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CO Poisoning

Fatiha Tetili, Farida Bendali, Josette Perrier, Djamila Sadoun
Staphylococcus aureus is a potential pathogen contaminating raw milk and dairy products, where it is able to produce thermostable enterotoxins that can cause staphylococcal food poisoning. This study was undertaken to investigate the inhibitory activity of a Lactococcus lactis strain (isolated from milk) on S. aureus growth and staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) production. In the presence of L. lactis , the number of the pathogen decreased significantly (p<0.05) after 6 h of incubation in a laboratory medium and milk (3 log CFU/mL reduction compared to pure cultures)...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Sutapa Mukhopadhyay, Annie Hirsch, Suze Etienne, Natalia Melnikova, Jennifer Wu, Kanta Sircar, Maureen Orr
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) is an insidious gas responsible for approximately 21,000 emergency department visits, 2300 hospitalizations, and 500 deaths in the United States annually. We analyzed 10 combined years of data from two Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry acute hazardous substance release surveillance programs to evaluate CO incident-related injuries. METHODS: Seventeen states participated in these programs during 2005-2014. RESULTS: In those 10years, the states identified 1795 CO incidents...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
John Henry McDermott, Charles Reynard, Jonathan Perry, James W Dear, Fran Child, Rachel Jenner
BACKGROUND: Recent public health strategies have contributed towards a significant reduction in the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings. When events do occur, symptoms can vary dramatically depending on the carboxyhaemoglobin level and individual factors. Most reports to date focus on individual cases or larger retrospective reviews of diverse cohorts. There are very few reports of CO exposure related to scuba diving activities. METHODS: We describe the clinical sequelae experienced by 10 children who were exposed to CO during a scuba diving lesson...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Margot P Bickler, Laura J Rhodes
Detecting life-threatening common dyshemoglobins such as carboxyhemoglobin (COHb, resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning) or methemoglobin (MetHb, caused by exposure to nitrates) typically requires a laboratory CO-oximeter. Because of cost, these spectrophotometer-based instrument are often inaccessible in resource-poor settings. The aim of this study was to determine if an inexpensive pocket infrared spectrometer and smartphone (SCiO®Pocket Molecular Sensor, Consumer Physics Ltd., Israel) accurately detects COHb and MetHb in single drops of blood...
2018: PloS One
Arya Sobhakumari, Robert H Poppenga, J Brad Pesavento, Francisco A Uzal
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO), a common cause of poisoning in human beings has also been implicated in the death of animals. Though there are multiple studies on CO poisoning and relevant lethal blood COHb concentrations in humans, there are no reliable reports of diagnostic lethal carboxyhemoglobin percentage of saturation (COHb%) in cats. Additionally, due to shared housing environments, exposures to companion animals can be a surrogate for lethal exposures in human beings and provide valuable information in concurrent forensic investigations...
March 5, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Hyuk-Hoon Kim, Sang Chun Choi, Minjung Kathy Chae, Young-Gi Min
In acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication, treatment of neurologic injury and prevention of neurological sequelae are primary concerns. Ethanol is the one of the frequent substances which is co-ingested in intentional CO poisoning. Neuroprotective effect of ethanol was highlighted and demonstrated in isolated brain injury recently. We assessed the neuroprotective effect of ethanol in acute CO intoxication using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).We retrospectively reviewed medical records for patients who visited an emergency medical center of a university-affiliated hospital during a period of 73 months, from March 2009 to April 2015...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Luca D Borruso, Nicholas A Buckley, Katharine A Kirby, Gregory Carter, Jennifer L Pilgrim, Kate M Chitty
The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between alcohol co-ingestion in an index deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) episode with repeated DSP and subsequent suicide. A retrospective cohort study was conducted involving 5,669 consecutive index presentations to a toxicology service following DSP between January 1, 1996, and October 31, 2010. Records were probabilistically matched to National Coronial Information System data to identify subsequent suicide. Index DSPs were categorized on co-ingestion of alcohol, and primary outcomes analyzed were repetition of any DSP, rates of repeated DSP, time to first repeat DSP, and subsequent suicide...
March 2, 2018: Suicide & Life-threatening Behavior
Pei-Gao Duan, Shi-Chang Li, Jia-Li Jiao, Feng Wang, Yu-Ping Xu
Supercritical water gasification (SCWG) of the microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa was examined with a catalyst mixture of Ru/C and Rh/C in a mass ratio of 1:1. The influences of temperature (380-600°C), water density (0-0.197g/cm3 ), and catalyst loading (0-20wt%) on the yields and composition of the gaseous products and the gasification efficiency were examined. The temperature and water density significantly affected the SCWG of the microalgae. The hydrogen gasification efficiency was more dependent on the temperature, while the carbon gasification efficiency was more dependent on the water density...
February 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Changzheng Wang, Yang Zhang, Yajun Zhang, Ping Xu, Cuimin Feng, Tao Chen, Tao Guo, Fengnan Yang, Qiang Wang, Jingxiao Wang, Mengtong Shi, Louzhen Fan, Shaowei Chen
Highly ordered hierarchical Pt and PtNi nanowire arrays were prepared by using CdS hierarchical nanowire arrays (HNWAs) as sacrificial templates and demonstrated high electrochemical active surface areas. For the resulting Pt HNWAs sample, the peak current for methanol oxidation at +0.74 V was almost one order of magnitude higher than that of Pt solid nanowire arrays (SNWAs) prepared in a similar manner but without the use of CdS template, and the addition of a Ni cocatalyst effectively enhanced the tolerance against CO poisoning...
February 23, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Laurène Dufayet, Chantal Médernach, Clément Bassi, Robert Garnier, Jérôme Langrand
INTRODUCTION: Heavy rainfall in May 2016 caused large-scale flooding of the Seine and its tributaries. Analysis of this unusual event showed that it could recur on an even larger scale. The sanitary consequences were less frequently assessed in this analysis, particularly the risk of accidental collective carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning caused by the use of combustion engine drainage pumps. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all cases of acute accidental carbon monoxide exposure observed in the Ile-de-France region, related to the use of drainage pumps in spring and summer 2016 and notified to the Ile-de-France CO poisoning surveillance network...
November 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Xilin Zhang, Zongxian Yang, Ruqian Wu
Catalysts with weak adsorption yet high reactivity towards CO are urgently required to solve the serious problem of CO poisoning that occurs in many important reactions, e.g., in fuel cells. Using the combination of density functional calculations and ab initio molecular dynamic simulations, we found a promising electrocatalyst for this purpose: a Au monolayer on WC(0001) (AuML /WC), which has both high oxygen reduction activity and high tolerance to CO poisoning. The advantages of using AuML /WC as an electrocatalyst in fuel cells are demonstrated through analyses of energetics of different reaction steps as well as interaction properties of reactants and products...
February 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Derek M Culnan, Beretta Craft-Coffman, Genevieve H Bitz, Karel D Capek, Yiji Tu, William C Lineaweaver, Maggie J Kuhlmann-Capek
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a small molecule poison released as a product of incomplete combustion. Carbon monoxide binds hemoglobin, reducing oxygen delivery. This effect is exacerbated in the burned pregnant patient by fetal hemoglobin that binds CO 2.5- to 3-fold stronger than maternal hemoglobin. With no signature clinical symptom, diagnosis depends on patient injury history, elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels, and alterations in mental status. The standard of care for treatment of CO intoxication is 100% normobaric oxygen, which decreases the half-life of CO in the bloodstream from 5 hours to 1 hour...
March 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Patrick Chow Yuen Ng, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas that is found in the environment, in the home, and in the human body as a normal part of mammalian metabolism. Poisoning from CO, a common exposure, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not recognized and treated in a timely manner. This review evaluates the signs and symptoms of CO poisoning, conditions that present similar to CO poisoning, and an approach to the recognition and management for CO poisoning. CO poisoning accounts for thousands of emergency department visits annually...
February 12, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Rohit Ninan Benjamin, Thambu David, Ramya Iyadurai, K S Jacob
Background: People who deliberately ingest poisons commonly present to emergency departments of hospitals in India. However, there is a dearth of information on poisoning using nonorganophosphorus pesticides. Methods: This prospective, hospital-based study attempted to examine the nonorganophosphorus poisons used to attempt suicide. Data on sociodemographic characteristics of patients, site and source of poisons, co-ingested substances, premeditation, and reason for poisoning were collected...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Maria de Lourdes Ladino Sturchler, Evan A Rusoja, Arun Nagdev, Barry C Simon
BACKGROUND: This case report highlights the clinical presentation, radiologic findings, and medical management of a case of right colonic diverticulitis (RCD) with concomitant pancreatitis, a rare and easily missed entity in the emergency department (ED) of Western hemisphere countries. In our report, we present and discuss a case of RCD that led to pancreatitis in a female Asian patient. We review the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of this disorder, and also discuss some complications associated with RCD...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kaveh Tabrizian, Hamideh Khodayari, Ramin Rezaee, Hosseinali Jahantigh, Gholamreza Bagheri, Konstantinos Tsarouhas, Mahmoud Hashemzaei
Carbon monoxide (CO), a toxic gas produced via incomplete fossil fuel combustion, has several poisonous effects in the heart including induction of necrosis, apoptosis, and electrocardiogram (ECG) changes. Magnesium sulfate (MS) is a drug with cardioprotective effects especially when used after ischemia/reperfusion. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate MS cardioprotective effects following CO poisoning. Animals were exposed to CO 3000 ppm for 1 h and immediately after the exposure period and on the next 4 days (a total of 5 consecutive doses given on a daily basis), MS (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally (i...
February 2018: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
Nouf Abdulkareem Omer Alkharashi, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan Periasamy, Jegan Athinarayanan, Ali A Alshatwi
Cd is a hazardous substance and carcinogen that is present in the environment; it is known to cause toxic effects in living organisms. Sulforaphane is a naturally available phytochemical with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. However, the effects of sulforaphane on Cd toxicity in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of the effects of sulforaphane on Cd toxicity in hMSCs by using MTT assays, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, Hoechst staining, LysoRed staining, assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential, and gene expression analysis...
January 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
David H Jang, Utsha G Khatri, Brenna P Shortal, Matthew Kelly, Kevin Hardy, David S Lambert, David M Eckmann
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the leading cause of poisoning mortality and morbidity in the USA. Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels are not predictive of severity or prognosis. At this time, the measurement of mitochondrial respiration may serve as a biomarker in CO poisoning. The primary objective of this study was to assess changes in mitochondrial function consisting of respiration and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from patients with CO poisoning...
January 30, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Wudan Yan
In the 16th century, Paracelsus-the father of modern toxicology-wrote that "all things are poison and nothing is without poison; the dose alone makes a thing not poison." While it's conceivable that too much of a good thing, such as water or oxygen, could be fatal, the opposite-that smaller quantities of a bad thing might be beneficial-may be harder to believe. But four centuries after Paracelsus shared this idea, two researchers decided to apply the more counterintuitive notion of Paracelsus' dogma for a notoriously toxic chemical: carbon monoxide (CO)...
January 2018: IEEE Pulse
Ying Zhu, Jingjing Liu, Omanjana Goswami, Ashaki A Rouff, Evert J Elzinga
We studied the effects of humic substances (HS) on the sorption of Fe(II) onto Al-oxide and clay sorbents at pH 7.5 with a combination of batch kinetic experiments and synchrotron Fe K-edge EXAFS analyses. Fe(II) sorption was monitored over the course of 4 months in anoxic clay and Al-oxide suspensions amended with variable HS types (humic acid, HA; or fulvic acid, FA) and levels (0, 1, and 4 wt%), and with differing Fe(II) and HS addition sequences (co-sorption and pre-coated experiments, where Fe(II) sorbate was added alongside and after HS addition, respectively)...
January 25, 2018: Geochemical Transactions
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