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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472865/intracranial-pressure-is-a-determinant-of-sympathetic-activity
#1
Eric A Schmidt, Fabien Despas, Anne Pavy-Le Traon, Zofia Czosnyka, John D Pickard, Kamal Rahmouni, Atul Pathak, Jean M Senard
Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure within the cranium . ICP rise compresses brain vessels and reduces cerebral blood delivery. Massive ICP rise leads to cerebral ischemia, but it is also known to produce hypertension, bradycardia and respiratory irregularities due to a sympatho-adrenal mechanism termed Cushing response. One still unresolved question is whether the Cushing response is a non-synaptic acute brainstem ischemic mechanism or part of a larger physiological reflex for arterial blood pressure control and homeostasis regulation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468087/development-of-hypobranchial-muscles-with-special-reference-to-the-evolution-of-the-vertebrate-neck
#2
Noritaka Adachi, Juan Pascual-Anaya, Tamami Hirai, Shinnosuke Higuchi, Shigeru Kuratani
Background: The extant vertebrates include cyclostomes (lamprey and hagfish) and crown gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), but there are various anatomical disparities between these two groups. Conspicuous in the gnathostomes is the neck, which occupies the interfacial domain between the head and trunk, including the occipital part of the cranium, the shoulder girdle, and the cucullaris and hypobranchial muscles (HBMs). Of these, HBMs originate from occipital somites to form the ventral pharyngeal and neck musculature in gnathostomes...
2018: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455344/lower-third-molar-displaced-to-lateral-pharyngeal-space-after-mandibular-angle-fracture-a-case-report
#3
Rodrigo Dos Santos Pereira, Jonathan Ribeiro da Silva, João Paulo Bonardi, Eduardo Hochuli-Vieira
The removal of displaced dental elements from deep anatomical spaces is a condition that requires the knowledge of the region and skills to perform the procedure. The lateral pharyngeal space contains important structures such as the internal carotid artery and close proximity with the cranium basis. The aim of this paper is to report a clinical case of a lower third molar displaced to the lateral pharyngeal space after a mandibular angle fracture and its treatment by surgical intervention. The tooth was removed under general anesthesia by direct approach and the fracture was reduced and fixed with a plate and screws...
February 18, 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447756/the-biomechanical-significance-of-the-frontal-sinus-in-kabwe-1-homo-heidelbergensis
#4
Ricardo Miguel Godinho, Paul O'Higgins
Paranasal sinuses are highly variable among living and fossil hominins and their function(s) are poorly understood. It has been argued they serve no particular function and are biological 'spandrels' arising as a structural consequence of changes in associated bones and/or soft tissue structures. In contrast, others have suggested that sinuses have one or more functions, in olfaction, respiration, thermoregulation, nitric oxide production, voice resonance, reduction of skull weight, and craniofacial biomechanics...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446075/surface-smoothing-decimation-and-their-effects-on-3d-biological-specimens
#5
Alessio Veneziano, Federica Landi, Antonio Profico
OBJECTIVE: Smoothing and decimation filters are commonly used to restore the realistic appearance of virtual biological specimens, but they can cause a loss of topological information of unknown extent. In this study, we analyzed the effect of smoothing and decimation on a 3D mesh to highlight the consequences of an inappropriate use of these filters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Topological noise was simulated on four anatomical regions of the virtual reconstruction of an orangutan cranium...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437517/the-temporal-region-in-unilateral-coronal-craniosynostosis-fronto-orbital-advancement-versus-endoscopy-assisted-strip-craniectomy
#6
Benjamin Masserano, Albert S Woo, Gary B Skolnick, Sybill D Naidoo, Mark R Proctor, Matthew D Smyth, Kamlesh B Patel
OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative temporal expansion in patients treated with fronto-orbital advancement or endoscopy-assisted craniectomy with cranial orthotic therapy. DESIGN: This is a retrospective, multicenter cohort study of patients with unilateral coronal craniosynostosis (UCS). SETTING: Computed tomographic (CT) scans were drawn from UCS patients treated at Boston Children's Hospital or St Louis Children's Hospital. PATIENTS: The study included 56 patients with UCS after fronto-orbital advancement (n = 32) or endoscopic repair (n = 24) and 10 age-matched controls...
March 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405184/-forensic-medical-determination-of-the-age-based-on-the-analysis-of-ct-scanograms-of-the-skull-and-the-craniovertebral-region-in-the-sagittal-projection
#7
A V Kovalev, M D Ametrin, G V Zolotenkova, A N Gerasimov, D V Gornostaev, M P Poletaeva
The objective of the present study was to determine the biological age of the unrecognized individuals based on the analysis of CT-scanograms of the skull and the craniovertebral region in the sagittal projection. We investigated the structure of the spongy substance of the clinoid plate of the sella turcica and the clivus of the cranium, involution of the vertebrae configuration in the medial atlantoaxial articulation, frontal and sphenoidal sinuses. A total of 80 skulls of Caucasoid individuals at the age ranging from 4 to 84 years belonging to an Eastern Slavonic population (free from the pathological lesions in the above cranial structures) were available for the examination...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393809/comparison-of-hydrocephalus-metrics-between-infants-successfully-treated-with-endoscopic-third-ventriculostomy-with-choroid-plexus-cauterization-and-those-treated-with-a-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-a-multicenter-matched-cohort-analysis
#8
Michael C Dewan, Jaims Lim, Stephen R Gannon, David Heaner, Matthew C Davis, Brandy Vaughn, Joshua J Chern, Brandon G Rocque, Paul Klimo, John C Wellons, Robert P Naftel
OBJECTIVE It has been suggested that the treatment of infant hydrocephalus results in different craniometric changes depending upon whether ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) placement or endoscopic third ventriculostomy with choroid plexus cauterization (ETV/CPC) is performed. Without an objective and quantitative description of expected changes to the infant cranium and ventricles following ETV/CPC, asserting successful treatment of hydrocephalus is difficult. By comparing infants successfully treated via ETV/CPC or VPS surgery, the authors of this study aimed to define the expected postoperative cranial and ventricular alterations at the time of clinical follow-up...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391921/intracranial-migration-of-hardware-16-years-following-craniosynostosis-repair
#9
Haripriya S Ayyala, Ian C Hoppe, Allison M Rathmann, Frank S Ciminello
Introduction: The techniques used to fixate osteotomized segments of bone have evolved alongside the treatment of craniosynostosis. The use of nonresorbable metal plates and screws offered a method of rigidly stabilizing repositioned segments of bone. Several reports specify the tendency for these fixation systems to "migrate" transcranially. Methods: We present a unique case of a patient who initially underwent treatment of multisuture craniosynostosis utilizing titanium miniplates at 6 months of age. At 16 years of age, the patient was returned to the operating room with complaints of pain and contour irregularities, and intracranial migration of the screws and plates was observed...
2018: Eplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380124/investigating-the-sex-related-geometric-variation-of-the-human-cranium
#10
Andreas Bertsatos, Christina Papageorgopoulou, Efstratios Valakos, Maria-Eleni Chovalopoulou
Accurate sexing methods are of great importance in forensic anthropology since sex assessment is among the principal tasks when examining human skeletal remains. The present study explores a novel approach in assessing the most accurate metric traits of the human cranium for sex estimation based on 80 ectocranial landmarks from 176 modern individuals of known age and sex from the Athens Collection. The purpose of the study is to identify those distance and angle measurements that can be most effectively used in sex assessment...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367288/how-cells-fold-the-cerebral-cortex
#11
Víctor Borrell
Folding of the cerebral cortex is as highly intriguing as poorly understood. At first sight, this may appear as simple tissue crumpling inside an excessively small cranium, but the process is clearly much more complex and developmentally predetermined. Whereas theoretical modeling supports a critical role for biomechanics, experimental evidence demonstrates the fundamental role of specific progenitor cell types, cellular processes, and genetic programs on cortical folding.Dual Perspectives Companion Paper: How Forces Fold the Cerebral Cortex, by Christopher D...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354734/use-of-3d-printer-model-to-study-vertebral-artery-anatomy-and-variations-in-developmental-craniovertebral-junction-anomalies-and-as-a-preoperative-tool-an-institutional-experience
#12
Sachin Chhabra, Sanjeev Chopra, Rashim Kataria, Virendra Deo Sinha
Background: Spinal instrumentation using rods and screws have become procedure of choice for posterior fixation. Vertebral artery anatomy is highly variable in this region posing challenges during surgery. Our study used 3D printer model to understand the anatomy and variations in vertebral artery in live patients thereby providing an accurate idea about vertebral artery injury risk in these patients preoperatively and to rehearse the whole procedure. Methods: Ten patients of developmental craniovertebral junction (CVJ) anomalies who were planned for operative intervention in the Department of Neurosurgery at SMS Hospital from February 2016 to December 2016 were analysed using a 3D printer model...
December 2017: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354303/the-presence-of-sharp-edged-weapon-related-cut-mark-in-joseon-skull-discovered-at-the-16th-century-market-district-of-old-seoul-city-ruins-in-south-korea
#13
Hyejin Lee, Chang Seok Oh, Jong Ha Hong, Jeongsoo Kim, Leehyeon Han, Jung Min Park, Dong Hoon Shin
A human skull was discovered at the 16th-century drainage channel of market district ruins, one of the busiest streets in the capital of Joseon kingdom. By anthropological examination, we noticed the cut mark at the right occipital part of the cranium. Judging from the wound property, it might have been caused by a strong strike using a sharp-edged weapon. As no periosteal reaction or healing signs were observed at the cut mark, he might have died shortly after the skull wound was made. We speculated that this might have been of a civilian or soldier victim who died in a battle or the decapitated head of prisoner...
December 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346436/bone-marrow-concentrate-promotes-bone-regeneration-with-a-suboptimal-dose-of-rhbmp-2
#14
Kazuhiro Egashira, Yoshinori Sumita, Weijian Zhong, Takashi I, Seigo Ohba, Kazuhiro Nagai, Izumi Asahina
Bone marrow concentrate (BMC), which is enriched in mononuclear cells (MNCs) and platelets, has recently attracted the attention of clinicians as a new optional means for bone engineering. We previously reported that the osteoinductive effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) could be enhanced synergistically by co-transplantation of peripheral blood (PB)-derived platelet-rich plasma (PRP). This study aims to investigate whether BMC can effectively promote bone formation induced by low-dose BMP-2, thereby reducing the undesirable side-effects of BMP-2, compared to PRP...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345006/embryology-of-the-craniocervical-junction-and-posterior-cranial-fossa-part-i-development-of-the-upper-vertebrae-and-skull
#15
Mohammadali M Shoja, Rebecca Ramdhan, Chad J Jensen, Joshua Chern, W Jerry Oakes, R Shane Tubbs
Although the embryology of the posterior cranial fossa can have life altering effects on a patient, a comprehensive review on this topic is difficult to find in the peer-reviewed medical literature. Therefore, this review paper, using standard search engines, seemed timely. The embryology of the posterior cranial fossa is complex and relies on a unique timing of various neurovascular and bony elements. Derailment of these developmental processes can lead to a wide range of malformations such as the Chiari malformations...
January 18, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344708/treatment-of-combined-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock-with-fractionated-blood-products-versus-fresh-whole-blood-in-a-rat-model
#16
Akiva Leibowitz, Evgeni Brotfain, Leonid Koyfman, Moti Klein, Shmuel Hess, Alexander Zlotnik, Matthew Boyko
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of combined traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock, poses a particular challenge due to the possible conflicting consequences. While restoring diminished volume is the treatment goal for hypovolemia, maintaining adequate cerebral perfusion pressure and avoidance of secondary damage remains a treatment goal for the injured brain. Various treatment modalities have been proposed, but the optimal resuscitation fluid and goals have not yet been clearly defined...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343209/mild-blast-injury-produces-acute-changes-in-basal-intracellular-calcium-levels-and-activity-patterns-in-mouse-hippocampal-neurons
#17
Kyle R Hansen, Gloria J DeWalt, Ali I Mohammed, Hua-An Tseng, Moona E Abdulkerim, Seth Bensussen, Venkatesh Saligrama, Bobak Nazer, William D Eldred, Xue Han
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) represents a serious public health concern. While much is understood about long term changes in cell signaling and anatomical pathologies associated with mTBI, little is known about acute changes in neuronal function. Using large scale Ca2+ imaging in vivo, we characterized the intracellular Ca2+ dynamics in thousands of individual hippocampal neurons using a repetitive mild blast injury model where blasts were directed onto the cranium of unanesthetized mice on two consecutive days...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340238/a-revised-cranial-description-of-massospondylus-carinatus-owen-dinosauria-sauropodomorpha-based-on-computed-tomographic-scans-and-a-review-of-cranial-characters-for-basal-sauropodomorpha
#18
Kimberley E J Chapelle, Jonah N Choiniere
Massospondylus carinatus is a basal sauropodomorph dinosaur from the early Jurassic Elliot Formation of South Africa. It is one of the best-represented fossil dinosaur taxa, known from hundreds of specimens including at least 13 complete or nearly complete skulls. Surprisingly, the internal cranial anatomy of M. carinatus has never been described using computed tomography (CT) methods. Using CT scans and 3D digital representations, we digitally reconstruct the bones of the facial skeleton, braincase, and palate of a complete, undistorted cranium of M...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330958/do-muscles-constrain-skull-shape-evolution-in-strepsirrhines
#19
Anne-Claire Fabre, Jonathan M G Perry, Adam Hartstone-Rose, AuróLien Lowie, Andy Boens, MaÏtena Dumont
Despite great interest and decades of research, the musculoskeletal relationships of the masticatory system in primates are still not fully understood. However, without a clear understanding of the interplay between muscles and bones it remains difficult to understand the functional significance of morphological traits of the skeleton. Here, we aim to study the impacts of the masticatory muscles on the shape of the cranium and the mandible as well as their co-variation in strepsirrhine primates. To do so, we use 3D geometric morphometric approaches to assess the shape of each bone of the skull of 20 species for which muscle data are available in the literature...
February 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322159/interpersonal-violence-among-the-chalcolithic-and-bronze-ages-inhabitants-living-on-the-central-plateau-of-iran-a-voice-from-tepe-hissar
#20
Zahra Afshar, Charlotte Roberts, Andrew Millard
The site of Tepe Hissar (Iran) experienced widespread cultural and economic changes during the Chalcolithic and Bronze Ages (5th to the 2nd millennium B.C.). The discovery of evidence of burning, including charred human remains, the destruction of buildings (Periods II and III), and the presence of several mass-burials with comingling of human skeletal remains consisting of ten or more individuals (Period III), suggests interpersonal violence during these periods. The original excavator of Tepe Hissar, Erich Schmidt, suggested that phenomena such as war, massacres, epidemics, or similar catastrophes, may have been responsible for the excavated archaeological evidence...
January 10, 2018: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
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