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Methylene Chloride

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450982/application-of-off-line-two-dimensional-high-performance-countercurrent-chromatography-on-the-chloroform-soluble-extract-of-cuscuta-auralis-seeds
#1
Taewoong Rho, Kee Dong Yoon
In this study, the chloroform-soluble extract of C. auralis was separated successfully using off-line two-dimensional high-performance countercurrent chromatography, yielding a γ-pyrone, two alkaloids, a flavonoid and four lignans. The first-dimensional countercurrent separation using a methylene chloride/methanol/water (11:6:5, v/v/v) system yielded three sub-fractions (fractions I-III). The second-dimensional countercurrent separations, conducted on fractions I-III using n-hexane/ethyl and acetate/methanol/acetic acid (5:5:5:5:0, 3:7:3:7:0 and 1:9:1:9:0...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433031/peroxymonosulfate-base-process-in-saline-wastewater-treatment-the-fight-between-alkalinity-and-chloride-ions
#2
Fei Yang, Ying Huang, Changling Fang, Ying Xue, Luoyan Ai, Jianshe Liu, Zhaohui Wang
Both Cl- and base can affect PMS activation to produce reactive chlorine or oxygen species, but the overall effects of chloride on this emerging PMS/base technology in saline wastewater treatment are unknown. Here effectiveness of PMS/base, PMS/Cl- and PMS/base/Cl- is compared with a gradient concentration of chloride and alkalinity, by probing the degradation of methylene blue (MB). Both PMS/base and PMS/Cl- systems can rapidly degrade MB due to the generation of singlet oxygen and reactive chlorine, respectively...
February 6, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368246/concomitant-alteration-in-number-and-affinity-of-p2x-and-muscarinic-receptors-are-associated-with-bladder-dysfunction-in-early-stage-of-diabetic-rats
#3
Tsuyoshi Yoshizawa, Yukio Hayashi, Akira Yoshida, Shohei Yoshida, Yoshihiko Ito, Kenya Yamaguchi, Shizuo Yamada, Satoru Takahashi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate time course of bladder dysfunction and concurrent changes in number and affinity of the muscarinic and P2X receptor in the early stage of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Diabetic rats were prepared by the intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of STZ to 7-week-old female Wistar rats. We performed recording of 24-h voiding behavior and cystometry at 1, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the induction of diabetes...
January 24, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339078/analytical-and-pre-analytical-performance-characteristics-of-a-novel-cartridge-type-blood-gas-analyzer-for-point-of-care-and-laboratory-testing
#4
Matthijs Oyaert, Tom Van Maerken, Silke Bridts, Silvi Van Loon, Heleen Laverge, Veronique Stove
BACKGROUND: Point-of-care blood gas test results may benefit therapeutic decision making by their immediate impact on patient care. We evaluated the (pre-)analytical performance of a novel cartridge-type blood gas analyzer, the GEM Premier 5000 (Werfen), for the determination of pH, partial carbon dioxide pressure (pCO2), partial oxygen pressure (pO2), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), ionized calcium (iCa2+), glucose, lactate, and total hemoglobin (tHb). METHODS: Total imprecision was estimated according to the CLSI EP5-A2 protocol...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232146/switchable-photoacoustic-intensity-of-methylene-blue-via-sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-micellization
#5
Junxin Wang, Ching-Yu Lin, Colman Moore, Anamik Jhunjhunwala, Jesse V Jokerst
The interaction between methylene blue (MB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been widely studied spectroscopically, but details about their interactions are limited. Here, we combined photoacoustic (PA) imaging with nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and spectroscopy to further elucidate this interaction. PA imaging of 0.05 mM MB showed a 492-fold increase in intensity upon addition of 3.47 mM SDS. Higher concentrations above SDS's critical micelle concentration (CMC) at 8.67 mM decreased the PA intensity by 54-fold...
December 12, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213257/bacterial-community-dynamics-in-dichloromethane-contaminated-groundwater-undergoing-natural-attenuation
#6
Justin Wright, Veronica Kirchner, William Bernard, Nikea Ulrich, Christopher McLimans, Maria F Campa, Terry Hazen, Tamzen Macbeth, David Marabello, Jacob McDermott, Rachel Mackelprang, Kimberly Roth, Regina Lamendella
The uncontrolled release of the industrial solvent methylene chloride, also known as dichloromethane (DCM), has resulted in widespread groundwater contamination in the United States. Here we investigate the role of groundwater bacterial communities in the natural attenuation of DCM at an undisclosed manufacturing site in New Jersey. This study investigates the bacterial community structure of groundwater samples differentially contaminated with DCM to better understand the biodegradation potential of these autochthonous bacterial communities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185178/vasorelaxant-activities-and-the-underlying-pharmacological-mechanisms-of-gynura-procumbens-merr-leaf-extracts-on-rat-thoracic-aorta
#7
Zafar Iqbal, Idris Bello, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Majed Ahmed Al-Mansoub, Ashfaq Ahmad, Qaiser Jabeen, Yam Mun Fei
Previous studies have investigated the cardiovascular activity of Gynura procumbens Merr. single-solvent extracts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro vasorelaxant properties and the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of serial extracts and fractions of Gynura procumbens (GP). The leaves of GP were serially extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water using the maceration method. Suspended aortic ring preparations were pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE 1 µM), followed by cumulative addition of GP extracts (0...
November 28, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173073/in-vivo-assessment-of-plant-extracts-for-control-of-plant-diseases-a-sesquiterpene-ketolactone-isolated-from-curcuma-zedoaria-suppresses-wheat-leaf-rust
#8
Jae Woo Han, Sang Hee Shim, Kyoung Soo Jang, Yong Ho Choi, Quang Le Dang, Hun Kim, Gyung Ja Choi
As an alternative to synthetic pesticides, natural materials such as plant extracts and microbes have been considered to control plant diseases. In this study, methanol extracts of 120 plants were explored for in vivo antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, Phytophthora infestans, Puccinia triticina, and Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Of the 120 plant extracts, eight plant extracts exhibited a disease control efficacy of more than 90% against at least one of five plant diseases. In particular, a methanol extract of Curcuma zedoaria rhizomes exhibited strong activity against wheat leaf rust caused by P...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137762/ultrasonic-promoted-rapid-preparation-of-pvc-tio2-bsa-nanocomposites-characterization-and-photocatalytic-degradation-of-methylene-blue
#9
Shadpour Mallakpour, Sima Shamsaddinimotlagh
In the present project in order to prevent agglomeration and better dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) in the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix, initially, the surface of TiO2 NPs was covered by bovine serum albumin protein (BSA) via sonication method. Then, the TiO2-BSA powders were embedded into the PVC matrix using ultrasonic irradiations. With mechanical and magnetic stirring homogenous mixture was not obtained. So sonication process was very essential and vital. Physical, chemical and structural properties of the samples were investigated with various tools...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136777/anti-hypertensive-and-vasodilatory-effects-of-amended-banxia-baizhu-tianma-tang
#10
Chu Shan Tan, Yean Chun Loh, Chiew Hoong Ng, Yung Sing Ch'ng, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Mariam Ahmad, Mun Fei Yam
Although Banxia Baizhu Tianma Tang (BBT) has been long administered for hypertensive treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the ratio of the herbal components that makes up the formulation has not been optimized with respect to the anti-hypertensive effect that it inherently possesses. A newly amended BBT (ABBT) formulation was developed using the evidence-based approach of orthogonal stimulus-response compatibility model. The ABBT showed enhanced therapeutic effect while maintaining its traditional theoretical approach rooted in TCM...
November 7, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124448/the-photocatalytic-application-of-semiconductor-stibnite-nanostructure-synthesized-via-a-simple-microwave-assisted-approach-in-propylene-glycol-for-degradation-of-dye-pollutants-and-its-optical-property
#11
Eksuree Saksornchai, Jutarat Kavinchan, Somchai Thongtem, Titipun Thongtem
Stibnite (Sb2S3) semiconducting material was successfully synthesized by a rapid and facile microwave route using antimony chloride (SbCl3) and sodiumthiosulfate (Na2S2O3) dissolved in propylene glycol (PG) containing different hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) masses. The phase identification, morphology, and elemental composition of products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field- emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
November 9, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111074/biodegradable-regenerated-cellulose-dispersed-composites-with-improved-properties-via-a-pickering-emulsion-process
#12
Yunchong Zhang, Yang Jiang, Lei Han, Bijia Wang, Hong Xu, Yi Zhong, Linping Zhang, Zhiping Mao, Xiaofeng Sui
Reinforcement of biodegradable polymers with nanocellulose is attractive yet the effectiveness is often compromised by uneven dispersion. In this work, a general method of preparing reinforced biodegradable composites using regenerated cellulose (RC) was developed. From an oil-in-water Pickering emulsion of PLA/methylene chloride stabilized with RC, uniformly dispersed RC/PLA composites was obtained. The resulting RC/PLA composites showed enhanced crystallization and tensile strength of up to 34% compared with the native PLA, while the transmittance in the visible range remained above 70%...
January 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099133/sub-doppler-infrared-spectroscopy-of-resonance-stabilized-hydrocarbon-intermediates-%C3%AE-3-%C3%AE-4-ch-stretch-modes-and-ch2-internal-rotor-dynamics-of-benzyl-radical
#13
A Kortyna, A J Samin, T A Miller, D J Nesbitt
Highly reactive benzyl radicals are generated by electron dissociative attachment to benzyl chloride doped into a neon-hydrogen-helium discharge and immediately cooled to Trot = 15 K in a high density, supersonic slit expansion environment. The sub-Doppler spectra are fit to an asymmetric-top rotational Hamiltonian, thereby yielding spectroscopic constants for the ground (v = 0) and first excited (v = 1, ν3, ν4) vibrational levels of the ground electronic state. The rotational constants obtained for the ground state are in good agreement with previous laser induced fluorescence measurements (LIF), with vibrational band origins (ν3 = 3073...
November 3, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089559/dimethyl-diallyl-ammonium-chloride-and-diallylamin-co-polymer-modified-bio-film-derived-from-palm-dates-for-the-adsorption-of-dyes
#14
Mahjoub Jabli, Tawfik A Saleh, Nouha Sebeia, Najeh Tka, Ramzi Khiari
For the first time, co-polymer of dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride and diallylamin (PDDACD) was used to modify the films derived from the waste of palm date fruits, which were then investigated by the purification of colored aqueous solutions. The physico-chemical characteristics were identified using data color, FT-IR spectroscopy, and SEM features. The modified films were evaluated as adsorbents of Methylene Blue (MB), Direct Yellow 50 (DY50), Reactive Blue 198 (RB198) and Naphtol Blue Black (NBB). High retention capacities were achieved in the following order: The equilibrium da DY50 (14 mg g(-1)) < RB198 (16 mg g(-1)) < NBB (63...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055249/peptide-nucleic-acid-as-a-selective-recognition-element-for-electrochemical-determination-of-hg-2
#15
Agnieszka Bala, Łukasz Górski
A novel electrochemical PNA-based biosensor for the determination of Hg(2+) is described. The receptor layer, containing single strands of polythymine PNA (peptide nucleic acid), was formed at the surface of gold electrode. Due to the presence of thymine bases and peptide bonds, an interaction between Hg(2+) ion and receptor layer occurs. The influence of chain modification - PNA vs. DNA - and type of redox marker - anionic AQMS-Na (sodium salt of anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid) and Fe(II/III) (potassium ferri/ferrocyanide) or cationic MB (methylene blue) and RuHex (hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride) - were studied...
October 12, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053053/methylene-chloride
#16
Jennan A Phillips
Methylene chloride is an industrial solvent used in commercial paint strippers and degreasing agents. This chemical is widely used in consumer products, yet without appropriate protections, exposure may lead to death. Already banned in some countries, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently proposed limiting its use in the United States.
October 1, 2017: Workplace Health & Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051455/fate-of-chloromethanes-in-the-atmospheric-environment-implications-for-human-health-ozone-formation-and-depletion-and-global-warming-impacts
#17
REVIEW
Wen-Tien Tsai
Among the halogenated hydrocarbons, chloromethanes (i.e., methyl chloride, CH₃Cl; methylene chloride, CH₂Cl₂; chloroform, CHCl₃; and carbon tetrachloride, CCl₄) play a vital role due to their extensive uses as solvents and chemical intermediates. This article aims to review their main chemical/physical properties and commercial/industrial uses, as well as the environment and health hazards posed by them and their toxic decomposition products. The environmental properties (including atmospheric lifetime, radiative efficiency, ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and surface mixing ratio) of these chlorinated methanes are also reviewed...
September 21, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048492/stability-indicating-uplc-and-tlc-densitometric-methods-for-determination-of-benztropine-mesylate-and-its-carcinogenic-degradation-product
#18
Michel Y Fares, Nada S Abdelwahab, Maha M Abdelrahman, Hamdy M Abdel-Rahman
Two accurate, precise and highly selective stability-indicating methods were adopted for simultaneous determination of benztropine mesylate (BNZ) in presence of its hepatotoxic and carcinogenic degradation product, benzophenone (BPH) either in pure form or in the pharmaceutical formulation without any preliminary separation steps. The first method is a thin layer chromatography (TLC)-densitometric method that depended on separation of BNZ from its degradate on TLC aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 F254 as the stationary phase using a developing system consisted of hexane:methylene chloride:triethylamine (5:5:0...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019852/modification-of-tracheal-cuff-shape-and-continuous-cuff-pressure-control-to-prevent-microaspiration-in-an-ex-vivo-pig-tracheal-two-lung-model
#19
Antoine Monsel, Marine Le Corre, Romain Deransy, Hélène Brisson, Charlotte Arbelot, Qin Lu, Jean-Louis Golmard, Olivier Langeron, Jean-Jacques Rouby
OBJECTIVES: Microaspiration of subglottic secretions plays a pivotal role in ventilator-associated pneumonia. Impact of endotracheal tube cuff material and shape on tracheal sealing performance remains debated. The primary objective was to compare the tracheal sealing performance of polyvinyl chloride tapered, cylindrical and spherical cuffs. Secondary objectives were to determine the impact of continuous cuff pressure control on sealing performance and pressure variability. DESIGN: Prospective randomized ex vivo animal study...
December 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976496/development-of-contractile-properties-in-the-fetal-porcine-urinary-bladder
#20
Lotte K Jakobsen, Karina F Trelborg, Ulf Simonsen, Karl-Erik Andersson, L H Olsen
BackgroundIn early fetal life, the bladder is merely a conduit allowing urine to pass through freely into the amniotic cavity. As the striated external urethral sphincter evolves, the bladder acquires its reservoir and voiding functions. We characterized the myogenic and neurogenic contractions of the normal fetal porcine bladder from midterm until close to full-term gestation.MethodsContractile responses were measured in vitro using bladder strips from fetuses at 60 (N=23) and 100 days (N=21) of gestation...
October 4, 2017: Pediatric Research
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