catalyst support in Fuel cell applications. The material was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and various microscopic techniques. This composite showed remarkable activity as well as stability towards the electro-oxidation of ethanol in comparison to commercially available Pt/C...
April 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425262/copeptin-levels-in-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#8
Güler Irem, Yunsur Çevik, Ahmet Turgut Keskin, Emine Emektar, Osman Lütfi Demirci, Tuba Şafak, Gülşah Çikrikçi Işik, Kadir Okhan Akin
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study is to identify the copeptin levels in patients presenting with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning to the emergency department and to investigate its correlation with the neurological effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of patients presenting with CO poisoning and carboxyhemoglobin levels >10%. Blood samples for copeptin levels were obtained twice, first at presentation then at the fourth hour of observation...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421842/the-management-of-ventricular-dysrhythmia-in-aconite-poisoning
#9
REVIEW
James M Coulson, Thomas M Caparrotta, John P Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Aconite poisoning is relatively rare but is frequently complicated by ventricular dysrhythmias, which may be fatal. Molecular basis of aconite alkaloid ventricular arrhythmogenicity: Aconite exerts its toxic effects due to the presence of an admixture of alkaloids present in all parts of the plant. The major target of these aconite alkaloids is the fast voltage-gates sodium channel, where they cause persistent activation. This blockade of the channel in the activated state promotes automaticity within the ventricular myocardium and the generation of ventricular arrhythmias...
June 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419893/carbon-monoxide-related-fatalities-a-60-year-single-institution-experience
#10
Martin Janík, Michaela Ublová, Štepánka Kučerová, Petr Hejna
OBJECTIVE: Though carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings account currently for a relatively small percentage of total non-natural deaths in Europe, they represent a serious public health burden and significant component of avoidable mortality in many countries. Our aim was to investigate long-term trends and to determine epidemiologic characteristics of the CO-related deaths in the Czech Republic, recorded at the Department of Forensic Medicine in Hradec Králové. METHODS: This was an autopsy-based single-centre retrospective cohort study of all fatalities caused by CO poisoning over six decades (1947-2006)...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406745/measured-carbon-monoxide-concentrations-from-stock-and-reduced-emission-prototype-portable-generators-operated-in-an-attached-garage
#11
S J Emmerich, L Wang, A K Persily
There is concern about the hazard of acute residential CO exposures from portable gasoline powered generators which can result in death or serious adverse health effects in exposed individuals. To address this hazard, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission has developed low CO emission prototype generators by adapting off-the-shelf emission control technologies onto commercially-available generators. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the indoor CO concentrations resulting from portable generators operating in the attached garage of a research house under seven different test house/garage configurations...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397916/interface-engineering-for-a-rational-design-of-poison-free-bimetallic-co-oxidation-catalysts
#12
Kihyun Shin, Liang Zhang, Hyesung An, Hyunwoo Ha, Mi Yoo, Hyuck Mo Lee, Graeme Henkelman, Hyun You Kim
We use density functional theory calculations of Pt@Cu core@shell nanoparticles (NPs) to design bifunctional poison-free CO oxidation catalysts. By calculating the adsorption chemistry under CO oxidation conditions, we find that the Pt@Cu NPs will be active for CO oxidation with resistance to CO-poisoning. The CO oxidation pathway at the Pt-Cu interface is determined on the Pt NP covered with a full- and partial-shell of Cu. The exposed portion of the Pt core preferentially binds CO and the Cu shell binds O2, supplying oxygen for the reaction...
April 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394198/dechlorination-of-pvc-wastes-by-co-hydrothermal-treatment-with-alkaline-additives
#13
Peitao Zhao, Tian Li, Weijie Yan, Longji Yuan
Some chemicals were usually utilized in the hydrothermal dechlorination (HTD) of chlorine-containing wastes without revealing their roles. This work intends to investigate the role of chemical additives in the HTD of PVC (polyvinyl chloride). Several chemicals, including Na2CO3, KOH, NaOH, NH3·H2O, CaO and NaHCO3, were added into the PVC HTD process, which was conducted in subcritical Ni(2+)-containing water at 220 °C for 30 min. The results show the alkalinity of additives had notable effects on the dechlorination efficiency (DE) of PVC due to the neutralization between HCl and additives...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386529/gene-expression-in-rat-striatum-following-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#14
Shuichi Hara, Masamune Kobayash, Fumi Kuriiwa, Kunihiko Kurosaki, Hajime Mizukami
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning causes brain damage, which is attenuated by treatment with hydrogen [1], [2], a scavenger selective to hydroxyl radical (•OH) [3]. This suggests a role of •OH in brain damage due to CO poisoning. Studies have shown strong enhancement of •OH production in rat striatum by severe CO poisoning with a blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) level > 70% due to 3000 ppm CO, but not less severe CO poisoning with a blood COHb level at approximately 50% due to 1000 ppm CO [4]. Interestingly, 5% O2 causes hypoxia comparable with that by 3000 ppm CO and produces much less (•)OH than 3000 ppm CO does [4]...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375089/mri-and-clinical-manifestations-of-delayed-encephalopathy-after-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#15
Xiahong Wang, Zhenyu Li, Jacqueline Berglass, Wenlong He, Jianmin Zhao, Min Zhang, Chongyang Gao, Caixia Zhang, Huimin Zhang, Xuewei Yi
To explore the relationship between the clinical manifestations and functional magnetic resonance images of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication. Six patients received the MRI were diagnosed with delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Clinical manifestations were observed in each patient. MRI revealed multiple lesions. The majority of the lesions were located in the globus pallidus, sub cortical white matter, and basal ganglia. The cognitive injury, akinetic mutism, fecal and uroclepsia, forced crying, forced laughing and extra pyramidal syndromes such as chorea and parkinsonism were manifested in clinic...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364786/dandelion-enriched-diet-of-mothers-alleviates-lead-induced-damages-in-liver-of-newborn-rats
#16
M Gargouri, C Magné, I Ben Amara, H Ben Saad, A El Feki
Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic metal present in the environment. It causes disturbances of several functions, including hematologic, renal, reproductive and nervous ones. Preventive or curative use of medicinal plants against these disorders may be a promising and safe therapeutic strategy. This study evaluated the hepatic toxic effects of prenatal exposure to lead in rats and the possible protective effect of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) added to the diet. Female rats were given a normal diet (control) or a diet enriched with dandelion (treated)...
February 28, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352069/efficacy-of-n-butylphthalide-and-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-on-cognitive-dysfunction-in-patients-with-delayed-encephalopathy-after-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Wenping Xiang, Hui Xue, Baojun Wang, Yuechun Li, Jun Zhang, Changchun Jiang, Jiangxia Pang
BACKGROUND Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning (DEACMP) is one of the most serious complications after CO poisoning. This study was conducted to explore the efficacy of the combined application of N-Butylphthalide and hyperbaric oxygenation therapy (HBO) on cognitive dysfunction in patients with DEACMP. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 184 patients with DEACMP were randomly assigned to either receive HBO or N-Butylphthalide and HBO. Meanwhile, all patients received conventional treatment...
March 29, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350859/correlation-between-clinical-severity-and-different-non-invasive-measurements-of-carbon-monoxide-concentration-a-population-study
#18
Thomas Hullin, Jerome Aboab, Kristell Desseaux, Sylvie Chevret, Djillali Annane
OBJECTIVES: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a major concern in industrialized countries. Each year, thousands of victims, resulting in approximately 100 fatalities, are encountered in France. The diagnosis of CO poisoning is challenging; while carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) may be useful, it is a weak indicator of the severity of CO poisoning. This weak indicator may be a result of the delay between poisoning occurrence and the blood assay. Two apparatuses, CO oximeters and exhaled CO analyzers, now permit COHb to be determined outside hospitals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349731/serum-neuron-specific-enolase-as-an-early-predictor-of-delayed-neuropsychiatric-sequelae-in-patients-with-acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#19
Y S Cha, H Kim, H H Do, H I Kim, O H Kim, K-C Cha, K H Lee, S O Hwang
Delayed onset of neuropsychiatric symptoms after apparent recovery from acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has been described as delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS). To date, there have been no studies on the utility of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a marker of neuronal cell damage, as a predictive marker of DNS in acute CO poisoning. This retrospective observational study was performed on adult patients with acute CO poisoning consecutively treated over a 9-month period. Serum NSE was measured after emergency department arrival, and patients were divided into two groups...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335315/oxidation-of-co-and-methanol-on-pd-ni-catalysts-supported-on-different-chemically-treated-carbon-nanofibers
#20
Juan Carlos Calderón, Miguel Rios Ráfales, María Jesús Nieto-Monge, Juan Ignacio Pardo, Rafael Moliner, María Jesús Lázaro
In this work, palladium-nickel nanoparticles supported on carbon nanofibers were synthesized, with metal contents close to 25 wt % and Pd:Ni atomic ratios near to 1:2. These catalysts were previously studied in order to determine their activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction. Before the deposition of metals, the carbon nanofibers were chemically treated in order to generate oxygen and nitrogen groups on their surface. Transmission electron microscopy analysis (TEM) images revealed particle diameters between 3 and 4 nm, overcoming the sizes observed for the nanoparticles supported on carbon black (catalyst Pd-Ni CB 1:2)...
October 18, 2016: Nanomaterials
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