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tamoxifen and weight gain

J D Douglass, M D Dorfman, R Fasnacht, L D Shaffer, J P Thaler
OBJECTIVE: Obesity and high fat diet (HFD) consumption in rodents is associated with hypothalamic inflammation and reactive gliosis. While neuronal inflammation promotes HFD-induced metabolic dysfunction, the role of astrocyte activation in susceptibility to hypothalamic inflammation and diet-induced obesity (DIO) remains uncertain. METHODS: Metabolic phenotyping, immunohistochemical analyses, and biochemical analyses were performed on HFD-fed mice with a tamoxifen-inducible astrocyte-specific knockout of IKKβ (Gfap(CreER)Ikbkb(fl/fl), IKKβ-AKO), an essential cofactor of NF-κB-mediated inflammation...
April 2017: Molecular Metabolism
Kirsten A Nyrop, Allison M Deal, Jordan T Lee, Hyman B Muss, Seul Ki Choi, Samara Dixon, Amy Wheless, Lisa A Carey, Shlomit S Shachar
PURPOSE: Obesity and weight gain after breast cancer (BC) diagnosis can affect cancer outcomes. This study explores the question of weight change during the first 2 years of endocrine treatment (ET) to identify the independent effects of BC diagnosis and treatment on post-diagnosis weight trajectories in early-stage postmenopausal BC survivors. METHODS: The study design is a retrospective chart review. Chi square tests and ANOVA were used to compare patients who gained >2 kg, lost >2 kg, or had stable weight...
April 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Robert M Nevels, Samuel T Gontkovsky, Bryman E Williams
Paroxetine, also known by the trade names Aropax, Paxil, Pexeva, Seroxat, Sereupin and Brisdelle, was first marketed in the U.S. in 1992. Effective for major depression and various anxiety disorders, it quickly gained a sizable share of the antidepressant prescription market. By the late 1990s, paroxetine frequently was being associated with serious drug interactions and medication side effects. Most significantly, in a major Canadian epidemiological study examining the relationship between antidepressants and diseases, paroxetine was associated with a 620 percent increase in the rate of breast cancer in women who had taken it over a four-year period...
March 1, 2016: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
K A Nyrop, G R Williams, H B Muss, S S Shachar
Most breast cancer (BC) tumors are early stage and hormone receptor positive, where treatment generally includes adjuvant endocrine treatment (ET). Oncology providers and women about to start ET want to know about side effects, including potential weight gain. The aim of this study was a literature review to identify the independent effect of ET on post-diagnosis weight gain. Weight gain is of concern with regard to potential associations with BC recurrence, mortality, and quality of life in survivorship. We conducted a targeted review of the literature...
July 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Daniel F Hayes
Adjuvant endocrine therapy (ET) reduces the odds of distant recurrence and mortality by nearly one-half in women with hormone receptor (HR) positive early stage breast cancer. While the risk of recurrence is lower for HR positive than negative patients during the first 5-7 years, HR positive patients suffer ongoing recurrences between 0.5 and 2% year over subsequent years. Extended adjuvant ET further reduces recurrence during this late phase of follow-up. ET is associated with post-menopausal side effects (hot flashes, sexual dysfunction, mood changes, and weight gain), and occasional major toxicities (thrombosis and endometrial cancer with tamoxifen; bone mineral loss and possibly heart disease with AIs) persist throughout therapy...
November 2015: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Rocio Vila-Bedmar, Marta Cruces-Sande, Elisa Lucas, Hanneke L D M Willemen, Cobi J Heijnen, Annemieke Kavelaars, Federico Mayor, Cristina Murga
Insulin resistance is a common feature of obesity and predisposes individuals to various prevalent pathological conditions. G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) integrates several signal transduction pathways and is emerging as a physiologically relevant inhibitor of insulin signaling. GRK2 abundance is increased in humans with metabolic syndrome and in different murine models of insulin resistance. To support GRK2 as a potential drug target in type 2 diabetes and obesity, we investigated whether lowering GRK2 abundance reversed an ongoing systemic insulin-resistant phenotype, using a mouse model of tamoxifen-induced GRK2 ablation after high-fat diet-dependent obesity and insulin resistance...
July 21, 2015: Science Signaling
Claire Sénéchal, Edouard Cottereau, Antoine de Pauw, Camille Elan, Isabelle Dagousset, Virginie Fourchotte, Marion Gauthier-Villars, Marick Lae, Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet, Bruno Buecher
In France, endometrial cancer is at the first rank of gynecological cancers for cancer incidence, before ovarian and cervical cancers. In fact, the number of incident cases has been estimated to 7275 for the year 2012; the number of death due to endometrial cancer to 2025. This cancer is hormone-dependent and endogenous (reproductive factors) or exogenous (oral combined contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy) causes of exposition to estrogens are the major environmental risk factors for both types of endometrial cancers: type I or well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinomas; and type II including all other histological types: papillary serous adenocarcinomas, clear cell adenocarcinomas and carcinosarcomas, also known as malignant mixed Mullerian tumor, MMMT...
March 2015: Bulletin du Cancer
Sibel Eyigör, Ece Cinar, Ismail Caramat, Burcu Koc Unlu
PURPOSE: In clinical practice, noticeable differences are seen in patient response to the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema. Although some factors influencing response to treatment are mentioned in the literature, there is no sufficient evidence and results are confusing. For this reason, our objective in this study is to identify predictive and response-related factors for response to treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema. METHODS: We analyzed data retrospectively from the files of patients with breast cancer-related lymphedema between 2006 and 2012...
September 2015: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Géraldine M Mang, Sylvain Pradervand, Ngoc-Hien Du, Alaaddin Bulak Arpat, Frédéric Preitner, Leonore Wigger, David Gatfield, Paul Franken
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. MiRNAs are implicated in various biological processes associated with obesity, including adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism. We used a neuronal-specific inhibition of miRNA maturation in adult mice to study the consequences of miRNA loss on obesity development. Camk2a-CreERT2 (Cre+) and floxed Dicer (Dicerlox/lox) mice were crossed to generate tamoxifen-inducible conditional Dicer knockouts (cKO)...
2015: PloS One
Palma Fedele, Laura Orlando, Paola Schiavone, Annamaria Quaranta, Assunta Maria Lapolla, Maria De Pasquale, Antonino Ardizzone, Emilio Bria, Isabella Sperduti, Nicola Calvani, Antonella Marino, Chiara Caliolo, Enrica Mazzoni, Saverio Cinieri
AIMS: The prognostic role of BMI variation during and/or after treatments for early-stage breast cancer is still unknown. PATIENTS & METHODS: The χ(2) test was conducted to explore the correlation between breast cancer recurrence and BMI changes in 520 early-stage breast cancer patients. Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze the association of BMI changes, baseline BMI, known prognostic factors and recurrences. RESULTS: BMI gain was significant determinant of recurrences (p = 0...
December 2014: Future Oncology
Mary Ellen Molloy, Bethany E Perez White, Teshome Gherezghiher, Bradley T Michalsen, Rui Xiong, Hitisha Patel, Huiping Zhao, Philipp Y Maximov, V Craig Jordan, Gregory R J Thatcher, Debra A Tonetti
Endocrine-resistant breast cancer is a major clinical obstacle. The use of 17β-estradiol (E2) has reemerged as a potential treatment option following exhaustive use of tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, although side effects have hindered its clinical usage. Protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) expression was shown to be a predictor of disease outcome for patients receiving endocrine therapy and may predict a positive response to an estrogenic treatment. Here, we have investigated the use of novel benzothiophene selective estrogen mimics (SEM) as an alternative to E2 for the treatment of tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer...
November 2014: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
Paul L Nguyen, Shabbir M H Alibhai, Shehzad Basaria, Anthony V D'Amico, Philip W Kantoff, Nancy L Keating, David F Penson, Derek J Rosario, Bertrand Tombal, Matthew R Smith
CONTEXT: Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is a key component of treatment for aggressive and advanced prostate cancer, but it has also been associated with adverse effects on bone, metabolic, cardiovascular, sexual, and cognitive health as well as body composition. OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature on the adverse effects of ADT and strategies for ameliorating harm from ADT. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: The Medline database (through PubMed) was searched from inception to August 1, 2013, for studies documenting the side effects of ADT and for randomized and prospective trials of interventions to mitigate those side effects...
May 2015: European Urology
B Navia, B Ferrer, M Giralt, G Comes, J Carrasco, A Molinero, A Quintana, J Leclerc, B Viollet, R M Señarís, J Hidalgo
AIM: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine controlling body weight and metabolism, but because many types of cells can synthesize and respond to IL-6 considerable uncertainty still exists about the mechanisms underlying IL-6 effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the effects of tissue-specific deletion of IL-6 using a fatty acid binding protein (aP2) promoter-Cre inducible system (aP2-Cre-ERT2). METHODS: Tissue-specific IL-6 KO mice (aP2-IL-6 KO mice) were produced upon tamoxifen administration and were fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 58...
August 2014: Acta Physiologica
Onur Elmas, Muazzez Cevik, Tuncer Demir, Muzaffer A Ketani
OBJECTIVES: Corrosive oesophagitis is a common health problem in children. Scar tissue can develop during the recovery period, and as a result, serious narrowing of the oesophagus can develop, in turn causing morbidity and mortality. In previous studies, it was argued that tamoxifen (TAM) may have antifibrotic effects beyond its oestrogen antagonist or agonist properties. We aimed to examine the possible effects of TAM on fibrosis and stricture formation, which are complications of corrosive oesophagitis...
September 2014: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
Pamela M Choi, Jun Guo, Christopher R Erwin, Wambui S Wandu, Jennifer A Leinicke, Yan Xie, Nicholas O Davidson, Brad W Warner
We previously demonstrated increased villus height following genetic deletion, or knockout, of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) in the intestinal epithelium (Rb-IKO). Here we determined the functional consequences of augmented mucosal growth on intestinal fat absorption and following a 50% small bowel resection (SBR). Mice with constitutively disrupted Rb expression in the intestinal epithelium (Rb-IKO) along with their floxed (wild-type, WT) littermates were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD, 42% kcal fat) for 54 wk...
May 15, 2014: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Victor G Vogel
Risk factors allow us to define women who are at increased lifetime risk for breast cancer, and the most important factor is age. Benign breast disease increases risk, and the most important histologies are atypical lobular or ductal hyperplasia and lobular carcinoma in situ. Family history of breast cancer among first-degree relatives (mother, sisters, daughters) also increases risk. Quantitative measures of risk give accurate predictions of breast cancer incidence for groups of women but not for individual subjects...
October 20, 2011: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Xin Tang, Qian-Yuan Wu, Huang Huang, Hong-Ying Hu, Qing Li
Anti-estrogenic activity in wastewater is gaining increased attention because of its endocrine-disrupting function. In this study, the level and removal efficiency by coagulation of anti-estrogenic activity in secondary effluents of domestic wastewater treatment plants were studied. Anti-estrogenic activity was detected in secondary effluent samples at a tamoxifen (TAM) equivalent concentration level of 0.38-0.94 mg-TAML(-1). Dissolved organic matters (DOM) with the molecular weight (MW) less than 3000 Da in hydrophobic acids (HOA) and hydrophobic neutrals (HON) fractions of the secondary effluent were the key fractions related to anti-estrogenic activity...
November 2013: Chemosphere
Yan Xu, Yixiang Xu, Lan Liao, Niya Zhou, Sarah M Theissen, Xin-Hua Liao, Hoang Nguyen, Thomas Ludwig, Li Qin, Jarrod D Martinez, Jun Jiang, Jianming Xu
Twist1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion, metastasis, stemness, and chemotherapy resistance in cancer cells and thus is a potential target for cancer therapy. However, Twist1-null mice are embryonic lethal, and people with one Twist1 germline mutant allele develop Saethre-Chotzen syndrome; it is questionable whether Twist1 can be targeted in patients without severe adverse effects. We found that Twist1 is expressed in several tissues, including fibroblasts of the mammary glands and dermal papilla cells of the hair follicles...
October 2013: American Journal of Pathology
Alexandre Christinat, Simona Di Lascio, Olivia Pagani
Breast cancer in young women (<40 years) is a rare and complex clinical and psychosocial condition, which deserves multidisciplinary and personalized approaches. In young women with hormone-receptor positive disease, 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen, with or without ovarian suppression/ablation, is considered the standard endocrine therapy. The definitive role of adjuvant aromatase inhibitors has still to be elucidated: the upcoming results of the Tamoxifen and EXemestane Trial (TEXT) and Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial (SOFT) trials will help understanding if we can widen our current endocrine therapeutic options...
June 2013: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Carine Lampert, Danusa Mar Arcego, Daniela P Laureano, Luísa A Diehl, Isadora Ferreira da Costa Lima, Rachel Krolow, Letícia F Pettenuzzo, Carla Dalmaz, Deusa Vendite
Tamoxifen (TAM) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) used in the treatment of breast cancer; however many women complain of weight gain during TAM treatment. The anorectic effects of estradiol (E) and TAM are well known, although the effects of E on the consumption of palatable food are controversial and there is no information regarding the effects of TAM on palatable food consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with estradiol and/or tamoxifen on feeding behavior in ovariectomized rats exposed to standard chow and palatable foods (Froot Loops® or chocolate)...
July 2, 2013: Physiology & Behavior
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