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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819219/the-fabrication-of-an-ica-sf-plcl-nanofibrous-membrane-by-coaxial-electrospinning-and-its-effect-on-bone-regeneration-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Lihua Yin, Kaijuan Wang, Xiaoqin Lv, Rui Sun, Shaohua Yang, Yujie Yang, Yanyun Liu, Jiatao Liu, Jing Zhou, Zhanhai Yu
GBR is currently accepted as one of the most effective approaches for bone defect regeneration relating to dental implant. Icariin is the main active ingredient in the extraction of total flavonoids from the Chinese traditional herb Epimediumbrevicornum Maxim. In this study, ICA was successfully incorporated into the nanofibers barrier membrane (ICA-SF/PLCL) as osteoinduction factor by coaxial electrospinning and was released in a sustained and controlled manner. The entire release period included two stages: an initial burst stage (47...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818998/lower-body-negative-pressure-reduces-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-during-head-down-tilt
#2
Karina Marshall-Goebel, Robert Terlević, Darius A Gerlach, Simone Kuehn, Edwin Mulder, Jörn Rittweger
The microgravity ocular syndrome (MOS) results in significant structural and functional ophthalmic changes during 6-month spaceflight missions consistent with an increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure compared to the preflight upright position. A ground-based study was performed to assess two of the major hypothesized contributors to MOS, headward fluid shifting and increased ambient CO2, on intracranial and periorbital CSF. In addition, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was assessed as a countermeasure to headward fluid shifting...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812268/oxytocin-and-human-evolution
#3
C Sue Carter
A small, but powerful neuropeptide, oxytocin coordinates processes that are central to both human reproduction and human evolution. Also embedded in the evolution of the human nervous system are unique pathways necessary for modern human sociality and cognition. Oxytocin is necessary for facilitating the birth process, especially in light of anatomical restrictions imposed by upright human locomotion, which depends on a fixed pelvis. Oxytocin, by facilitating birth, allowed the development of a large cortex and a protective bony cranium...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807502/cranial-size-and-shape-variation-in-isolated-populations-of-the-olkhon-mountain-vole-alticola-olchonensis-litvinov-1960
#4
Sergey A Abramov, Natalya V Lopatina, Yuri N Litvinov
The Olkhon mountain vole (Alticola olchonensis) is an endemic species of the Lake Baikal area with an extremely restricted range. We investigated the pattern of differentiation of cranial shape and size in five isolated insular populations of A. olchonensis from the Baikal islands (Olkhon, Hubyn, Borokchin, Ogoy, and Zamogoy). The ventral aspect of the cranium was analysed using landmark-based geometric morphometric methods While the sexes of A. olchonensis did not differ regarding cranium size and shape, multivariate statistical analyses showed that there were inter-island differences in skull morphology...
July 19, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796853/patterns-of-change-in-facial-skeletal-aging
#5
Boris Paskhover, David Durand, Emily Kamen, Neil A Gordon
Importance: Research in facial aging has focused on soft-tissue changes rather than bony changes despite evidence of the importance of underlying bony structural changes. Research has also been limited by comparing different patients in separate age groups rather than the same patients over time. Objective: To longitudinally document patterns of change in the facial skeleton and determine a consistent methodology for measuring these changes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case series study of university hospital system records using facial computed tomographic (CT) images timed at least 8 years apart in adults initially aged 40 to 55 years with no history of facial surgery who required repeated facial imaging that included the entire midface and cranium...
August 10, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796200/new-infant-cranium-from-the-african-miocene-sheds-light-on-ape-evolution
#6
Isaiah Nengo, Paul Tafforeau, Christopher C Gilbert, John G Fleagle, Ellen R Miller, Craig Feibel, David L Fox, Josh Feinberg, Kelsey D Pugh, Camille Berruyer, Sara Mana, Zachary Engle, Fred Spoor
The evolutionary history of extant hominoids (humans and apes) remains poorly understood. The African fossil record during the crucial time period, the Miocene epoch, largely comprises isolated jaws and teeth, and little is known about ape cranial evolution. Here we report on the, to our knowledge, most complete fossil ape cranium yet described, recovered from the 13 million-year-old Middle Miocene site of Napudet, Kenya. The infant specimen, KNM-NP 59050, is assigned to a new species of Nyanzapithecus on the basis of its unerupted permanent teeth, visualized by synchrotron imaging...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791677/patterns-and-prevalence-of-violence-related-skull-trauma-in-medieval-london
#7
Kathryn Krakowka
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to identify the patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma (including the cranium and mandible) among a large sample of skeletons from medieval London (1050-1550 AD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, data from 399 skulls, representing six different sites from across medieval London, were analyzed for evidence of trauma and assessed for the likelihood that it was caused by violence. The sites include the three parish cemeteries of St Nicholas Shambles (GPO75), St Lawrence Jewry (GYE92), and St Benet Sherehog (ONE94); the two monastic houses of London Blackfriars (PIC87) and St Mary Graces (MIN86); and the early inmate cemetery from the medieval hospital of St Mary Spital (NRT85)...
August 9, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790214/-transoral-penetrating-cranial-injury-by-a-chopstick-a-case-report
#8
Kazue Fujiwara, Fumihiro Hiraoka, Yasunobu Nakamura, Masahiko Murao, Kazuo Hanakawa, Takafumi Ide
Intracranial injury resultant from a chopstick penetrating the oral cavity is often fatal in children, and only 5 clinical cases have been reported. If the depth of penetration is indeterminable, due to the chopstick being removed or the remaining piece not being located, then injury management is challenging; here, we report such a case. A 26-month-old girl fell over with a plastic chopstick in her mouth. The chopstick was removed immediately and without breakage by her father. He noted that around 3 cm of the pointed end had pierced the palate...
August 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766896/novel-cranial-implants-of-yttria-stabilized-zirconia-as-acoustic-windows-for-ultrasonic-brain-therapy
#9
Mario I Gutierrez, Elias H Penilla, Lorenzo Leija, Arturo Vera, Javier E Garay, Guillermo Aguilar
Therapeutic ultrasound can induce changes in tissues by means of thermal and nonthermal effects. It is proposed for treatment of some brain pathologies such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's diseases, and cancer. However, cranium highly absorbs ultrasound reducing transmission efficiency. There are clinical applications of transcranial focused ultrasound and implantable ultrasound transducers proposed to address this problem. In this paper, biocompatible materials are proposed for replacing part of the cranium (cranial implants) based on low porosity polycrystalline 8 mol% yttria-stabilized-zirconia (8YSZ) ceramics as acoustic windows for brain therapy...
August 2, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752360/anatomical-characteristics-of-greater-palatine-foramen-a-novel-point-of-view
#10
Daniele Gibelli, Alessia Borlando, Claudia Dolci, Valentina Pucciarelli, Cristina Cattaneo, Chiarella Sforza
PURPOSE: Anatomy of greater palatine foramen is important for maxillary nerve blocks, haemostatic procedures, and the treatment of neuralgia; although metrical data are available about its collocation, still several aspects need to be explored, such as the influence of the cranium size. METHODS: The position of greater palatine foramen was assessed on 100 skulls through six measurements (distances from intermaxillary suture, posterior palatal border, posterior nasal spine, and incisive foramen; palatal length; relative position on palatal length) and two angles (angles at incisive foramen and greater palatine foramen)...
July 27, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740400/multidisciplinary-care-of-craniosynostosis
#11
REVIEW
Edward P Buchanan, Yunfeng Xue, Amy S Xue, Asaf Olshinka, Sandi Lam
The management of craniosynostosis, especially in the setting of craniofacial syndromes, is ideally done in a multidisciplinary clinic with a team focused toward comprehensive care. Craniosynostosis is a congenital disorder of the cranium, caused by the premature fusion of one or more cranial sutures. This fusion results in abnormal cranial growth due to the inability of the involved sutures to accommodate the growing brain. Skull growth occurs only at the patent sutures, resulting in an abnormal head shape...
2017: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740249/neanderthal-derived-genetic-variation-shapes-modern-human-cranium-and-brain
#12
Michael D Gregory, J Shane Kippenhan, Daniel P Eisenberg, Philip D Kohn, Dwight Dickinson, Venkata S Mattay, Qiang Chen, Daniel R Weinberger, Ziad S Saad, Karen F Berman
Before their disappearance from the fossil record approximately 40,000 years ago, Neanderthals, the ancient hominin lineage most closely related to modern humans, interbred with ancestors of present-day humans. The legacy of this gene flow persists through Neanderthal-derived variants that survive in modern human DNA; however, the neural implications of this inheritance are uncertain. Here, using MRI in a large cohort of healthy individuals of European-descent, we show that the amount of Neanderthal-originating polymorphism carried in living humans is related to cranial and brain morphology...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739517/novel-use-of-the-leksell-gamma-frame-for-stereotactic-biopsy-of-posterior-fossa-lesions-technical-note
#13
Shiro Horisawa, Hiroshi Nakano, Takakzu Kawamata, Takaomi Taira
BACKGROUND: Stereotactic transcerebellar biopsies of brainstem tumors have often been reported. The Leksell frame or Cosman-Roberts-Wells frame is often used in transcerebellar approaches. However, to access lesions via the cerebellum, these frames should be secured as inferiorly on the cranium as possible, which can require exaggerated neck flexion and limit the flexible trajectory to the target. To overcome these disadvantages, we have devised a new way to use the Leksell frame for transcerebellar approaches...
July 21, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736924/evaluation-of-spiral-acquisition-variants-for-functional-imaging-of-human-superior-colliculus-at-3t-field-strength
#14
Vimal Singh, Josef Pfeuffer, Tiejun Zhao, David Ress
PURPOSE: High-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging of human subcortical brain structures is challenging because of their deep location in the cranium, and their comparatively weak blood oxygen level dependent responses to strong stimuli. Magnetic resonance imaging data for subcortical brain regions exhibit both low signal-to-noise ratio and low functional contrast-to-noise ratio. To overcome these challenges, this work evaluates the use of dual-echo spiral variants that combine outward and inward trajectories...
July 24, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725032/remora-cranial-vein-morphology-and-its-functional-implications-for-attachment
#15
Brooke E Flammang
Remora fishes adhere to, and maintain long-term, reversible attachment with, surfaces of varying roughness and compliance under wetted high-shear conditions using an adhesive disc that evolved from the dorsal fin spines typical of other fishes. Evolution of this complex hierarchical structure required extensive reorganization of the skull and fin spines, but the functional role of the soft tissues of the disc are poorly understood. Here I show that remora cranial veins are highly-modified in comparison to those of other vertebrates; they are transposed anteriorly and enlarged, and lie directly ventral to the disc on the dorsum of the cranium...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713731/magnetic-field-effects-on-bone-repair-after-calcium-phosphate-cement-implants-histometric-and-biochemistry-evaluation
#16
Thiago Calcagnotto, Marcos Miguel Bechstedt Schwengber, Carlos Cesar De Antoni, Danilo Louzada de Oliveira, Théssio Mina Vago, Jessica Guilinelli
OBJECTIVE: This work evaluated histologic and biochemically the effect of magnetic field buried in bone repair after autogenous bone graft and calcium phosphate cement implants. METHODOLOGY: Bone defects with 5,0 mm of diameter in the cranium of Wistar mice were used to analyse. These mice were submitted to different interventions: autogenous bone graft and calcium phosphate cement implants, both with and without magnetic stimulation. Longitudinal and transversal histometric and biochemistry analysis were made in times of 15, 30 and 60 post-operative days...
January 2017: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713610/study-of-sexual-dimorphism-of-malaysian-crania-an-important-step-in-identification-of-the-skeletal-remains
#17
Abdelnasser Ibrahim, Aspalilah Alias, Faridah Mohd Nor, Mohamed Swarhib, Siti Noorain Abu Bakar, Srijit Das
Sex determination is one of the main steps in the identification of human skeletal remains. It constitutes an initial step in personal identification from the skeletal remains. The aim of the present study was to provide the population-specific sex discriminating osteometric standards to aid human identification. The present study was conducted on 87 (174 sides) slices of crania using postmortem computed tomography in 45 males and 42 females, aged between 18 and 75 years. About 22 parameters of crania were measured using Osirix software 3-D Volume Rendering...
June 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691717/interaction-between-urethane-and-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-agonist-and-antagonist-in-penicillin-induced-epileptiform-activity
#18
Gokhan Arslan, Sabiha Kubra Alici, Mustafa Ayyildiz, Erdal Agar
Previous experimental studies have shown that various anesthetics alter the effects of cannabinoid agonists and antagonists on the cardiac response to different stimuli. Since no data have shown an interaction between urethane and cannabinoid signaling in epilepsy, we examined the suitability of urethane with regard to testing the effects of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist and an antagonist on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Permanent screw electrodes for electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings, and a permanent cannula for administration of the substances to the brain ventricles, were placed into the cranium of rats...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688459/new-cranium-of-the-large-cercopithecid-primate-theropithecus-oswaldi-leakeyi-hopwood-1934-from-the-paleoanthropological-site-of-makuyuni-tanzania
#19
Stephen R Frost, Charles Saanane, Britt M Starkovich, Hilde Schwartz, Friedemann Schrenk, Katerina Harvati
The Pleistocene hominin site of Makuyuni, near Lake Manyara, Tanzania, is known for fossils attributable to Homo and Acheulean artifacts (Ring et al., 2005; Kaiser et al., 2010; Frost et al., 2012). Here we describe the fossil primate material from the Manyara Beds, which includes the first nearly complete female cranium of Theropithecus oswaldi leakeyi and a proximal tibia from the same taxon. The cranium is dated to between 633 and 780 Ka and the tibia to the Pleistocene. The T. oswaldi lineage is one of the most important among Neogene mammals of Africa: it is both widespread and abundant...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688457/u-series-dating-and-classification-of-the-apidima-2-hominin-from-mani-peninsula-southern-greece
#20
Antonis Bartsiokas, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Maxime Aubert, Rainer Grün
Laser ablation U-series dating results on a human cranial bone fragment from Apidima, on the western cost of the Mani Peninsula, Southern Greece, indicate a minimum age of 160,000 years. The dated cranial fragment belongs to Apidima 2, which preserves the facial skeleton and a large part of the braincase, lacking the occipital bone. The morphology of the preserved regions of the cranium, and especially that of the facial skeleton, indicates that the fossil belongs to the Neanderthal clade. The dating of the fossil at a minimum age of 160,000 years shows that most of the Neanderthal traits were already present in the MIS 6 and perhaps earlier...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
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