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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931234/patterns-and-determinants-of-malaria-risk-in-urban-and-peri-urban-areas-of-blantyre-malawi
#1
Don P Mathanga, Atupele Kapito Tembo, Themba Mzilahowa, Andy Bauleni, Kondwani Mtimaukenena, Terrie E Taylor, Clarissa Valim, Edward D Walker, Mark L Wilson
BACKGROUND: Although malaria disease in urban and peri-urban areas of sub-Saharan Africa is a growing concern, the epidemiologic patterns and drivers of transmission in these settings remain poorly understood. Factors associated with variation in malaria risk in urban and peri-urban areas were evaluated in this study. METHODS: A health facility-based, age and location-matched, case-control study of children 6-59 months of age was conducted in four urban and two peri-urban health facilities (HF) of Blantyre city, Malawi...
December 8, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928135/effects-of-preventive-long-term-care-on-physical-and-psychological-health-status-for-the-elderly-evidence-from-a-salon-for-the-elderly-in-abashiri-city
#2
Mayumi Imahori, Nobuyuki Izumida, Yumika Shirase, Haruko Noguchi
Objectives The study objectives were to clarify the characteristics of elderly persons participating in a preventive long-term care program (PLTC) organized by a local government, and to verify how the program would affect the health status of the elderly.Methods We made secondary use of individual-level micro-based longitudinal data from the "Health and Living Survey of Elderly Persons", conducted in Abashiri City of Hokkaido Prefecture in two consecutive years (2013 and 2014). The treatment group included subjects who joined the PLTC program, agreed to the survey, and responded to the survey in both 2013 and 2014...
2016: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927664/quantifying-the-hospitalised-morbidity-and-mortality-attributable-to-traumatic-injury-using-a-population-based-matched-cohort-in-australia
#3
Rebecca J Mitchell, Cate M Cameron, Rod McClure
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the 12-month hospitalised morbidity and mortality attributable to traumatic injury using a population-based matched cohort in Australia. SETTING: New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals ≥18 years who had an injury-related hospital admission in 2009 formed the injured cohort. The non-injured comparison cohort was randomly selected from the electoral roll and was matched 1:1 on age, gender and postcode of residence at the date of the index injury admission of their matched counterpart...
December 7, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927631/acute-coronary-syndrome-and-suicide-a-case-referent-study
#4
Chao-Han Liu, Ming-Kung Yeh, Ji-Hung Wang, Shu-Chuan Weng, Meng-Yi Bai, Jung-Chen Chang
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents a significant burden on healthcare resources. A robust association exists between depression and increased morbidity and mortality after ACS. This study examined the relationship between suicide and ACS after adjusting for depression and other comorbidities. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this case-referent study conducted in Taiwan, the cases were people aged 35 years or older who died from suicide between 2000 and 2012 and 4 live referents, each matched by age, sex, and area of residence...
December 7, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925333/glycaemic-control-and-excess-risk-of-ischaemic-and-haemorrhagic-stroke-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-a-cohort-study-of-33-453-patients
#5
C Hedén Ståhl, M Lind, A-M Svensson, S Gudbjörnsdottir, A Mårtensson, A Rosengren
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the excess risk of stroke in relation to glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: In this prospective, matched cohort study, we identified patients with type 1 diabetes, aged ≥18 years, who were registered in the Swedish National Diabetes Register from 1998-2011 and five control subjects for each case from the general population, matched for age, sex and county of residence. The risks of all strokes, ischaemic stroke and haemorrhagic stroke were estimated using Cox hazard regression...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925171/matching-habitat-choice-in-nomadic-crossbills-appears-most-pronounced-when-food-is-most-limiting
#6
Craig W Benkman
Of the various forms of non-random dispersal, matching habitat choice, whereby individuals preferentially reside in habitats where they are best adapted, has relatively little empirical support. Here I use mark-recapture data to test for matching habitat choice in two nomadic ecotypes of North American Red Crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex) that occur in the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests in the South Hills, Idaho every summer. Crossbills are adapted for foraging on seeds in conifer cones, and in the South Hills the cones are distinctive, favoring a relatively large bill...
December 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919498/association-between-exposure-to-farm-animals-and-pets-and-risk-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Dylan Siejka, Bruce Taylor, Anne-Louise Ponsonby, Terence Dwyer, Ingrid van der Mei
PURPOSE: There exists inconsistent evidence regarding animals including pets as risk factors for the development of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We investigated the association between farm animals and pets as possible environmental factors in MS development. METHODS: Population based case-control study with 136 clinically definite MS cases and 272 controls randomly chosen from the community matched on sex and age. Data was collected from both questionnaire and a lifetime calendar detailing residence, occupation and pet/animal exposure over the course of participant's lives...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919350/identification-and-characterization-of-severe-familial-hypercholesterolemia-in-patients-presenting-for-cardiac-catheterization
#8
Barak Zafrir, Chen Shapira, Gil Lavie, David A Halon, Moshe Y Flugelman
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are often unrecognized despite typical presentation. The introduction of PCSK9 inhibitors opens new therapeutic options and emphasizes the need for identification of severe FH patients. OBJECTIVES: The objective was identification, characterization, and management of severe FH patients by screening of cardiac catheterization (CC) database. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of CC database from 2002 to mid-2015 was performed for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥130 mg/dL (n = 2383)...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918336/resident-physicians-improve-nontechnical-skills-when-on-operating-room-management-and-leadership-rotation
#9
Devon C Cole, Christopher R Giordano, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Brenda G Fahy
BACKGROUND: Anesthesiology residency primarily emphasizes the development of medical knowledge and technical skills. Yet, nontechnical skills (NTS) are also vital to successful clinical practice. Elements of NTS are communication, teamwork, situational awareness, and decision making. METHODS: The first 10 consecutive senior residents who chose to participate in this 2-week elective rotation of operating room (OR) management and leadership training were enrolled in this study, which spanned from March 2013 to March 2015...
December 1, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916669/prevalence-and-morbidity-of-undiagnosed-celiac-disease-from-a-community-based-study
#10
Rok Seon Choung, Scott A Larson, Shahryar Khaleghi, Alberto Rubio-Tapia, Inna G Ovsyannikova, Katherine S King, Joseph J Larson, Brian D Lahr, Gregory A Poland, Michael J Camilleri, Joseph A Murray
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the prevalence and burden of undiagnosed celiac disease in individuals younger than 50 years old. We determined the prevalence and morbidity of undiagnosed celiac disease in individuals younger than 50 years in a community. METHODS: We tested sera from 31,255 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota (younger than 50 years old) without a prior diagnosis of celiac disease assay using an assay for immunoglobulin A (IgA) against tissue transglutaminase (tTG); in subjects with positive test results, celiac disease was confirmed using an assay for endomysial IgA...
December 1, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916491/gene-expression-profiling-to-identify-the-toxicities-and-potentially-relevant-human-disease-outcomes-associated-with-environmental-heavy-metal-exposure
#11
Hesham M Korashy, Ibraheem M Attafi, Konrad S Famulski, Saleh A Bakheet, Mohammed M Hafez, Abdulaziz M S Alsaad, Abdul Rahman M Al-Ghadeer
Heavy metals are the most commonly encountered toxic substances that increase susceptibility to various diseases after prolonged exposure. We have previously shown that healthy volunteers living near a mining area had significant contamination with heavy metals associated with significant changes in the expression of some detoxifying genes, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, and DNA repair genes. However, alterations of most of the molecular target genes associated with diseases are still unknown. Thus, the aims of this study were to (a) evaluate the gene expression profile and (b) identify the toxicities and potentially relevant human disease outcomes associated with long-term human exposure to environmental heavy metals in mining area using microarray analysis...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916304/risk-of-bone-tumors-in-children-and-residential-proximity-to-industrial-and-urban-areas-new-findings-from-a-case-control-study
#12
Javier García-Pérez, Antonio Morales-Piga, Diana Gómez-Barroso, Ibon Tamayo-Uria, Elena Pardo Romaguera, Gonzalo López-Abente, Rebeca Ramis
Few epidemiologic studies have explored risk factors for bone tumors in children, and the role of environmental factors needs to be analyzed. Our objective was to ascertain the association between residential proximity to industrial plants and urban areas and risk of bone tumors in children, taking into account industrial groups and toxic pollutants released. A population-based case-control study of childhood bone cancer in Spain was carried out, covering 114 incident cases obtained from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (between 1996 and 2011), and 684 controls individually matched by sex, year of birth, and autonomous region of residence...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911288/the-effect-of-base-transceiver-station-waves-on-some-immunological-and-hematological-factors-in-exposed-persons
#13
Mohammad Taheri, Ghodratollah Roshanaei, Jamileh Ghaffari, Samira Rahimnejad, Behzad Nazel Khosroshahi, Mohsen Aliabadi, Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian
BACKGROUND: Since the number of mobile subscribers has significantly increased in recent years, the installation and deployment of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) antennas sending and receiving signals has become common and inevitable in different regions. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we have tried to evaluate the effect of the waves on some immunological and hematological parameters in exposed individuals. In this study, the exposed and non-exposed individuals were used as the test and control groups, respectively...
November 25, 2016: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910901/risk-factors-for-endometrial-cancer-results-from-a-hospital-based-case-control-study
#14
Maryam Ghanbari Andarieh, Mouloud Agajani Delavar, Dariush Moslemi, Sedighe Esmaeilzadeh
Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the association between endometrial cancer and possible etiological agents. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Iran between March 2012 and May 2016. The demographic and reproductive factors of 205 women with endometrial cancer were compared, and 590 healthy cases were participated in the control group. For each endometrial cancer case, there were three controls, who were matched in terms of age and residence. The data were considered significant at p ≤0...
January 10, 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905945/mortality-and-life-expectancy-in-kiribati-based-on-analysis-of-reported-deaths
#15
Karen L Carter, Tibwataake Baiteke, Tiensi Teea, Teanibuaka Tabunga, Mantarae Itienang, Chalapati Rao, Alan D Lopez, Richard Taylor
BACKGROUND: Kiribati is an atoll country of 103,058 (2010 Census) situated in the central Pacific. Previous mortality estimates have been derived from demographic analyses of census data. This is the first mortality analysis based on reported deaths. METHODS: Recorded deaths were from the Ministry of Health and the Civil Registration Office for 2000-2009; populations were from the 2000, 2005, and 2010 censuses. Duplicate death records were removed by matching deaths within and between data sources using a combination of names, date of death, age, sex, island of residence, and cause of death...
February 29, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903252/shifting-tides-in-the-emigration-patterns-of-canadian-physicians-to-the-united-states-a-cross-sectional-secondary-data-analysis
#16
Thomas R Freeman, Stephen Petterson, Sean Finnegan, Andrew Bazemore
BACKGROUND: The relative ease of movement of physicians across the Canada/US border has led to what is sometimes referred to as a 'brain drain' and previous analysis estimated that the equivalent of two graduating classes from Canadian medical schools were leaving to practice in the US each year. Both countries fill gaps in physician supply with international medical graduates (IMGs) so the movement of Canadian trained physicians to the US has international ramifications. Medical school enrolments have been increased on both sides of the border, yet there continues to be concerns about adequacy of physician human resources...
December 1, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899840/observations-from-the-phase-ii-match-impact-on-student-residency-candidates
#17
Katelyn M Alexander, Jessica E Burchette, David Cluck, Sean Smithgall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899709/the-art-of-camouflage-gender-differences-in-the-social-behaviors-of-girls-and-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Michelle Dean, Robin Harwood, Connie Kasari
This study examined the extent to which gender-related social behaviors help girls with autism spectrum disorder to seemingly mask their symptoms. Using concurrent mixed methods, we examined the social behaviors of 96 elementary school children during recess (autism spectrum disorder = 24 girls and 24 boys, typically developing = 24 girls and 24 boys). Children with autism spectrum disorder had average intelligence (IQ ⩾ 70), a confirmed diagnosis, and were educated in the general education classroom...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898694/no-increased-risk-for-primary-osteoarthritis-in-liver-cirrhosis-a-danish-nationwide-cohort-study
#19
Thomas Deleuran, Hendrik Vilstrup, Søren Overgaard, Peter Jepsen
OBJECTIVE: Chronic synovial inflammation causes primary osteoarthritis, but it is unknown whether chronic systemic inflammation does, too. Patients with cirrhosis have chronic systemic inflammation and therefore we examined the association between cirrhosis and primary osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. METHODS: In Danish healthcare databases we identified all residents over 60 years diagnosed with cirrhosis in 1994-2011, and for each of them we sampled five age- and gender-matched reference persons from the general population...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893897/imaging-of-glial-cell-activation-and-white-matter-integrity-in-brains-of-active-and-recently-retired-national-football-league-players
#20
Jennifer M Coughlin, Yuchuan Wang, Il Minn, Nicholas Bienko, Emily B Ambinder, Xin Xu, Matthew E Peters, John W Dougherty, Melin Vranesic, Soo Min Koo, Hye-Hyun Ahn, Merton Lee, Chris Cottrell, Haris I Sair, Akira Sawa, Cynthia A Munro, Christopher J Nowinski, Robert F Dannals, Constantine G Lyketsos, Michael Kassiou, Gwenn Smith, Brian Caffo, Susumu Mori, Tomas R Guilarte, Martin G Pomper
Importance: Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the brain's response to injury and neurodegenerative processes. It has been proposed that prolonged microglial activation occurs after single and repeated traumatic brain injury, possibly through sports-related concussive and subconcussive injuries. Limited in vivo brain imaging studies months to years after individuals experience a single moderate to severe traumatic brain injury suggest widespread persistent microglial activation, but there has been little study of persistent glial cell activity in brains of athletes with sports-related traumatic brain injury...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Neurology
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