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CO Poisoning

Jason J Rose, Ling Wang, Qinzi Xu, Charles F McTiernan, Sruti Shiva, Jesus Tejero, Mark T Gladwin
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning affects 50,000 people a year in the United States. The clinical presentation runs a spectrum, ranging from headache and dizziness to coma and death, with a mortality rate ranging from 1-3%. A significant number of patients who survive CO poisoning suffer from long term neurologic and affective sequelae. The neurologic deficits do not necessarily correlate with blood CO levels, but likely result from the pleiotropic effects of CO on cellular mitochondrial respiration, cellular energy utilization, inflammation and free radical generation, especially in the brain and heart...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Lequan Liu, Feng Zhou, Rajesh Kodiyath, Shigenori Ueda, Hideki Abe, Defa Wang, Youquan Deng, Jinhua Ye
CO poisoning of Pt catalysts is one of the major challenges to the commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. One promising solution is to develop CO-tolerant Pt-based catalysts. A facilely synthesized Pt/FeOx catalyst exhibited outstanding CO tolerance in the oxidation of H2 and electrochemical CO stripping. Light-off temperature of H2O formation over Pt/FeOx was achieved even below 30 °C in the presence of 3000 ppm CO at a space velocity of 18 000 mL g(-1)cat h(-1). For the electrochemical oxidation of CO, the onset and peak potentials decreased by 0...
October 18, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Byoung-Joon Oh, Yong-Gyun Im, Eunjung Park, Young-Gi Min, Sang-Cheon Choi
OBJECTIVE: The effect of induced hypothermia on severe acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning remains to be addressed further. We investigated the effect of induced hypothermia on severe acute CO poisoning. METHODS: Retrospective chart review was conducted for patients who diagnosed as severe acute CO poisoning in emergency department and underwent induced hypothermia from May 2013 to May 2014. Hospital courses with critical medication and major laboratory results were investigated through the chart review...
June 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Yu-Shen Huang, Yi-Chieh Li, Pei-Yun Tsai, Chia-En Lin, Chien-Ming Chen, Shih-Ming Chen, Jen-Ai Lee
Lead (Pb) is an environmental pollutant associated with several diseases, such as nephrotoxicity. Methylglyoxal (MG) is a reactive dicarbonyl compound formed during glycolysis and reported to increase in kidney damage. Metformin is used as a MG scavenger in the clinic. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of Pb-induced renal injury and the effect of metformin on Pb-induced nephrotoxicity. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, Pb, and Pb + metformin groups. Pb (250 ppm) was administered in drinking water, and 50 mg/Kg of metformin was co-administered orally...
October 14, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Münïre Kübra Özgök-Kangal, Iclal Karatop-Cesur, Gökhan Akcali, Senol Yildiz, Günalp Uzun
BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in Turkey. Our department is the main provider of emergency hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) in Ankara and neighboring cities. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CO-poisoned patients who were referred by phone to our department for emergency HBOT. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of phone consultations with emergency departments regarding the need for treatment of CO-poisoned patients with HBOT between 14 January 2014 and 14 January 2015...
September 2016: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Yang Yuan, H Enis Karahan, Cansu Yıldırım, Li Wei, Özgür Birer, Shengli Zhai, Raymond Lau, Yuan Chen
The chirality-selective synthesis of relatively large (diameter > 1 nm) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is of great interest for a variety of practical applications, but only a few catalysts are available so far. Previous studies suggested that S (compounds) can enhance the chirality-selectivity of Co catalysts in SWCNT synthesis, however, the mechanism behind is not fully understood, and no tailorable methodology has yet been developed. Here, we demonstrate a facile approach to achieve the chirality-selective synthesis of SWCNTs by the sulfidation-based poisoning of silica-supported Co catalysts using a mixture of H2S and H2...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Jae-Hwan Lee, Hyun-Sook Kim, Jae-Hyeong Park, Min Su Kim, Byung Joo Sun, Seung Ryu, Song Soo Kim, Seon Ah Jin, Jun Hyung Kim, Si Wan Choi, Jin-Ok Jeong, In-Sun Kwon, In-Whan Seong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning can cause tissue hypoxia and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) requiring intensive medical management. Our objectives were to find incidence and clinical course of LVSD CO intoxicated patients and make a clinical scoring to predict LVSD. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We included all consecutive patients with CO exposure in the emergency room. LVSD was defined by LVEF <50% assessed by echocardiography...
September 2016: Korean Circulation Journal
Vittoria Roncalli, Jefferson T Turner, David Kulis, Donald M Anderson, Petra H Lenz
Inshore and offshore waters of the Gulf of Maine (USA) have spring/summer harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense, which is responsible for paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans. The calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus co-occurs with A. fundyense during the seasonal blooms. At that time, C. finmarchicus population abundances are high, dominated by immature copepods preparing for diapause, and by actively-reproducing adults. High survival has been reported for copepods exposed to toxic A...
January 2016: Harmful Algae
Pablo S Fernández, Polina Tereshchuk, Camilo A Angelucci, Janaina F Gomes, Amanda C Garcia, Cauê A Martins, Giuseppe A Camara, María E Martins, Juarez L F Da Silva, Germano Tremiliosi-Filho
The glycerol electrooxidation reaction (GEOR) has attracted huge interest in the last decade due to the very low price and availability of this polyol. In this work, we studied the GEOR on Pt(111) electrodes by introducing different densities of random defects. Our results showed that the generation of defects on Pt(111) slightly modified the GEOR onset potential, however it generates changes in the voltammetric oxidation charges and also in the relative production of CO2 to carbonyl containing compounds, C[double bond, length as m-dash]O...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yusan Yang, Corinne L Richards-Zawacki, Anisha Devar, Matthew B Dugas
The concurrent divergence of mating traits and preferences is necessary for the evolution of reproductive isolation via sexual selection, and such co-evolution has been demonstrated in diverse lineages. However, the extent to which assortative mate preferences are sufficient to drive reproductive isolation in nature is less clear. Natural contact zones between lineages divergent in traits and preferences provide exceptional opportunities for testing the predicted evolutionary consequences of such divergence...
October 5, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Sabine Ladrech, Jing Wang, Marc Mathieu, Jean-Luc Puel, Marc Lenoir
High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a DNA-binding protein that facilitates gene transcription and may act extracellularly as a late mediator of inflammation. The roles of HMGB1 in the pathogenesis of the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) of the cochlea are currently unknown. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that early phenotypical changes in the SGNs of the amikacin-poisoned rat cochlea are mediated by HMGB1. Our results showed that a marked downregulation of HMGB1 had occurred by completion of amikacin treatment, coinciding with acute damage at the dendrite extremities of the SGNs...
October 4, 2016: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Maria Cristina Monti, Davide Guido, Cristina Montomoli, Claudia Sardu, Alessandro Sanna, Salvatore Pretti, Lorena Lorefice, Maria Giovanna Marrosu, Paolo Valera, Eleonora Cocco
BACKGROUND: South-Western Sardinia (SWS) is a high risk area for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) with high prevalence and spatial clustering; its population is genetically representative of Sardinians and presents a peculiar environment. We evaluated the MS environmental risk of specific heavy metals (HM) and geographical factors such as solar UV exposure and urbanization by undertaking a population-based cross-sectional study in SWS. METHODS: Geochemical data on HM, UV exposure, urbanization and epidemiological MS data were available for all SWS municipalities...
2016: PloS One
Chen-Chia Chen, Gang-Neng Sung, Wen-Ching Chen, Chih-Ting Kuo, Jin-Ju Chue, Chieh-Ming Wu, Chun-Ming Huang
Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB) (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min), and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway...
2016: Sensors
Hemendra Pal Singh Dhaked, Anusri Bhattacharya, Saroj Yadav, Sarath Chandra Dantu, Ashutosh Kumar, Dulal Panda
FtsZ monomers assemble to form a dynamic Z-ring at the midcell position in bacteria that coordinates bacterial cell division. Antibacterial agents plumbagin and SB-RA-2001 were found to bind to FtsZ and to inhibit Z-ring formation in bacteria. Docking analysis indicated similar binding regions for these two inhibitors on FtsZ, and residue R191 was involved in the binding interaction with both compounds. In this work, the importance of R191 in FtsZ assembly and in bacterial cell division was analyzed. R191A-FtsZ exhibited significantly poorer polymerization ability...
October 11, 2016: Biochemistry
Jun Wu, Ruohong Chen, Caihui Zhang, Kangbai Li, Weiying Xu, Lijuan Wang, Qingmei Chen, Peiqiang Mu, Jun Jiang, Jikai Wen, Yiqun Deng
Due to unavoidable contaminations in feedstuff, pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) and suffer from poisoning, thus the poisoned products potentially affect human health. Heretofore, the metabolic process of AFB₁ in pigs remains to be clarified, especially the principal cytochrome P450 oxidases responsible for its activation. In this study, we cloned CYP3A29 from pig liver and expressed it in Escherichia coli, and its activity has been confirmed with the typical P450 CO-reduced spectral characteristic and nifedipine-oxidizing activity...
2016: Toxins
Rubén Rizo, María Jesús Lázaro, Elena Pastor, Gonzalo García
PtSn-based catalysts are one of the most active materials toward that contribute ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). In order to gain a better understanding of the Sn influence on the carbon monoxide (principal catalyst poison) and ethanol oxidation reactions in acidic media, a systematic spectroelectrochemical study was carried out. With this end, carbon-supported PtSnx (x = 0, 1/3 and 1) materials were synthesized and employed as anodic catalysts for both reactions. In situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) and differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS) indicate that Sn diminishes the amount of bridge bonded CO (COB) and greatly improves the CO tolerance of Pt-based catalysts...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Alpay Ateş, Müge Arikan, Ayşegul Özgök
BACKGROUND Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is commonly seen during the winter season in Turkey due to use of charcoal stoves and water heaters, but narghile smoking is a rare cause of CO poisoning. CASE REPORT In this paper, we report a CO poisoning case caused by narghile smoking. The patient was admitted to the ED with nausea, dizziness, vertigo, and syncope. CONCLUSIONS The diagnosis of CO poisoning depends on suspicious anamnesis. The major treatment of CO poisoning is oxygen supply.
2016: American Journal of Case Reports
(no author information available yet)
Emergency department (ED) nurses at Frimley Park Hospital in Surrey are taking part in a study into how staff can detect and treat carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning.
September 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Taku Tanaka, Takeshi Kashimura, Marii Ise, Brandon D Lohman, Yasuhiko Taira
BACKGROUND: Because treatment modalities for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially normobaric oxygen and hyperbaric oxygen therapies, have limited effects and hyperbaric oxygen is not available at the scene where treatment is most needed, we conducted a study to determine and compare rates of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) dissociation achieved in human in vitro blood samples under light radiation emitted at three levels of illuminance. This was done with a view toward eventual on-site application...
2016: Journal of Intensive Care
Evangelia Liakoni, Fabio Walther, Christian H Nickel, Matthias E Liechti
BACKGROUND: γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with dose-dependent sedative effects. Systematic data on the acute toxicity of GHB from emergency department (ED) presentations over a long period of time are currently missing from the literature. The present study described the clinical features of GHB toxicity. METHODS: Retrospective case series of GHB intoxications seen in an urban ED. RESULTS: From January 2002 to September 2015, 78 GHB-related intoxication cases were recorded (71 % male patients)...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
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