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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102950/quantitative-impact-of-changes-in-marrow-cellularity-skeletal-size-and-bone-mineral-density-on-active-marrow-dosimetry-based-upon-a-reference-model
#1
Amy M Geyer, Bryan C Schwarz, Robert F Hobbs, George Sgouros, Wesley E Bolch
PURPOSE: The hematopoietically active tissues of skeletal bone marrow are a prime target for computational dosimetry given potential risks of leukemia and, at higher dose levels, acute marrow toxicity. The complex three-dimensional geometry of trabecular spongiosa, however, complicates schema for dose assessment in such a way that only a few reference skeletal models have been developed to date, and which are based upon microimaging of a limited number of cadaveric bone spongiosa cores...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087737/a-homozygous-mutation-in-trim36-causes-autosomal-recessive-anencephaly-in-an-indian-family
#2
Nivedita Singh, Vishwanath Kumble Bhat, Ankana Tiwari, Srinivas G Kodaganur, Sagar J Tontanahal, Astha Sarda, K V Malini, Arun Kumar
Anencephaly is characterized by the absence of brain tissues and cranium. During primary neurulation stage of the embryo, the rostral part of the neural pore fails to close, leading to anencephaly. Anencephaly shows a heterogeneous etiology, ranging from environmental to genetic causes. The autosomal recessive inheritance of anencephaly has been reported in several populations. In this study, we employed whole-exome sequencing and identified a homozygous missense mutation c.1522C>A (p.Pro508Thr) in the TRIM36 gene as the cause of autosomal recessive anencephaly (APH) in an Indian family...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086878/a-case-of-cranium-bifidum-with-meningocele-in-ayrshire-calf
#3
Mosiany Letura Kisipan, Caleb Oburu Orenge, David Njogu Gacheru, Raphael Muchangi Ngure
BACKGROUND: Congenital cranial bone defects predispose to herniation of meninges, sometimes with brain tissue involvement, to form a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled cyst in the head. Such defects mainly results from focal failure of neural tube closure during fetal development and has been reported in various species of domestic mammals. CASE PRESENTATION: A one week old Ayrshire calf with a fluctuant swelling on parieto-occipital region of the head was referred to the faculty...
January 13, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077536/cerebral-oxygen-saturation-and-cardiac-output-during-anaesthesia-in-sitting-position-for-neurosurgical-procedures-a-prospective-observational-study
#4
P Schramm, I Tzanova, F Hagen, M Berres, D Closhen, G Pestel, K Engelhard
BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical operations in the dorsal cranium often require the patient to be positioned in a sitting position. This can be associated with decreased cardiac output and cerebral hypoperfusion, and possibly, inadequate cerebral oxygenation. In the present study, cerebral oxygen saturation was measured during neurosurgery in the sitting position and correlated with cardiac output. METHODS: Perioperative cerebral oxygen saturation was measured continuously with two different monitors, INVOS(®) and FORE-SIGHT(®)...
October 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067076/vocal-training-in-an-anthropometrical-aspect
#5
Marzena Wyganowska-Świątkowska, Iwona Kowalkowska, Grażyna Flicińska-Pamfil, Mikołaj Dąbrowski, Przemysław Kopczyński, Bożena Wiskirska-Woźnica
OBJECTIVES: As shown in our previous paper, the dimensions of the cerebral parts of the cranium and face of the vocal students were higher than those of the non-singing students. The aim of the present study was to analyse the type of voice and its development depending on selected dimensions. METHODS: A total of 56 vocal students - 36 women and 20 men - who underwent anthropometric measurements were divided into groups according to their voice type. Two professors of singing made a subjective, independent evaluation of individual students' vocal development progress during the four years of training...
January 9, 2017: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059851/treated-unilateral-lambdoid-synostosis-using-cranium-distraction-osteogenesis-with-z-shaped-osteotomy
#6
Shen Weimin, Jie Cui, Jianbing Chen, Qingwen Gao
PURPOSE: We studied the effect of cranium distraction osteogenesis using Z-shaped osteotomy to treat unilateral lambdoid synostosis. METHODS: Simulating the occipital, parietal, and temporal bones as a hemisphere, we designed a lambdoid suture that connected parallel osteotomy and sagittal sutures or extended to fossa cranii posterioras much like the parallel lines connect the upper and lower aspects of the letter Z. Two to 3 distraction devices were then installed after the Z-shaped osteotomy suture...
January 3, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059560/dose-specification-for-hippocampal-sparing-whole-brain-radiotherapy-hs-wbrt-considerations-from-the-uk-hippo-trial-qa-programme
#7
Daniel Megias, Mark Phillips, Laura Clifton-Hadley, Elizabeth Harron, David J Eaton, Paul Sanghera, Gillian Whitfield
OBJECTIVES: The HIPPO trial is a UK randomised phase II trial of Hippocampal Sparing (HS) versus Conventional Whole Brain Radiotherapy after surgical resection or radiosurgery in favourable prognosis patients with 1-4 brain metastases. Each participating centre completed a planning benchmark case as part of the dedicated radiotherapy trials quality assurance programme (RTQA), promoting the safe and effective delivery of HS Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in a multi-centre trial setting...
January 6, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052054/a-symmoriiform-chondrichthyan-braincase-and-the-origin-of-chimaeroid-fishes
#8
Michael I Coates, Robert W Gess, John A Finarelli, Katharine E Criswell, Kristen Tietjen
Chimaeroid fishes (Holocephali) are one of the four principal divisions of modern gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Despite only 47 described living species, chimaeroids are the focus of resurgent interest as potential archives of genomic data and for the unique perspective they provide on chondrichthyan and gnathostome ancestral conditions. Chimaeroids are also noteworthy for their highly derived body plan. However, like other living groups with distinctive anatomies, fossils have been of limited use in unravelling their evolutionary origin, as the earliest recognized examples already exhibit many of the specializations present in modern forms...
January 4, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050720/indocyanine-green-visualization-of-middle-meningeal-artery-before-craniotomy-during-surgical-revascularization-for-moyamoya-disease
#9
Nozomu Tanabe, Shusuke Yamamoto, Daina Kashiwazaki, Naoki Akioka, Naoya Kuwayama, Kyo Noguchi, Satoshi Kuroda
BACKGROUND: The middle meningeal artery (MMA) is well known to function as an important collateral channel to the territory of the anterior cerebral artery in moyamoya disease. This study was aimed to evaluate whether indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography could visualize the anterior branch of the MMA before craniotomy during surgical revascularization for moyamoya disease. METHODS: This study included 19 patients who developed TIA, ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke due to moyamoya disease...
January 3, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035660/morphological-integration-of-the-cranium-in-homo-pan-and-hylobates-and-the-evolution-of-hominoid-facial-structures
#10
Dimitri Neaux
OBJECTIVES: Modern humans diverge from other extant hominids (chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans) in a series of craniofacial morphological features. Like hylobatids, they possess a face with a reduced subnasal prognathism that is associated with a globular basicranium. These traits are not independent, as the skull is a complex integrated structure. The aim of the present study is to determine relationships between the face and the basicranium in two hominid genera (Homo and Pan) and a hylobatid genus (Hylobates) to test if these taxa share common patterns of integration linking these structures...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028478/reappraisal-of-europe-s-most-complete-early-cretaceous-plesiosaurian-brancasaurus-brancai-wegner-1914-from-the-wealden-facies-of-germany
#11
Sven Sachs, Jahn J Hornung, Benjamin P Kear
The holotype of Brancasaurus brancai is one of the most historically famous and anatomically complete Early Cretaceous plesiosaurian fossils. It derived from the Gerdemann & Co. brickworks clay pit near Gronau (Westfalen) in North Rhine-Westphalia, northwestern Germany. Stratigraphically this locality formed part of the classic European "Wealden facies," but is now more formally attributed to the upper-most strata of the Bückeberg Group (upper Berriasian). Since its initial description in 1914, the type skeleton of B...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026847/the-challenge-of-extra-intra-craniometry-a-computer-assisted-3-dimensional-approach-on-the-equine-skull
#12
Anja Lang, Peter Brucker, Matthias Ludwig, Tibor Wrede, Joscha Theunert, Hagen Gasse
The topographical correlations between certain extracranial and intracranial osseous Points of Interest (POIs), and their age-related changes, are indispensable to know for a diagnostical or surgical access to intracranial structures, however, they are difficult to assess with conventional devices. In this pilot study, the 3-dimensional coordinates of extra-/intracranial POIs were determined, thus avoiding perspective distortions that used to be intrinsic problems in 2-dimensional morphometry. The data sets were then analysed by creating virtual triangles...
December 27, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009304/long-term-optical-access-to-an-estimated-one-million-neurons-in-the-live-mouse-cortex
#13
Tony Hyun Kim, Yanping Zhang, Jérôme Lecoq, Juergen C Jung, Jane Li, Hongkui Zeng, Cristopher M Niell, Mark J Schnitzer
A major technological goal in neuroscience is to enable the interrogation of individual cells across the live brain. By creating a curved glass replacement to the dorsal cranium and surgical methods for its installation, we developed a chronic mouse preparation providing optical access to an estimated 800,000-1,100,000 individual neurons across the dorsal surface of neocortex. Post-surgical histological studies revealed comparable glial activation as in control mice. In behaving mice expressing a Ca(2+) indicator in cortical pyramidal neurons, we performed Ca(2+) imaging across neocortex using an epi-fluorescence macroscope and estimated that 25,000-50,000 individual neurons were accessible per mouse across multiple focal planes...
December 20, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000789/earliest-known-unequivocal-rhinocerotoid-sheds-new-light-on-the-origin-of-giant-rhinos-and-phylogeny-of-early-rhinocerotoids
#14
Haibing Wang, Bin Bai, Jin Meng, Yuanqing Wang
Forstercooperiines are a group of primitive rhinocerotoids with a relatively large body size in the Eocene, and normally considered to be closely related to Giant Rhinos. Here we report a new forstercooperiine, Pappaceras meiomenus sp. nov., from the late Early Eocene Arshanto Formation, Erlian Basin, Nei Mongol, China. Pappaceras is the earliest known unequivocal rhinocerotoid, and the holotype of the new species, represented by the most complete cranium of forstercooperiines known to date, shows the earliest evidence of reduction of the first upper premolar in rhinocerotoids, and resembles paraceratheriine Juxia in basicranial features, supporting the interpretation that the forstercooperiine clade is ancestral to paraceratheriines...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000410/a-comparative-morphological-study-of-the-jugal-and-quadratojugal-in-early-birds-and-their-dinosaurian-relatives
#15
Min Wang, Han Hu
The zygoma (called jugal bar) in modern birds accounts for a large portion of the ventral margin of the cranium. As a delicate and rod-like element, the jugal bar is functionally integrated into the avian cranial kinesis, a unique property that allows the beak to be elevated or depressed with respect to the braincase and thus distinguishes birds from all other modern vertebrates. Developmental studies show that the jugal bar of modern birds is formed by the fusion of the jugal and quadratojugal that are ossified from separated centers...
January 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000407/zygomaticomaxillary-morphology-and-maxillary-sinus-form-and-function-how-spatial-constraints-influence-pneumatization-patterns-among-modern-humans
#16
Scott D Maddux, Lauren N Butaric
Previous research has suggested that the maxillary sinuses may act as "zones of accommodation" for the nasal region, minimizing the impact of climatic-related changes in nasal cavity breadth on surrounding skeletal structures. However, a recent study among modern human crania has identified that, in addition to nasal cavity breadth, sinus morphology also tracks lateral facial form, especially anterior-posterior positioning of the zygomatics. Here, we expand upon this previous study to further investigate these covariation patterns by employing three samples with distinct combinations of nasal and zygomatic morphologies: Northern Asians (n = 28); sub-Saharan Africans (n = 30); and Europeans (n = 29)...
January 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988737/a-new-deepwater-legskate-i-sinobatis-i-i-kotlyari-i-n-sp-rajiformes-anacanthobatidae-from-the-southeastern-indian-ocean-on-broken-ridge
#17
Matthias F W Stehmann, Simon Weigmann
Sinobatis kotlyari n. sp. is described, based on the nearly adult 331 mm TL holotype male from 1400 m depth in the southeastern Indian Ocean at Broken Ridge. The new species is assigned to Sinobatis due to mainly characters of its clasper and cranium fontanelle distinguishing it from congeners and other anacanthobatid skates with clasper features known. It further differs from its morphologically closest congener, S. borneensis, which is only known from the northwestern Pacific Ocean, e.g. in larger maturing size, longer snout and head, the absence of a snout filament and skin fold on tail, a longer caudal fin, and in colouration...
November 10, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942778/novel-mutations-in-the-sec24d-gene-in-chinese-families-with-autosomal-recessive-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#18
H Zhang, H Yue, C Wang, J Gu, J He, W Fu, W Hu, Z Zhang
: We sought to characterize the phenotypes and identify the SEC24D gene mutations associated with Chinese families of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Using whole-exome sequencing, we discovered two novel compound SEC24D mutations of OI patients. Our study extended both the phenotypic and the genotype of the OI patients with SEC24D mutations. INTRODUCTION: To date, only three compound heterozygous mutations in the SEC24D gene have been found to cause recessively inherited forms of OI...
December 10, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935564/high-prevalence-of-cranial-asymmetry-exists-in-infants-with-neonatal-brachial-plexus-palsy
#19
Megan Tang, Kimberly A Gorbutt, Ammanath Peethambaran, Lynda Yang, Virginia S Nelson, Kate Wan-Chu Chang
PURPOSE: This study aimed to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of cranial asymmetry (positional plagiocephaly) in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP); 2) examine the association of patient demographics, arm function, and NBPP-related factors to positional plagiocephaly; and 3) determine percentage of spontaneous recovery from positional plagiocephaly and its association with arm function. METHODS: Infants < 1 year of age with NBPP and no previous exposure to plagiocephaly cranial remolding therapy or surgical intervention were recruited for this prospective cross-sectional study...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917338/six-different-extremely-calcified-lesions-of-the-brain-brain-stones
#20
Yurdal Gezercan, Vedat Acik, Gökhan Çavuş, Ali Ihsan Ökten, Emre Bilgin, Hakan Millet, Burak Olmaz
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to extend clinical documentation of cerebral calculi by reporting six cases of cerebral calculi with distinct etiologies and localizations. METHODS: We evaluated the age, sex distribution, presenting symptoms, neurological examination findings, pathology results, and location of the calcifications of six patients with intracranial calcifications. RESULTS: Three of the six patients with brain stones were female (50%), and three were male (50%)...
2016: SpringerPlus
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