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Methylene Chloride

Muath Nairat, Vadim V Lozovoy, Marcos Dantus
While the interaction of atoms in strong fields is well understood, the same cannot be said about molecules. We consider how dissociative ionization of molecules depends on the quality of the femtosecond laser pulses, in particular, the presence of third- and fourth-order dispersion. We find that high-order dispersion (HOD) unexpectedly results in order-of-magnitude enhanced ion yields, along with the factor of three greater kinetic energy release compared to transform-limited pulses with equal peak intensities...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Chi Nguyen Thi Thanh, Thong Pham Van, Hai Le Thi Hong, Luc Van Meervelt
Crystallization experiments with the dinuclear chelate ring complex di-μ-chlorido-bis[(η(2)-2-allyl-4-methoxy-5-{[(propan-2-yloxy)carbonyl]methoxy}phenyl-κC(1))platinum(II)], [Pt2(C15H19O4)2Cl2], containing a derivative of the natural compound eugenol as ligand, have been performed. Using five different sets of crystallization conditions resulted in four different complexes which can be further used as starting compounds for the synthesis of Pt complexes with promising anticancer activities. In the case of vapour diffusion with the binary chloroform-diethyl ether or methylene chloride-diethyl ether systems, no change of the molecular structure was observed...
October 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
Christine M Le, Theresa Sperger, Rui Fu, Xiao Hou, Yong Hwan Lim, Franziska Schoenebeck, Mark Lautens
We report a highly robust, general and stereoselective method for the synthesis of 3-(chloromethylene)oxindoles from alkyne-tethered carbamoyl chlorides using PdCl2(PhCN)2 as the catalyst. The transformation involves a stereo- and regioselective chloropalladation of an internal alkyne to generate a nucleophilic vinyl Pd(II) species, which then undergoes an intramolecular cross-coupling with a carbamoyl chloride. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions, is insensitive to the presence of moisture and air, and is readily scalable...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Konrad Hotzel, Thomas Heinze
An efficient one-pot synthesis of new dextran derivatives is described. The functional groups of β-alanine, i.e., the carboxyl- and amine group, are converted independently in one-step by iminium chloride to form products with a single substituent. The dextran N-[(dimethylamino)methylene]-β-alanine ester is formed selectively. The structure of the resulting polymers is unambiguously determined by means of NMR- and FTIR-spectroscopy and elemental analysis.
August 27, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Nupur Sarkar, Amarnath Karmakar, Anandamay Barik
Epilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are important pests of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as creeping cucumber. The profiles of volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 48 hr continuous feeding of adult females of either E. vigintioctopunctata or A. foveicollis, by adults of both species, and after mechanical damaging were identified and quantified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Fidelis Cho-Ngwa, Elvis Monya, Boris K Azantsa, Faustin Pascal T Manfo, Smith B Babiaka, James A Mbah, Moses Samje
BACKGROUND: Onchocerciasis is the world's second leading infectious cause of blindness. Its control is currently hampered by the lack of a macrofilaricidal drug and by severe adverse events observed when the lone recommended microfilaricide, ivermectin is administered to individuals co-infected with Loa loa. Therefore, there is the need for a safe and effective macrofilaricidal drug that will be able to cure the infection and break transmission cycles, or at least, an alternative microfilaricide that does not kill L...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Alessandro Gallo, Anthony Fong, Kai C Szeto, Julia Rieb, Laurent Delevoye, Régis M Gauvin, Mostafa Taoufik, Baron Peters, Susannah L Scott
Extensive chlorination of γ-Al2O3 results in the formation of highly Lewis acidic surface domains depleted in surface hydroxyl groups. Adsorption of methyltrioxorhenium (MTO) onto these chlorinated domains serves to activate it as a low temperature, heterogeneous olefin metathesis catalyst and confers both high activity and high stability. Characterization of the catalyst reveals that the immobilized MTO undergoes partial ligand exchange with the surface, whereby some Re sites acquire a chloride ligand from the modified alumina while donating an oxo ligand to the support...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Iyas Aldib, Michel Gelbcke, Jalal Soubhye, Martine Prévost, Paul G Furtmüller, Christian Obinger, Betina Elfving, Ibaa Chikh Alard, Goedele Roos, Cédric Delporte, Gilles Berger, Damien Dufour, Karim Zouaoui Boudjeltia, Jean Nève, Francois Dufrasne, Pierre Van Antwerpen
Human myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays an important role in innate immunity but also aggravates tissue damage by oxidation of biomolecules at sites of inflammation. As a result from a recent high-throughput virtual screening approach for MPO inhibitors, bis-2,2'-[(dihydro-1,3(2H,4H) pyrimidinediyl)bis(methylene)]phenol was detected as a promising lead compound for inhibition of the MPO-typical two-electron oxidation of chloride to hypochlorous acid (IC50 = 0.5 μM). In the present pharmacomodulation study, 37 derivatives of this lead compound were designed and synthesized driven by comprehensive docking studies and the impact on the chlorination activity of MPO...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
K F Alcantara, A B Rocha, A H A Gomes, W Wolff, L Sigaud, A C F Santos
The center of mass kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) spectra of selected ionic fragments, formed through dissociative single and double photoionization of CH2Cl2 at photon energies around the Cl 2p edge, were extracted from the shape and width of the experimentally obtained time-of-flight (TOF) distributions. The KERD spectra exhibit either smooth profiles or structures, depending on the moiety and photon energy. In general, the heavier the ionic fragments, the lower their average KERDs are. In contrast, the light H(+) fragments are observed with kinetic energies centered around 4...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Carlos A Valdez, Roald N Leif, Armando Alcaraz
The effective methylation of phosphonic acids related to chemical warfare agents (CWAs) employing trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate (TMO·BF4) for their qualitative detection and identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is presented. The methylation occurs in rapid fashion (1 h) and can be conveniently carried out at ambient temperature, thus providing a safer alternative to the universally employed diazomethane-based methylation protocols. Optimization of the methylation parameters led us to conclude that methylene chloride was the ideal solvent to carry out the derivatization, and that even though methylated products can be observed surfacing after only 1 h, additional time was not found to be detrimental but beneficial to the process particularly when dealing with analytes at low concentrations (∼10 μg mL(-1))...
August 24, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
Qingwen Lin, Mengfan Gao, Jiali Chang, Hongzhu Ma
Novel and efficient microspheres adsorbent (MCA-E0.7/CMC-g- PDMDAAC), based on monochloroacetic acid (MCA) modified epichlorohydrin (ECH) cross-linked carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), then grafting by dimethyldiallylammonium chloride (DMDAAC), was synthesized and its adsorption properties on cationic and anionic dyes were investigated. The results demonstrated that such MCA-E0.7/CMC-g-PDMDAAC microspheres showed pH-sensitive and could effectively adsorb cationic dye methylene blue (MB) or anionic dye orange II (OR II), at near neutral (pH>4) or acidic (pH<3) condition, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Pravin Chaitram Patil, Frederick Anthony Luzzio
2-((Phenylsulfonyl)methyl)-4,5-diphenyloxazole is a useful scaffold for synthetic elaboration at the 2-methylene position thereby affording extended oxazoles. The corresponding alpha-sulfonyl anion reacts smoothly with diverse alkyl halides giving monoalkylated (47-90%), dialkylated (50-97%) and cyclic (59-93%) products. The reductive desulfonylation of the monoalkylated and selected dialkylated products was optimized with a magnesium/mercuric chloride reagent system and afforded desulfonylated products in the range of 66-97%...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Vera P Kashparova, Victor A Klushin, Daria V Leontyeva, Nina V Smirnova, Victor M Chernyshev, Valentine P Ananikov
A new method was developed for the selective gram-scale synthesis of 2,5-diformylfuran (DFF), which is an important chemical with a high application potential, via oxidation of biomass-derived 5-hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) catalyzed by 4-acetylamino-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (4-AcNH-TEMPO) in a two-phase system consisting of a methylene chloride and aqueous solution containing sodium hydrogen carbonate and potassium iodide. The key feature of this method is the generation of the I2 (co-)oxidant by anodic oxidation of iodide anions during pulse electrolysis...
September 20, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Francesco Panza, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Davide Seripa, Bruno P Imbimbo, Madia Lozupone, Andrea Santamato, Chiara Zecca, Maria Rosaria Barulli, Antonello Bellomo, Alberto Pilotto, Antonio Daniele, Antonio Greco, Giancarlo Logroscino
The failure of several Phase II/III clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease (AD) with drugs targeting β-amyloid accumulation in the brain fuelled an increasing interest in alternative treatments against tau pathology, including approaches targeting tau phosphatases/kinases, active and passive immunization, and anti-tau aggregation. The most advanced tau aggregation inhibitor (TAI) is methylthioninium (MT), a drug existing in equilibrium between a reduced (leuco-methylthioninium) and oxidized form (MT(+)). MT chloride (methylene blue) was investigated in a 24-week Phase II clinical trial in 321 patients with mild to moderate AD that failed to show significant positive effects in mild AD patients, although long-term observations (50 weeks) and biomarker studies suggested possible benefit...
2016: BioMed Research International
Tracy L Peters, Freya Kamel, Cecilia Lundholm, Maria Feychting, Caroline E Weibull, Dale P Sandler, Pernilla Wiebert, Pär Sparén, Weimin Ye, Fang Fang
OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of specific occupations and occupational exposures with the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in the Swedish population. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted in Sweden. Patients with ALS diagnosed during 1991-2010 (n=5020) were identified from the National Patient Register and 5 controls per case (n=25 100) were randomly selected from the general Swedish population, individually matched to cases by birth year and sex...
July 14, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Roman Covarrubias, Elena Chepurko, Adam Reynolds, Zachary M Huttinger, Ryan Huttinger, Katherine Stanfill, Debra G Wheeler, Tatiana Novitskaya, Simon C Robson, Karen M Dwyer, Peter J Cowan, Richard J Gumina
OBJECTIVE: Circulating blood cells and endothelial cells express ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase-1 (CD39) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73). CD39 hydrolyzes extracellular ATP or ADP to AMP. CD73 hydrolyzes AMP to adenosine. The goal of this study was to examine the interplay between CD39 and CD73 cascade in arterial thrombosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: To determine how CD73 activity influences in vivo thrombosis, the time to ferric chloride-induced arterial thrombosis was measured in CD73-null mice...
September 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Frédéric Nico Njayou, Arnaud Fondjo Kouam, Brice Fredy Nemg Simo, Angèle Nkouatchoua Tchana, Paul Fewou Moundipa
BACKGROUND: Khaya grandifoliola (Meliaceae) and Entada africana (Fabaceae) are traditionally used in Bamun (a western tribe of Cameroon) traditional medicine for the treatment of liver related diseases. In this study, the synergistic hepatoprotective effect of respective active fractions of the plants were investigated against paracetamol-induced toxicity in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. METHODS: Paracetamol conferred hepatocyte toxicity, as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) content assays...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Mun Fei Yam, Chu Shan Tan, Mariam Ahmad, Ruan Shibao
Previous studies demonstrated that eupatorin content in Orthosiphon stamineus fractions correlated with their vasorelaxation activity. Even with previous studies, there is still very little information on the vasorelaxation effect of eupatorin, and not many scientific studies had been carried out. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the vasorelaxation activity and mechanism of action of eupatorin. The vasorelaxation activity and the underlying mechanisms of eupatorin was evaluated on thoracic aortic rings isolated from Sprague Dawley rats...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Xin-E Duan, Hong-Bo Tong, Xue-Hong Wei, He-Ping Shi, Sheng-Di Bai, Tao Bai, Jing Zhang, Yong-Bin Zhang, Dian-Sheng Liu
The reactions of 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-phenylhydrazonatolithium C5H4Npy-CH[double bond, length as m-dash]Ni-NaLi(Ph) (abbreviated as Li) with a 1/2 equivalent of anhydrous metal (Zn, Sn, Fe and Co) chlorides or NiCl2(DME) (DME = 1, 2-dimethoxyethane) produced the corresponding mononuclear metal(ii) complexes ( and ), in which each ligand acts as a bidentate ligand and the coordination geometries around the metals are shown to be tetrahedral within the complexes , , and , respectively, and a tetragonal pyramid in the complex ...
July 5, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Min-Hsien Liu, Chuan-Wen Liu
Two synthesis methods were investigated in this study in order to explore feasible reaction pathways to obtain the target DADNE product: (1) the nitration of tetrahalogen ethene and (2) the reaction of acetamidine hydrochloride with dicarbonyl dichloride. Through theoretical simulation, the findings revealed that synthesis was possible, starting from acetamidine hydrochloride in a hydrated environment, followed by subsequent reaction routes via cyclization of the methoxy-substituted acetamidine anion intermediate with oxalyl chloride to form 2-methoxy-2-methyl-imidazolan-4,5-dione, acid-catalyzed synthesis of 2-methylene-imidazolan-4,5-dione, nitration using nitric acid to obtain 2-dinitromethylene-imidazolan-4,5-dione, and hydrolysis to produce 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene...
July 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
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