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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702474/targeting-visceral-fat-by-intraperitoneal-delivery-of-novel-aav-serotype-vector-restricting-off-target-transduction-in-liver
#1
Wei Huang, Xianglan Liu, Nicholas J Queen, Lei Cao
It is challenging to genetically manipulate fat in adults. We demonstrate that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of an engineered adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype Rec2 leads to high transduction of multiple visceral fat depots at a dose of 1 to 2 orders lower than commonly used doses for systemic gene delivery. To target adipose tissue, we develop a single AAV vector harboring two expression cassettes: one using the CBA promoter to drive transgene expression and one using the liver-specific albumin promoter to drive a microRNA-targeting WPRE sequence that only exists in this AAV vector...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659627/anti-parasite-therapy-drives-changes-in-human-visceral-leishmaniasis-associated-inflammatory-balance
#2
Théo Araújo-Santos, Bruno B Andrade, Leonardo Gil-Santana, Nívea F Luz, Priscila L Dos Santos, Fabrícia A de Oliveira, Meirielly Lima Almeida, Roseane Nunes de Santana Campos, Patrícia T Bozza, Roque P Almeida, Valeria M Borges
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) remains a major public health problem worldwide. Cytokine balance is thought to play a critical role in the development of this disease. Here, we perform a prospective exploratory study addressing whether simultaneous assessment of circulating levels of different lipid mediators and cytokines could highlight specific pathways involved with VL pathogenesis. VL patients displayed substantial increases in serum levels of Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), Leukotriene B4 (LTB4), Resolvin D1 (RvD1), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70 and TNF-α compared with uninfected endemic control group, while exhibiting decreased levels of TGF-β1...
June 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651745/the-neural-monitoring-of-visceral-inputs-rather-than-attention-accounts-for-first-person-perspective-in-conscious-vision
#3
REVIEW
Catherine Tallon-Baudry, Florence Campana, Hyeong-Dong Park, Mariana Babo-Rebelo
Why should a scientist whose aim is to unravel the neural mechanisms of perception consider brain-body interactions seriously? Brain-body interactions have traditionally been associated with emotion, effort, or stress, but not with the "cold" processes of perception and attention. Here, we review recent experimental evidence suggesting a different picture: the neural monitoring of bodily state, and in particular the neural monitoring of the heart, affects visual perception. The impact of spontaneous fluctuations of neural responses to heartbeats on visual detection is as large as the impact of explicit manipulations of spatial attention in perceptual tasks...
June 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624575/intestinal-fungal-dysbiosis-associates-with-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-rats
#4
Sara Botschuijver, Guus Roeselers, Evgeni Levin, Daisy M Jonkers, Olaf Welting, Sigrid Em Heinsbroek, Heleen H de Weerd, Teun Boekhout, Matteo Fornai, Ad A Masclee, Frank H J Schuren, Wouter J de Jonge, Jurgen Seppen, Rene M van den Wijngaard
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Visceral hypersensitivity is one feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Bacterial dysbiosis might be involved in activation of nociceptive sensory pathways, but there have been few studies of the role of the mycobiome (the fungal microbiome) in development of IBS. We analyzed intestinal mycobiomes of patients with IBS and a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity. METHODS: We used internal transcribed spacer 1-based metabarcoding to compare fecal mycobiomes of 18 healthy volunteers with those of 39 patients with IBS (with visceral hypersensitivity or normal levels of sensitivity)...
June 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621423/roles-of-the-cilium-associated-gene-ccdc11-in-left-right-patterning-and-in-laterality-disorders-in-humans
#5
Michal Gur, Enbal Ben-Tal Cohen, Olga Genin, Abraham Fainsod, Zeev Perles, Yuval Cinnamon
Axial determination occurs during early stages of embryogenesis. Flaws in laterality patterning result in abnormal positioning of visceral organs, as manifested in heterotaxy syndrome, or complete left-right inversion as in situs inversus totalis. These malformations are often associated with ciliopathies, as seen in primary ciliary dyskinesia. We have recently described a novel mutation in the Coiled-Coil Domain-Containing 11 (CCDC11) gene associated with laterality disorders in a consanguineous family of Arab-Muslim origin with two affected siblings presenting with diverse phenotypes, one with heterotaxy syndrome and the other with non-primary ciliary dyskinesia situs inversus totalis...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614299/homeostatic-circuits-selectively-gate-food-cue-responses-in-insular-cortex
#6
Yoav Livneh, Rohan N Ramesh, Christian R Burgess, Kirsten M Levandowski, Joseph C Madara, Henning Fenselau, Glenn J Goldey, Veronica E Diaz, Nick Jikomes, Jon M Resch, Bradford B Lowell, Mark L Andermann
Physiological needs bias perception and attention to relevant sensory cues. This process is 'hijacked' by drug addiction, causing cue-induced cravings and relapse. Similarly, its dysregulation contributes to failed diets, obesity, and eating disorders. Neuroimaging studies in humans have implicated insular cortex in these phenomena. However, it remains unclear how 'cognitive' cortical representations of motivationally relevant cues are biased by subcortical circuits that drive specific motivational states. Here we develop a microprism-based cellular imaging approach to monitor visual cue responses in the insular cortex of behaving mice across hunger states...
June 29, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496045/cholic-acid-enhances-visceral-adiposity-atherosclerosis-and-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-microminipigs
#7
Sohsuke Yamada, Hiroaki Kawaguchi, Tomonobu Yamada, Xin Guo, Kei Matsuo, Taiji Hamada, Naoki Miura, Takashi Tasaki, Akihide Tanimoto
AIM: We have recently established a novel swine model for studies of atherosclerosis using Microminipigs(TM) (µMPs) fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HcD). Using this swine model, we re-evaluated the effects of dietary cholic acid (CA) on serum lipid profile, atherosclerosis and hepatic injuries. METHODS: The µMPs were fed HcD supplemented with 0.7% CA (HcD+CA) for eight weeks, and the effect of CA on serum lipoprotein levels, expression of oxidative stress markers, adiposity and lesion formation in the aorta, liver, and other organs was investigated...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477066/-notes-in-visceral-surgery-current-status
#8
REVIEW
G Kähler
The idea to use natural orifices as an access route for operations in the body has inspired many clinicians and researchers worldwide. Some of these expected a continuation of the development from open surgery to laparoscopic surgery finally to a less invasive modality. Others hoped for economic benefits for endoscopists to take over previous surgical patients into gastroenterological departments. The first experimental studies demonstrated that the initial expectations could not be implemented in a short period of time...
May 5, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459483/addition-of-osteopathic-visceral-manipulation-to-omt-for-low-back-pain-decreases-pain-and-increases-quality-of-life
#9
Hollis H King
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385296/17%C3%AE-estradiol-prevents-mesenteric-injury-induced-by-occlusion-of-the-proximal-descending-aorta-in-male-rats
#10
Paulo Thales Rocha de Sousa, Ana Cristina Breithaupt-Faloppa, Cristiano de Jesus Correia, Raif Restivo Simão, Sueli Gomes Ferreira, Alfredo Inácio Fiorelli, Luiz Felipe Pinho Moreira, Paulina Sannomiya
OBJECTIVE: In surgical aortic repair or cardiac surgery with aorta occlusion, the occurrence of mesenteric ischemia and bowel injury has been associated with higher short-term mortality. The vascular protection of estrogens has been investigated and is mainly mediated by increasing the availability of nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, this study investigated the role of 17β-estradiol on visceral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury after descending aorta occlusion in male rats. METHODS: Mesenteric ischemia was induced in male Wistar rats by placing a 2F Fogarty arterial embolectomy catheter (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, Calif) in the descending aorta, which remained occluded for 15 minutes, followed by reperfusion for up to 2 hours...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376896/regulation-of-visceral-and-epicardial-adipose-tissue-for-preventing-cardiovascular-injuries-associated-to-obesity-and-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
N González, Z Moreno-Villegas, A González-Bris, J Egido, Ó Lorenzo
Nowadays, obesity is seriously increasing in most of the populations all over the world, and is associated with the development and progression of high-mortality diseases such as type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its subsequent cardiovascular pathologies. Recent data suggest that both body fat distribution and adipocyte phenotype, can be more determinant for fatal outcomes in obese patients than increased general adiposity. In particular, visceral adiposity is significantly linked to long term alterations on different cardiac structures, and in developed forms of myocardial diseases such as hypertensive and ischaemic heart diseases, and diabetic cardiomyopathy...
April 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370498/bilateral-rolandic-operculum-processing-underlying-heartbeat-awareness-reflects-changes-in-bodily-self-consciousness
#12
Maria Laura Blefari, Roberto Martuzzi, Roy Salomon, Javier Bello-Ruiz, Bruno Herbelin, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
Exteroceptive bodily signals (including tactile, proprioceptive and visual signals) are important information contributing to self-consciousness. Moreover, prominent theories proposed that visceral signals about internal bodily states are equally or even more important for self-consciousness. Neuroimaging studies have described several brain regions which process signals related to bodily self-consciousness (BSC) based on the integration of exteroceptive signals (e.g. premotor cortex, angular gyrus, supramarginal gyrus and extrastriate body area), and that another brain region, the insula/operculum which is involved in interoception and interoceptive awareness, processes signals critical for self-awareness...
March 30, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359093/diabetes-specific-regulation-of-adipocyte-metabolism-by-the-adipose-tissue-extracellular-matrix
#13
Nicki A Baker, Lindsey A Muir, Alexandra R Washabaugh, Christopher K Neeley, Sophie Yu-Pu Chen, Carmen G Flesher, John Vorwald, Jonathan F Finks, Amir A Ghaferi, Michael W Mulholland, Oliver A Varban, Carey N Lumeng, Robert W O'Rourke
Context: The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in regulating adipocyte metabolism in the context of metabolic disease is poorly defined. Objective: The objective of this study was to define the metabolic phenotype of adipocytes associated with human diabetes (DM) and the role of the ECM in regulating adipocyte metabolism. Design: Adipose tissues from obese patients were studied in standard 2-dimensional (2D) cell culture and an in vitro model of decellularized adipose tissue ECM repopulated with human adipocytes, and results were correlated with DM status...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324803/leishmania-donovani-resistant-to-ambisome-or-miltefosine-exacerbates-cd58-expression-on-nk-cells-and-promotes-trans-membrane-migration-in-association-with-cd2
#14
Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Fauzia Jamal, Vikash Kumar, Manish Kumar, Sanjiva Bimal, Shyam Narayan, Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Krishna Pandey, Anil Kumar Gupta, Pradeep Das, Shubhankar Kumar Singh
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that is associated with compromised immunity and drug un-responsiveness as well as with the emergence of drug resistance in Leishmania donovani (Ld). Ld down-modulates cellular immunity by manipulating signaling agents, including a higher expression of the adhesion molecule CD58. The expression of CD58 and CD2 on natural killer (NK) cells facilitates intercellular adhesion and signaling. The influence of drug-resistant Ld on the expression of CD58 and CD2 was addressed in this study...
March 16, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267800/supplementation-of-cow-milk-naturally-enriched-in-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-polyphenols-to-growing-rats
#15
Nadine W Santos, Emerson H Yoshimura, Cecília E Mareze-Costa, Erica Machado, Bruna C Agustinho, Lucelia M Pereira, Márcia N Brito, Nilton A Brito, Lucia M Zeoula
This study investigated whether intake of cow milk, naturally enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, omega-3) and polyphenols (from propolis extract and vitamin E), from manipulation of cow's diet, would result in positive metabolic effects in rats from weaning until adulthood. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet or a hypercaloric diet (metabolically disturbed rats, obese) which was supplemented with either whole common milk, milk enriched with PUFA (PUFA-M) or milk enriched with PUFA and polyphenols (PUFA/P-M), at 5mL/kg body weight,having water as control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128075/under-the-surface-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-biology
#16
REVIEW
Vlatka Pandžić Jakšić, Danijela Grizelj
The global obesity epidemic enhanced contemporary interest in adipose tissue biology. Two structurally and functionally distinct depots, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), are spread throughout the body. Their distribution was recognized to be a major determinant of metabolic risk. Unlike VAT, SAT showed some protective endocrine and inflammatory features that might explain the occurrence of obese but metabolically healthy persons. The unique developmental gene expression signature, angiogenesis, and adipogenic potential of SAT determines its growth ability under the positive energy balance...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035535/the-role-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-visceral-pain
#17
Kieran Rea, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
A growing body of preclinical and clinical evidence supports a relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and health status. Under normal homeostatic conditions this microbial population helps maintain intestinal peristalsis, mucosal integrity, pH balance, immune priming and protection against invading pathogens. Furthermore, these microbes can influence centrally regulated emotional behaviour through mechanisms including microbially derived bioactive molecules (amino acid metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters), mucosal immune and enteroendocrine cell activation, as well as vagal nerve stimulation...
2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918315/the-gut-microbiota-as-a-key-regulator-of-visceral-pain
#18
Siobhain M Oʼ Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777280/ground-zero-ontology-recognition-and-the-elusiveness-of-care-in-american-eating-disorders-treatment
#19
Rebecca J Lester
This paper reflects upon questions of ontological contingency when the stark, visceral reality of a person's relentless self-destruction unfolds within institutional mechanisms that systematically withhold certain kinds of care. I consider these issues through the lens of "manipulation" as it is elaborated within an American eating disorders treatment center, where the notion of manipulation does particular kinds of affective and pragmatic work. Specifically, it serves to render clients as, paradoxically, both hyper-agentic and "agentically challenged" in ways that legitimate the withholding of their recognition as full subjects and therefore deserving of care...
October 24, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553063/the-immunology-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-pkdl
#20
REVIEW
Eduard E Zijlstra
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a common complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. Because of its possible role in transmission it is considered a public health problem in VL endemic areas. The clinical features include a skin rash consisting of macules, papules or nodules in an otherwise healthy individual; this presentation is determined by the immune response towards parasites in the skin that probably persisted from the previous VL episode. The immune response in VL, cured VL and PKDL is the result of changes in the cytokine profile that only in part can be captured under the Th1 and Th2 dichotomy...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
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