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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918315/the-gut-microbiota-as-a-key-regulator-of-visceral-pain
#1
Siobhain M O' Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Visceral pain is a significant and prevalent feature of several disorders including the functional gastrointestinal disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Treatment strategies are limited and often unsatisfactory which has opened up new research avenues into the aetiology of visceral pain. This research has led to an increased appreciation of the role of the brain gut axis in modulating viscera pain responses. More recently, the interactions between the gut microbiota and the central nervous system have emerged indicating that visceral pain related disorders may be prospective candidates for symptom relief via microbial manipulation...
November 29, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777280/ground-zero-ontology-recognition-and-the-elusiveness-of-care-in-american-eating-disorders-treatment
#2
Rebecca J Lester
This paper reflects upon questions of ontological contingency when the stark, visceral reality of a person's relentless self-destruction unfolds within institutional mechanisms that systematically withhold certain kinds of care. I consider these issues through the lens of "manipulation" as it is elaborated within an American eating disorders treatment center, where the notion of manipulation does particular kinds of affective and pragmatic work. Specifically, it serves to render clients as, paradoxically, both hyper-agentic and "agentically challenged" in ways that legitimate the withholding of their recognition as full subjects and therefore deserving of care...
October 24, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553063/the-immunology-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-pkdl
#3
REVIEW
Eduard E Zijlstra
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a common complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. Because of its possible role in transmission it is considered a public health problem in VL endemic areas. The clinical features include a skin rash consisting of macules, papules or nodules in an otherwise healthy individual; this presentation is determined by the immune response towards parasites in the skin that probably persisted from the previous VL episode. The immune response in VL, cured VL and PKDL is the result of changes in the cytokine profile that only in part can be captured under the Th1 and Th2 dichotomy...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511016/transient-modulations-of-neural-responses-to-heartbeats-covary-with-bodily-self-consciousness
#4
Hyeong-Dong Park, Fosco Bernasconi, Javier Bello-Ruiz, Christian Pfeiffer, Roy Salomon, Olaf Blanke
UNLABELLED: Recent research has investigated self-consciousness associated with the multisensory processing of bodily signals (e.g., somatosensory, visual, vestibular signals), a notion referred to as bodily self-consciousness, and these studies have shown that the manipulation of bodily inputs induces changes in bodily self-consciousness such as self-identification. Another line of research has highlighted the importance of signals from the inside of the body (e.g., visceral signals) and proposed that neural representations of internal bodily signals underlie self-consciousness, which to date has been based on philosophical inquiry, clinical case studies, and behavioral studies...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462403/adipocyte-nuclei-captured-from-vat-and-sat
#5
Suresh Ambati, Ping Yu, Elizabeth C McKinney, Muthugapatti K Kandasamy, Diane Hartzell, Clifton A Baile, Richard B Meagher
BACKGROUND: Obesity-related comorbidities are thought to result from the reprogramming of the epigenome in numerous tissues and cell types, and in particular, mature adipocytes within visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, VAT and SAT. The cell-type specific chromatin remodeling of mature adipocytes within VAT and SAT is poorly understood, in part, because of the difficulties of isolating and manipulating large fragile mature adipocyte cells from adipose tissues. METHODS: We constructed MA-INTACT (Mature Adipocyte-Isolation of Nuclei TAgged in specific Cell Types) mice using the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) promoter (ADNp) to tag the surface of mature adipocyte nuclei with a reporter protein...
2016: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307731/polarity-sensitive-nanocarrier-for-oral-delivery-of-sb-v-and-treatment-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#6
Juliane S Lanza, Flaviana R Fernandes, José D Corrêa-Júnior, José Mc Vilela, Rogério Magalhães-Paniago, Lucas Am Ferreira, Margareth S Andrade, Cynthia Demicheli, Maria N Melo, Frédéric Frézard
There is a great need for orally active drugs for the treatment of the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. Amphiphilic Sb(V) complexes, such as 1:3 Sb-N-octanoyl-N-methylglucamide complex (SbL8), are promising drug candidates. It has been previously reported that SbL8 forms kinetically stabilized nanoassemblies in water and that this simple dispersion exhibits antileishmanial activity when given by oral route to a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis. The main objective of the present work was to interfere in the structural organization of these nanoassemblies so as to investigate their influence on the oral bioavailability of Sb, and ultimately, optimize an oral formulation of SbL8 for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271877/organizing-empyema-induced-in-mice-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-effects-of-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-deficiency
#7
Torry A Tucker, Ann Jeffers, Jake Boren, Brandon Quaid, Shuzi Owens, Kathleen B Koenig, Yoshikazu Tsukasaki, Galina Florova, Andrey A Komissarov, Mitsuo Ikebe, Steven Idell
BACKGROUND: Pleural infection affects about 65,000 patients annually in the US and UK. In this and other forms of pleural injury, mesothelial cells (PMCs) undergo a process called mesothelial (Meso) mesenchymal transition (MT), by which PMCs acquire a profibrogenic phenotype with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and matrix proteins. MesoMT thereby contributes to pleural organization with fibrosis and lung restriction. Current murine empyema models are characterized by early mortality, limiting analysis of the pathogenesis of pleural organization and mechanisms that promote MesoMT after infection...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214655/calorie-induced-er-stress-suppresses-uroguanylin-satiety-signaling-in-diet-induced-obesity
#8
G W Kim, J E Lin, A E Snook, A S Aing, D J Merlino, P Li, S A Waldman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The uroguanylin-GUCY2C gut-brain axis has emerged as one component regulating feeding, energy homeostasis, body mass and metabolism. Here, we explore a role for this axis in mechanisms underlying diet-induced obesity (DIO). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Intestinal uroguanylin expression and secretion, and hypothalamic GUCY2C expression and anorexigenic signaling, were quantified in mice on high-calorie diets for 14 weeks. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in suppressing uroguanylin in DIO was explored using tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone that inhibits ER stress...
2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097660/protein-kinase-a-induces-ucp1-expression-in-specific-adipose-depots-to-increase-energy-expenditure-and-improve-metabolic-health
#9
Lorna M Dickson, Shriya Gandhi, Brian T Layden, Ronald N Cohen, Barton Wicksteed
Adipose tissue PKA has roles in adipogenesis, lipolysis, and mitochondrial function. PKA transduces the cAMP signal downstream of G protein-coupled receptors, which are being explored for therapeutic manipulation to reduce obesity and improve metabolic health. This study aimed to determine the overall physiological consequences of PKA activation in adipose tissue. Mice expressing an activated PKA catalytic subunit in adipose tissue (Adipoq-caPKA mice) showed increased PKA activity in subcutaneous, epididymal, and mesenteric white adipose tissue (WAT) depots and brown adipose tissue (BAT) compared with controls...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019022/knowing-by-heart-visceral-feedback-shapes-recognition-memory-judgments
#10
Chris M Fiacconi, Erika L Peter, Sawayra Owais, Stefan Köhler
Although theories of emotion have long noted the importance of afferent feedback from the autonomic nervous system in generating feelings, there is a growing appreciation that this feedback may also play a role in shaping cognitive experiences. At present, little is known about its functional role in memory judgments. In the current study, we examined whether afferent cardiovascular feedback shapes recognition-memory decisions and experiences when previously encountered faces are being discriminated from novel ones...
May 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26951799/atp-induced-inflammation-drives-tissue-resident-th17-cells-in-metabolically-unhealthy-obesity
#11
Julieta B Pandolfi, Ariel A Ferraro, Inés Sananez, Maria C Gancedo, Plácida Baz, Luis A Billordo, Leonardo Fainboim, Lourdes Arruvito
Obesity-induced inflammation is conducted by a metabolic pathway, which eventually causes activation of specialized immune cells and leads to an unresolved inflammatory response within the tissue. For this reason, it is critically important to determine how hypertrophic fat tissue alters T cell balance to drive inflammation. In this study, we identify the purinergic signaling as a novel mechanism driving the adaptive Th17 response in human visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of metabolically unhealthy obese patients...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26939071/genetic-manipulation-of-leishmania-donovani-to-explore-the-involvement-of-argininosuccinate-synthase-in-oxidative-stress-management
#12
Abul Hasan Sardar, Armando Jardim, Ayan Kumar Ghosh, Abhishek Mandal, Sushmita Das, Savita Saini, Kumar Abhishek, Ruby Singh, Sudha Verma, Ajay Kumar, Pradeep Das
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) produced by the phagocytic cells are the most common arsenals used to kill the intracellular pathogens. However, Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, has evolved mechanisms to survive by counterbalancing the toxic oxygen metabolites produced during infection. Polyamines, the major contributor in this anti-oxidant machinery, are largely dependent on the availability of L-arginine in the intracellular milieu. Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) plays an important role as the rate-limiting step required for converting L-citrulline to argininosuccinate to provide arginine for an assortment of metabolic processes...
March 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26916240/adipose-tissue-fibrosis-hypertrophy-and-hyperplasia-correlations-with-diabetes-in-human-obesity
#13
Lindsey A Muir, Christopher K Neeley, Kevin A Meyer, Nicki A Baker, Alice M Brosius, Alexandra R Washabaugh, Oliver A Varban, Jonathan F Finks, Brian F Zamarron, Carmen G Flesher, Joshua S Chang, Jennifer B DelProposto, Lynn Geletka, Gabriel Martinez-Santibanez, Niko Kaciroti, Carey N Lumeng, Robert W O'Rourke
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between adipose tissue fibrosis, adipocyte hypertrophy, and preadipocyte hyperplasia in the context of obesity and the correlation of these tissue-based phenomena with systemic metabolic disease are poorly defined. The goal of this study was to clarify the relationship between adipose tissue fibrosis, adipocyte hypertrophy, and preadipocyte hyperplasia in human obesity and determine the correlation of these adipose-tissue based phenomena with diabetes. METHODS: Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues from humans with obesity collected during bariatric surgery were studied with QRTPCR, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry for expression of collagens and fibrosis-related proteins, adipocyte size, and preadipocyte frequency...
March 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26847458/emerging-evidence-for-beneficial-macrophage-functions-in-atherosclerosis-and-obesity-induced-insulin-resistance
#14
REVIEW
Timothy P Fitzgibbons, Michael P Czech
The discovery that obesity promotes macrophage accumulation in visceral fat led to the emergence of a new field of inquiry termed "immunometabolism". This broad field of study was founded on the premise that inflammation and the corresponding increase in macrophage number and activity was a pathologic feature of metabolic diseases. There is abundant data in both animal and human studies that supports this assertation. Established adverse effects of inflammation in visceral fat include decreased glucose and fatty acid uptake, inhibition of insulin signaling, and ectopic triglyceride accumulation...
March 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26844872/renal-sinus-fat-volume-on-computed-tomography-in-middle-aged-patients-at-risk-for-cardiovascular-disease-and-its-association-with-coronary-artery-calcification
#15
Yoko Murakami, Yukihiro Nagatani, Masashi Takahashi, Mitsuru Ikeda, Itsuko Miyazawa, Katsutaro Morino, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Hiroshi Maegawa, Norihisa Nitta, Hiroshi Sakai, Hiromitsu Nota, Noritoshi Ushio, Kiyoshi Murata
OBJECTIVE: Renal sinus fat (RSF) behaves as one of the perivascular fats, however RSF volume (RSFV) is considerably affected by visceral adipose tissue volume (VTAV). The ratio of RSFV to VATV (RSFV/VATV ratio) can be an index of regional perivascular fat accumulation corrected for the influence of VATV. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between RSFV/VATV ratio and coronary artery calcium (CAC) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-nine patients (mean age 66...
March 2016: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26697981/glt1-glutamate-receptor-mediates-the-establishment-and-perpetuation-of-chronic-visceral-pain-in-an-animal-model-of-stress-induced-bladder-hyperalgesia
#16
A Lenore Ackerman, Forrest C Jellison, Una J Lee, Sylvie Bradesi, Larissa V Rodriguez
Psychological stress exacerbates interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS), a lower urinary tract pain disorder characterized by increased urinary frequency and bladder pain. Glutamate (Glu) is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter modulating nociceptive networks. Glt1, an astrocytic transporter responsible for Glu clearance, is critical in pain signaling termination. We sought to examine the role of Glt1 in stress-induced bladder hyperalgesia and urinary frequency. In a model of stress-induced bladder hyperalgesia with high construct validity to human IC/BPS, female Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were subjected to 10-day water avoidance stress (WAS)...
December 23, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26678994/lessons-from-other-diseases-granulomatous-inflammation-in-leishmaniasis
#17
Paul M Kaye, Lynette Beattie
The Leishmania granuloma shares some, though not all, properties with that formed following mycobacterial infection. As a simplified, noncaseating granuloma composed of relatively few and largely mononuclear cell populations, it provides a tractable model system to investigate intra-granuloma cellular dynamics, immune regulation, and antimicrobial resistance. Here, the occurrence of granulomatous pathology across the spectrum of leishmaniasis, in humans and animal reservoir hosts, is first described. However, this review focuses on the process of hepatic granuloma formation as studied in rodent models of visceral leishmaniasis, starting from the initial infection of Kupffer cells to the involution of the granuloma after pathogen clearance...
March 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26642859/intestinal-microbiota-contributes-to-individual-susceptibility-to-alcoholic-liver-disease
#18
M Llopis, A M Cassard, L Wrzosek, L Boschat, A Bruneau, G Ferrere, V Puchois, J C Martin, P Lepage, T Le Roy, L Lefèvre, B Langelier, F Cailleux, A M González-Castro, S Rabot, F Gaudin, H Agostini, S Prévot, D Berrebi, D Ciocan, C Jousse, S Naveau, P Gérard, G Perlemuter
OBJECTIVE: There is substantial inter-individual diversity in the susceptibility of alcoholics to liver injury. Alterations of intestinal microbiota (IM) have been reported in alcoholic liver disease (ALD), but the extent to which they are merely a consequence or a cause is unknown. We aimed to demonstrate that a specific dysbiosis contributes to the development of alcoholic hepatitis (AH). DESIGN: We humanised germ-free and conventional mice using human IM transplant from alcoholic patients with or without AH...
May 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26621679/targeting-trpv1-for-body-weight-control-using-trpv1-mice-and-electroacupuncture
#19
Monchanok Choowanthanapakorn, Kung-Wen Lu, Jun Yang, Ching-Liang Hsieh, Yi-Wen Lin
Obesity is a global social medical problem resulting in morbidity as high as 20-30%. Here we investigated whether the manipulation of TRPV1 can control mice body weight through electroacupuncture (EA). The results demonstrated that body weight increased with time in the control group (108.19 ± 1.31%, n = 7). The increase of mice body weight was significantly less in the EA group (104.41 ± 0.76%, p < 0.05, compared with the control group, n = 7) but not in the sham EA group (109.1 ± 0...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26527024/-urinary-infectious-and-digestive-adverse-events-related-to-benign-hysterectomy-and-the-associated-surgery-on-the-fallopian-tube-guidelines
#20
REVIEW
G Chêne, G Lamblin, M Marcelli, S Huet, T Gauthier
OBJECTIVES: To provide clinical practice guidelines from the French College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (CNGOF) based on the best evidence available, concerning the urinary, infectious and digestive adverse events related to benign hysterectomy and the associated surgery including opportunistic salpingectomy and adnexectomy. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Review of literature using following keywords: benign hysterectomy; urinary injury; bladder injury; ureteral injury; vesicovaginal fistula; infection; bowel injury; salpingectomy...
December 2015: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
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