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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385296/17%C3%AE-estradiol-prevents-mesenteric-injury-induced-by-occlusion-of-the-proximal-descending-aorta-in-male-rats
#1
Paulo Thales Rocha de Sousa, Ana Cristina Breithaupt-Faloppa, Cristiano de Jesus Correia, Raif Restivo Simão, Sueli Gomes Ferreira, Alfredo Inácio Fiorelli, Luiz Felipe Pinho Moreira, Paulina Sannomiya
OBJECTIVE: In surgical aortic repair or cardiac surgery with aorta occlusion, the occurrence of mesenteric ischemia and bowel injury has been associated with higher short-term mortality. The vascular protection of estrogens has been investigated and is mainly mediated by increasing the availability of nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, this study investigated the role of 17β-estradiol on visceral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury after descending aorta occlusion in male rats. METHODS: Mesenteric ischemia was induced in male Wistar rats by placing a 2F Fogarty arterial embolectomy catheter (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, Calif) in the descending aorta, which remained occluded for 15 minutes, followed by reperfusion for up to 2 hours...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376896/regulation-of-visceral-and-epicardial-adipose-tissue-for-preventing-cardiovascular-injuries-associated-to-obesity-and-diabetes
#2
REVIEW
N González, Z Moreno-Villegas, A González-Bris, J Egido, Ó Lorenzo
Nowadays, obesity is seriously increasing in most of the populations all over the world, and is associated with the development and progression of high-mortality diseases such as type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its subsequent cardiovascular pathologies. Recent data suggest that both body fat distribution and adipocyte phenotype, can be more determinant for fatal outcomes in obese patients than increased general adiposity. In particular, visceral adiposity is significantly linked to long term alterations on different cardiac structures, and in developed forms of myocardial diseases such as hypertensive and ischaemic heart diseases, and diabetic cardiomyopathy...
April 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370498/bilateral-rolandic-operculum-processing-underlying-heartbeat-awareness-reflects-changes-in-bodily-self-consciousness
#3
Maria Laura Blefari, Roberto Martuzzi, Roy Salomon, Javier Bello-Ruiz, Bruno Herbelin, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
Exteroceptive bodily signals (including tactile, proprioceptive, and visual signals) are important information contributing to self-consciousness. Moreover, prominent theories proposed that visceral signals about internal bodily states are equally or even more important. Neuroimaging studies have described several brain regions which process signals related to bodily self-consciousness (BSC) based on the integration of exteroceptive signals (e.g. the premotor cortex, the angular gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus and the extrastriate body area), and that another brain region, the insula/operculum which is involved in interoception and interoceptive awareness, processes signals critical for self-awareness...
March 30, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359093/diabetes-specific-regulation-of-adipocyte-metabolism-by-the-adipose-tissue-extracellular-matrix
#4
Nicki A Baker, Lindsey A Muir, Alexandra R Washabaugh, Christopher K Neeley, Sophie Yu-Pu Chen, Carmen G Flesher, John Vorwald, Jonathan F Finks, Amir A Ghaferi, Michael W Mulholland, Oliver A Varban, Carey N Lumeng, Robert W O'Rourke
Context: The role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in regulating adipocyte metabolism in the context of metabolic disease is poorly defined. Objective: The objective of this study was to define the metabolic phenotype of adipocytes associated with human diabetes (DM) and the role of the ECM in regulating adipocyte metabolism. Design: Adipose tissues from obese patients were studied in standard 2-dimensional (2D) cell culture and an in vitro model of decellularized adipose tissue ECM repopulated with human adipocytes, and results were correlated with DM status...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324803/leishmania-donovani-resistant-to-ambisome-or-miltefosine-exacerbates-cd58-expression-on-nk-cells-and-promotes-trans-membrane-migration-in-association-with-cd2
#5
Pushkar Shivam, Sarita Kumari, Fauzia Jamal, Vikash Kumar, Manish Kumar, Sanjiva Bimal, Shyam Narayan, Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Krishna Pandey, Anil Kumar Gupta, Pradeep Das, Shubhankar Kumar Singh
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease that is associated with compromised immunity and drug un-responsiveness as well as with the emergence of drug resistance in Leishmania donovani (Ld). Ld down-modulates cellular immunity by manipulating signaling agents, including a higher expression of the adhesion molecule CD58. The expression of CD58 and CD2 on natural killer (NK) cells facilitates intercellular adhesion and signaling. The influence of drug-resistant Ld on the expression of CD58 and CD2 was addressed in this study...
March 16, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267800/supplementation-of-cow-milk-naturally-enriched-in-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-polyphenols-to-growing-rats
#6
Nadine W Santos, Emerson H Yoshimura, Cecília E Mareze-Costa, Erica Machado, Bruna C Agustinho, Lucelia M Pereira, Márcia N Brito, Nilton A Brito, Lucia M Zeoula
This study investigated whether intake of cow milk, naturally enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, omega-3) and polyphenols (from propolis extract and vitamin E), from manipulation of cow's diet, would result in positive metabolic effects in rats from weaning until adulthood. Male Wistar rats were fed a standard chow diet or a hypercaloric diet (metabolically disturbed rats, obese) which was supplemented with either whole common milk, milk enriched with PUFA (PUFA-M) or milk enriched with PUFA and polyphenols (PUFA/P-M), at 5mL/kg body weight,having water as control...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128075/under-the-surface-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-biology
#7
REVIEW
Vlatka Pandžić Jakšić, Danijela Grizelj
The global obesity epidemic enhanced contemporary interest in adipose tissue biology. Two structurally and functionally distinct depots, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), are spread throughout the body. Their distribution was recognized to be a major determinant of metabolic risk. Unlike VAT, SAT showed some protective endocrine and inflammatory features that might explain the occurrence of obese but metabolically healthy persons. The unique developmental gene expression signature, angiogenesis, and adipogenic potential of SAT determines its growth ability under the positive energy balance...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035535/the-role-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-visceral-pain
#8
Kieran Rea, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
A growing body of preclinical and clinical evidence supports a relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and health status. Under normal homeostatic conditions this microbial population helps maintain intestinal peristalsis, mucosal integrity, pH balance, immune priming and protection against invading pathogens. Furthermore, these microbes can influence centrally regulated emotional behaviour through mechanisms including microbially derived bioactive molecules (amino acid metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters), mucosal immune and enteroendocrine cell activation, as well as vagal nerve stimulation...
2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918315/the-gut-microbiota-as-a-key-regulator-of-visceral-pain
#9
Siobhain M Oʼ Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777280/ground-zero-ontology-recognition-and-the-elusiveness-of-care-in-american-eating-disorders-treatment
#10
Rebecca J Lester
This paper reflects upon questions of ontological contingency when the stark, visceral reality of a person's relentless self-destruction unfolds within institutional mechanisms that systematically withhold certain kinds of care. I consider these issues through the lens of "manipulation" as it is elaborated within an American eating disorders treatment center, where the notion of manipulation does particular kinds of affective and pragmatic work. Specifically, it serves to render clients as, paradoxically, both hyper-agentic and "agentically challenged" in ways that legitimate the withholding of their recognition as full subjects and therefore deserving of care...
October 24, 2016: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553063/the-immunology-of-post-kala-azar-dermal-leishmaniasis-pkdl
#11
REVIEW
Eduard E Zijlstra
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a common complication of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. Because of its possible role in transmission it is considered a public health problem in VL endemic areas. The clinical features include a skin rash consisting of macules, papules or nodules in an otherwise healthy individual; this presentation is determined by the immune response towards parasites in the skin that probably persisted from the previous VL episode. The immune response in VL, cured VL and PKDL is the result of changes in the cytokine profile that only in part can be captured under the Th1 and Th2 dichotomy...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511016/transient-modulations-of-neural-responses-to-heartbeats-covary-with-bodily-self-consciousness
#12
Hyeong-Dong Park, Fosco Bernasconi, Javier Bello-Ruiz, Christian Pfeiffer, Roy Salomon, Olaf Blanke
UNLABELLED: Recent research has investigated self-consciousness associated with the multisensory processing of bodily signals (e.g., somatosensory, visual, vestibular signals), a notion referred to as bodily self-consciousness, and these studies have shown that the manipulation of bodily inputs induces changes in bodily self-consciousness such as self-identification. Another line of research has highlighted the importance of signals from the inside of the body (e.g., visceral signals) and proposed that neural representations of internal bodily signals underlie self-consciousness, which to date has been based on philosophical inquiry, clinical case studies, and behavioral studies...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462403/adipocyte-nuclei-captured-from-vat-and-sat
#13
Suresh Ambati, Ping Yu, Elizabeth C McKinney, Muthugapatti K Kandasamy, Diane Hartzell, Clifton A Baile, Richard B Meagher
BACKGROUND: Obesity-related comorbidities are thought to result from the reprogramming of the epigenome in numerous tissues and cell types, and in particular, mature adipocytes within visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, VAT and SAT. The cell-type specific chromatin remodeling of mature adipocytes within VAT and SAT is poorly understood, in part, because of the difficulties of isolating and manipulating large fragile mature adipocyte cells from adipose tissues. METHODS: We constructed MA-INTACT (Mature Adipocyte-Isolation of Nuclei TAgged in specific Cell Types) mice using the adiponectin (ADIPOQ) promoter (ADNp) to tag the surface of mature adipocyte nuclei with a reporter protein...
2016: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27307731/polarity-sensitive-nanocarrier-for-oral-delivery-of-sb-v-and-treatment-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#14
Juliane S Lanza, Flaviana R Fernandes, José D Corrêa-Júnior, José Mc Vilela, Rogério Magalhães-Paniago, Lucas Am Ferreira, Margareth S Andrade, Cynthia Demicheli, Maria N Melo, Frédéric Frézard
There is a great need for orally active drugs for the treatment of the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. Amphiphilic Sb(V) complexes, such as 1:3 Sb-N-octanoyl-N-methylglucamide complex (SbL8), are promising drug candidates. It has been previously reported that SbL8 forms kinetically stabilized nanoassemblies in water and that this simple dispersion exhibits antileishmanial activity when given by oral route to a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis. The main objective of the present work was to interfere in the structural organization of these nanoassemblies so as to investigate their influence on the oral bioavailability of Sb, and ultimately, optimize an oral formulation of SbL8 for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271877/organizing-empyema-induced-in-mice-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-effects-of-plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1-deficiency
#15
Torry A Tucker, Ann Jeffers, Jake Boren, Brandon Quaid, Shuzi Owens, Kathleen B Koenig, Yoshikazu Tsukasaki, Galina Florova, Andrey A Komissarov, Mitsuo Ikebe, Steven Idell
BACKGROUND: Pleural infection affects about 65,000 patients annually in the US and UK. In this and other forms of pleural injury, mesothelial cells (PMCs) undergo a process called mesothelial (Meso) mesenchymal transition (MT), by which PMCs acquire a profibrogenic phenotype with increased expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and matrix proteins. MesoMT thereby contributes to pleural organization with fibrosis and lung restriction. Current murine empyema models are characterized by early mortality, limiting analysis of the pathogenesis of pleural organization and mechanisms that promote MesoMT after infection...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27214655/calorie-induced-er-stress-suppresses-uroguanylin-satiety-signaling-in-diet-induced-obesity
#16
G W Kim, J E Lin, A E Snook, A S Aing, D J Merlino, P Li, S A Waldman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The uroguanylin-GUCY2C gut-brain axis has emerged as one component regulating feeding, energy homeostasis, body mass and metabolism. Here, we explore a role for this axis in mechanisms underlying diet-induced obesity (DIO). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Intestinal uroguanylin expression and secretion, and hypothalamic GUCY2C expression and anorexigenic signaling, were quantified in mice on high-calorie diets for 14 weeks. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in suppressing uroguanylin in DIO was explored using tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone that inhibits ER stress...
May 23, 2016: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097660/protein-kinase-a-induces-ucp1-expression-in-specific-adipose-depots-to-increase-energy-expenditure-and-improve-metabolic-health
#17
Lorna M Dickson, Shriya Gandhi, Brian T Layden, Ronald N Cohen, Barton Wicksteed
Adipose tissue PKA has roles in adipogenesis, lipolysis, and mitochondrial function. PKA transduces the cAMP signal downstream of G protein-coupled receptors, which are being explored for therapeutic manipulation to reduce obesity and improve metabolic health. This study aimed to determine the overall physiological consequences of PKA activation in adipose tissue. Mice expressing an activated PKA catalytic subunit in adipose tissue (Adipoq-caPKA mice) showed increased PKA activity in subcutaneous, epididymal, and mesenteric white adipose tissue (WAT) depots and brown adipose tissue (BAT) compared with controls...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27019022/knowing-by-heart-visceral-feedback-shapes-recognition-memory-judgments
#18
Chris M Fiacconi, Erika L Peter, Sawayra Owais, Stefan Köhler
Although theories of emotion have long noted the importance of afferent feedback from the autonomic nervous system in generating feelings, there is a growing appreciation that this feedback may also play a role in shaping cognitive experiences. At present, little is known about its functional role in memory judgments. In the current study, we examined whether afferent cardiovascular feedback shapes recognition-memory decisions and experiences when previously encountered faces are being discriminated from novel ones...
May 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26951799/atp-induced-inflammation-drives-tissue-resident-th17-cells-in-metabolically-unhealthy-obesity
#19
Julieta B Pandolfi, Ariel A Ferraro, Inés Sananez, Maria C Gancedo, Plácida Baz, Luis A Billordo, Leonardo Fainboim, Lourdes Arruvito
Obesity-induced inflammation is conducted by a metabolic pathway, which eventually causes activation of specialized immune cells and leads to an unresolved inflammatory response within the tissue. For this reason, it is critically important to determine how hypertrophic fat tissue alters T cell balance to drive inflammation. In this study, we identify the purinergic signaling as a novel mechanism driving the adaptive Th17 response in human visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of metabolically unhealthy obese patients...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26939071/genetic-manipulation-of-leishmania-donovani-to-explore-the-involvement-of-argininosuccinate-synthase-in-oxidative-stress-management
#20
Abul Hasan Sardar, Armando Jardim, Ayan Kumar Ghosh, Abhishek Mandal, Sushmita Das, Savita Saini, Kumar Abhishek, Ruby Singh, Sudha Verma, Ajay Kumar, Pradeep Das
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) produced by the phagocytic cells are the most common arsenals used to kill the intracellular pathogens. However, Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, has evolved mechanisms to survive by counterbalancing the toxic oxygen metabolites produced during infection. Polyamines, the major contributor in this anti-oxidant machinery, are largely dependent on the availability of L-arginine in the intracellular milieu. Argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) plays an important role as the rate-limiting step required for converting L-citrulline to argininosuccinate to provide arginine for an assortment of metabolic processes...
March 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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