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Cranium

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434537/new-cranium-of-the-endemic-caribbean-platyrrhine-antillothrix-bernensis-from-la-altagracia-province-dominican-republic
#1
Lauren B Halenar, Siobhán B Cooke, Alfred L Rosenberger, Renato Rímoli
Recent paleontological collection in submerged caves in the eastern Dominican Republic has yielded new specimens of Antillothrix bernensis. Here we describe a complete cranium of an adult individual (MHD 20) and provide phenetic comparisons to other endemic Caribbean taxa and extant mainland platyrrhines using three-dimensional geometric morphometric methods (3DGM). Qualitative and quantitative comparisons support conclusions based on other recently described fossil material: Antillothrix has a dentition lacking clear dietary specialization, an elongated brain case with strong temporal lines, and a vertically oriented nuchal plane...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430075/considerations-in-the-management-of-congenital-cranial-dermoid-cysts
#2
Syed Khalid, John Ruge
OBJECTIVE Congenital dermoid cysts (CDCs) develop from the entrapment of the surface ectoderm along the lines of embryonic fusion and have a capacity to grow. Given this capacity for continual expansion, the timing of removal and anticipation of possible epidural extension is important. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed records of patients with the diagnosis of dermoid cyst presenting over a period of 10 years. Baseline characteristics, histological reports, and surgical records were collected and analyzed...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413181/review-of-past-reports-and-current-concepts-of-surgical-management-for-craniosynostosis
#3
Shigeo Kyutoku, Takayuki Inagaki
The purposes of surgery for craniosynostosis are to release increased intracranial pressure and to normalize cranial shape. The procedure was developed from a simple strip craniectomy in practice which ranged from the removal of the fused suture before the 1960s to total calvarial remodeling after 1970s and later methods of the 1990s, such as distraction and its modifications. According to its history, craniofacial surgeons might be changing their procedures with more effective, than less invasive ways. Since the late 1990s, when the distraction was applied to the craniofacial surgery, the gradual expansion, in particular of the anterior cranium, common in Japan, has long been controversial until the Caucasians accepted its use for the posterior cranium...
April 12, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406901/automatic-extraction-of-endocranial-surfaces-from-ct-images-of-crania
#4
Takashi Michikawa, Hiromasa Suzuki, Masaki Moriguchi, Naomichi Ogihara, Osamu Kondo, Yasushi Kobayashi
The authors present a method for extracting polygon data of endocranial surfaces from CT images of human crania. Based on the fact that the endocast is the largest empty space in the crania, we automate a procedure for endocast extraction by integrating several image processing techniques. Given CT images of human crania, the proposed method extracts endocranial surfaces by the following three steps. The first step is binarization in order to fill void structures, such as diploic space and cracks in the skull...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398912/sharp-force-trauma-death-in-a-young-individual-from-medieval-gloucester
#5
Satu Valoriani, Constantine Eliopoulos, Matteo Borrini
The authors of the present work evaluate the trauma observed on the skeletal remains of an individual from medieval Gloucester and reconstruct the events that led to his death. The almost complete skeleton was recovered from the cemetery of St Owen and dates to the late medieval period. Several methods were used to determine the sex and age of the individual. The anthropological examination showed that the remains belonged to a young male, between the ages of 17 and 19 years. The young man also had antemortem pathologies that were related to his diet and lifestyle, as he appears to have had iron-deficiency anemia and Schmorl nodes...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397435/female-and-male-orbit-asymmetry-digital-analysis
#6
Tomasz Lepich, Józefa Dąbek, Małgorzata Witkowska, Edyta Jura-Szołtys, Grzegorz Bajor
BACKGROUND: Standard anthropometric methods applied to measurements of the skull differentials are laden with mistakes stemming from the way the measuring devices are built and from a lack of experience on the part of the researchers. To increase objectivity, digital imaging measurements via computer systems were introduced. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to assess the asymmetry of the male and female orbit with the application of the new graphic methods: raster graphics and vector graphics...
January 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386686/3d-digitization-and-prototyping-of-the-skull-for-practical-use-in-the-teaching-of-human-anatomy
#7
Maria Teresa Ugidos Lozano, Fernando Blaya Haro, Carlos Molino Diaz, Sadia Manzoor, Gonzalo Ferrer Ugidos, Juan Antonio Juanes Mendez
The creation of new rapid prototyping techniques, low cost 3D printers as well as the creation of new software for these techniques have allowed the creation of 3D models of bones making their application possible in the field of teaching anatomy in the faculties of Health Sciences. The 3D model of cranium created in the present work, at full scale, present accurate reliefs and anatomical details that are easily identifiable by undergraduate students in their use for the study of human anatomy. In this article, the process of scanning the skull and the subsequent treatment of these images with specific software until the generation of 3D model using 3D printer has been reported...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382185/isolated-fracture-of-lateral-pterygoid-plate-by-penetrating-foreign-body-a-rarity-indeed
#8
Mukesh Surya, Pawan Soni, Ramesh Bharti, Ira Jamwal
BACKGROUND: Fractures of mid-face were first described by Le Fort and are classified into three categories - Le Fort I, Le Fort II and Le Fort III. The pterygoid processes of the sphenoid bone are fractured in all the three categories of Le Fort fractures as the sphenoid bone connects the cranium vault to the facial bones. Fractures of the pterygoid processes without associated Le Fort fractures are rare and are usually associated with fractures of the mandible, temporal bone or other facial bones...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367415/effects-of-electromagnetic-stimulation-on-gene-expression-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-repair-of-bone-lesions
#9
Maryam Jazayeri, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Nooshin Haghighipour, Bahram Bolouri, Fereshteh Mirahmadi, Mehdi Farokhi
OBJECTIVE: Most people experience bone damage and bone disorders during their lifetimes. The use of autografts is a suitable way for injury recovery and healing. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are key players in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Their proliferation potential and multipotent differentiation ability enable MSCs to be considered as appropriate cells for therapy and clinical applications. Differentiation of stem cells depends on their microenvironment and biophysical stimulations...
April 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353530/cranium-penetrating-mass-detected-by-ultrasound-expedited-management-of-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#10
Brian Morgan, Hsien Lee Lau, Sharon Yellin
A 6-year-old boy presented to the pediatric emergency department with a unilateral 5 × 3-cm superficial mass on the postauricular region growing for 1 month. Point-of-care ultrasound was used to evaluate the mass, which revealed a complex cystic mass penetrating the temporal bone. After confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging, the patient was transferred for neurosurgical evaluation, and the tumor was excised. Pathology revealed Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
April 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353151/the-use-of-brain-stimulation-in-dysphagia-management
#11
REVIEW
Andre Simons, Shaheen Hamdy
Dysphagia is common sequela of brain injury with as many as 50% of patients suffering from dysphagia following stroke. Currently, the majority of guidelines for clinical practice in the management of dysphagia focus on the prevention of complications while any natural recovery takes place. Recently, however, non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques like transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have started to attract attention and are applied to investigate both the physiology of swallowing and influences on dysphagia...
April 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348991/myths-and-misconceptions-in-general-public-toward-ocular-complications-followed-by-the-removal-of-upper-teeth
#12
Ujwala Rohan Newadkar, Lalit Chaudhari, Yogita Khalekar
INTRODUCTION: The upper jaw forms the floor of the maxillary sinus and the upper teeth are continuous with the whole midface and cranium, therefore while treating these teeth, it is important for the practitioner to consider the possibility of ocular complications. Ocular disturbances such as blurring of vision, mydriasis, ptosis, diplopia, enophthalmos, miosis, and blindness are rare complications due to intraoral local anesthesia. So far at present, the general population is having myths and misconceptions regarding the extraction of teeth and vision loss; hence, we evaluated the same...
October 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342045/effects-of-an-alveolar-recruitment-maneuver-on-subdural-pressure-brain-swelling-and-mean-arterial-pressure-in-patients-undergoing-supratentorial-tumour-resection-a-randomized-crossover-study
#13
Alana M Flexman, Peter A Gooderham, Donald E Griesdale, Ruth Argue, Brian Toyota
PURPOSE: Although recruitment maneuvers have been advocated as part of a lung protective ventilation strategy, their effects on cerebral physiology during elective neurosurgery are unknown. Our objectives were to determine the effects of an alveolar recruitment maneuver on subdural pressure (SDP), brain relaxation score (BRS), and cerebral perfusion pressure among patients undergoing supratentorial tumour resection. METHODS: In this prospective crossover study, patients scheduled for resection of a supratentorial brain tumour were randomized to undergo either a recruitment maneuver (30 cm of water for 30 sec) or a "sham" maneuver (5 cm of water for 30 sec), followed by the alternative intervention after a 90-sec equilibration period...
March 24, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331459/heterotopic-ossification-of-the-calvarium-following-bilateral-craniectomies-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Rafael A Vega, Leslie Hutchins
BACKGROUND: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is defined as ectopic bone formation following traumatic brain injury. Patients typically develop lesions in the hips, knees, and elbows that cause pain, restricted range of motion, nerve impingement, and pressure ulcers. CASE REPORT: We report an unusual presentation of HO in an 18-year-old male who was involved in a motor vehicle accident and subsequently developed malignant intracranial pressure. His HO developed following bilateral craniectomies in which 2 different dural substitutes were used...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326490/virtual-reality-educational-tool-for-human-anatomy
#15
Santiago González Izard, Juan A Juanes Méndez, Pablo Ruisoto Palomera
Virtual Reality is becoming widespread in our society within very different areas, from industry to entertainment. It has many advantages in education as well, since it allows visualizing almost any object or going anywhere in a unique way. We will be focusing on medical education, and more specifically anatomy, where its use is especially interesting because it allows studying any structure of the human body by placing the user inside each one. By allowing virtual immersion in a body structure such as the interior of the cranium, stereoscopic vision goggles make these innovative teaching technologies a powerful tool for training in all areas of health sciences...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326341/cdc42-is-crucial-for-facial-and-palatal-formation-during-craniofacial-development
#16
Mutsuko Oshima-Nakayama, Atsushi Yamada, Tamaki Kurosawa, Ryo Aizawa, Dai Suzuki, Yoshiro Saito, Hidetoshi Kassai, Yuki Sato, Matsuo Yamamoto, Tatsuo Shirota, Atsu Aiba, Koutaro Maki, Ryutaro Kamijo
Craniofacial deformities with multifactorial etiologies, such as cleft palate and facial dysmorphism, represent some of the most frequent congenital birth defects seen in humans. Their pathogeneses are often related to cranial neural crest (CNC) cells. During CNC cell migration, changes in cell shape and formation, as well as maintenance of subcellular structures, such as filopodia and lamellipodia, are dependent on the complex functions of Rho family small GTPases, which are regulators of actin cytoskeletal organization...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317556/skull-5-from-dmanisi-descriptive-anatomy-comparative-studies-and-evolutionary-significance
#17
G Philip Rightmire, Marcia S Ponce de León, David Lordkipanidze, Ann Margvelashvili, Christoph P E Zollikofer
A fifth hominin skull (cranium D4500 and mandible D2600) from Dmanisi is massively constructed, with a large face and a very small brain. Traits documented for the first time in a basal member of the Homo clade include the uniquely low ratio of endocranial volume to basicranial width, reduced vertex height, angular vault profile, smooth nasal sill coupled with a long and sloping maxillary clivus, elongated palate, and tall mandibular corpus. The convex clivus and receding symphysis of skull 5 produce a muzzle-like form similar to that of Australopithecus afarensis...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296944/multiple-osteochondromas-of-the-antlers-and-cranium-in-a-free-ranging-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus
#18
Uwe Kierdorf, Karl V Miller, Stefan Flohr, Santiago Gomez, Horst Kierdorf
This paper reports a case of multiple osteochondromas affecting the antlers and the left zygomatic bone of a free-ranging adult white-tailed buck (Odocoileus virginianus) from Georgia, USA. Along with a few postcranial bones, the antlered cranium of the individual was found in a severely weathered condition and devoid of any soft tissue. The antlers exhibited five pedunculated exostoses that were composed of cancellous bone and, in their peripheral portions, also mineralized cartilage. The largest of the exostoses, located on the right antler, had a maximum circumference of 55 cm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289213/new-middle-pleistocene-hominin-cranium-from-gruta-da-aroeira-portugal
#19
Joan Daura, Montserrat Sanz, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Dirk L Hoffmann, Rolf M Quam, María Cruz Ortega, Elena Santos, Sandra Gómez, Angel Rubio, Lucía Villaescusa, Pedro Souto, João Mauricio, Filipa Rodrigues, Artur Ferreira, Paulo Godinho, Erik Trinkaus, João Zilhão
The Middle Pleistocene is a crucial time period for studying human evolution in Europe, because it marks the appearance of both fossil hominins ancestral to the later Neandertals and the Acheulean technology. Nevertheless, European sites containing well-dated human remains associated with an Acheulean toolkit remain scarce. The earliest European hominin crania associated with Acheulean handaxes are at the sites of Arago, Atapuerca Sima de los Huesos (SH), and Swanscombe, dating to 400-500 ka (Marine Isotope Stage 11-12)...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280481/the-optic-canal-a-bottleneck-for-cerebrospinal-fluid-dynamics-in-normal-tension-glaucoma
#20
Achmed Pircher, Margherita Montali, Jatta Berberat, Luca Remonda, Hanspeter E Killer
PURPOSE: To report on the optic canal cross-sectional area (OCA) in Caucasian patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) compared with Caucasian control subjects without known optic nerve (ON) diseases. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of computed tomographic images of the cranium and orbits in 56 NTG patients (30 females and 26 males; 99 of 112 eyes; mean age 67.7 ± 11.1 years). Fifty-six age- and gender-matched subjects (mean age: 68.0 ± 11.2 years) without known ON diseases served as controls...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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