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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725032/remora-cranial-vein-morphology-and-its-functional-implications-for-attachment
#1
Brooke E Flammang
Remora fishes adhere to, and maintain long-term, reversible attachment with, surfaces of varying roughness and compliance under wetted high-shear conditions using an adhesive disc that evolved from the dorsal fin spines typical of other fishes. Evolution of this complex hierarchical structure required extensive reorganization of the skull and fin spines, but the functional role of the soft tissues of the disc are poorly understood. Here I show that remora cranial veins are highly-modified in comparison to those of other vertebrates; they are transposed anteriorly and enlarged, and lie directly ventral to the disc on the dorsum of the cranium...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713731/magnetic-field-effects-on-bone-repair-after-calcium-phosphate-cement-implants-histometric-and-biochemistry-evaluation
#2
Thiago Calcagnotto, Marcos Miguel Bechstedt Schwengber, Carlos Cesar De Antoni, Danilo Louzada de Oliveira, Théssio Mina Vago, Jessica Guilinelli
OBJECTIVE: This work evaluated histologic and biochemically the effect of magnetic field buried in bone repair after autogenous bone graft and calcium phosphate cement implants. METHODOLOGY: Bone defects with 5,0 mm of diameter in the cranium of Wistar mice were used to analyse. These mice were submitted to different interventions: autogenous bone graft and calcium phosphate cement implants, both with and without magnetic stimulation. Longitudinal and transversal histometric and biochemistry analysis were made in times of 15, 30 and 60 post-operative days...
January 2017: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713610/study-of-sexual-dimorphism-of-malaysian-crania-an-important-step-in-identification-of-the-skeletal-remains
#3
Abdelnasser Ibrahim, Aspalilah Alias, Faridah Mohd Nor, Mohamed Swarhib, Siti Noorain Abu Bakar, Srijit Das
Sex determination is one of the main steps in the identification of human skeletal remains. It constitutes an initial step in personal identification from the skeletal remains. The aim of the present study was to provide the population-specific sex discriminating osteometric standards to aid human identification. The present study was conducted on 87 (174 sides) slices of crania using postmortem computed tomography in 45 males and 42 females, aged between 18 and 75 years. About 22 parameters of crania were measured using Osirix software 3-D Volume Rendering...
June 2017: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691717/interaction-between-urethane-and-cannabinoid-cb1-receptor-agonist-and-antagonist-in-penicillin-induced-epileptiform-activity
#4
Gokhan Arslan, Sabiha Kubra Alici, Mustafa Ayyildiz, Erdal Agar
Previous experimental studies have shown that various anesthetics alter the effects of cannabinoid agonists and antagonists on the cardiac response to different stimuli. Since no data have shown an interaction between urethane and cannabinoid signaling in epilepsy, we examined the suitability of urethane with regard to testing the effects of a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist and an antagonist on penicillin-induced epileptiform activity in rats. Permanent screw electrodes for electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings, and a permanent cannula for administration of the substances to the brain ventricles, were placed into the cranium of rats...
2017: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688459/new-cranium-of-the-large-cercopithecid-primate-theropithecus-oswaldi-leakeyi-hopwood-1934-from-the-paleoanthropological-site-of-makuyuni-tanzania
#5
Stephen R Frost, Charles Saanane, Britt M Starkovich, Hilde Schwartz, Friedemann Schrenk, Katerina Harvati
The Pleistocene hominin site of Makuyuni, near Lake Manyara, Tanzania, is known for fossils attributable to Homo and Acheulean artifacts (Ring et al., 2005; Kaiser et al., 2010; Frost et al., 2012). Here we describe the fossil primate material from the Manyara Beds, which includes the first nearly complete female cranium of Theropithecus oswaldi leakeyi and a proximal tibia from the same taxon. The cranium is dated to between 633 and 780 Ka and the tibia to the Pleistocene. The T. oswaldi lineage is one of the most important among Neogene mammals of Africa: it is both widespread and abundant...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688457/u-series-dating-and-classification-of-the-apidima-2-hominin-from-mani-peninsula-southern-greece
#6
Antonis Bartsiokas, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Maxime Aubert, Rainer Grün
Laser ablation U-series dating results on a human cranial bone fragment from Apidima, on the western cost of the Mani Peninsula, Southern Greece, indicate a minimum age of 160,000 years. The dated cranial fragment belongs to Apidima 2, which preserves the facial skeleton and a large part of the braincase, lacking the occipital bone. The morphology of the preserved regions of the cranium, and especially that of the facial skeleton, indicates that the fossil belongs to the Neanderthal clade. The dating of the fossil at a minimum age of 160,000 years shows that most of the Neanderthal traits were already present in the MIS 6 and perhaps earlier...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686718/morphological-variation-phylogenetic-relationships-and-geographic-distribution-of-the-baenidae-testudines-based-on-new-specimens-from-the-uinta-formation-uinta-basin-utah-usa
#7
Heather F Smith, J Howard Hutchison, K E Beth Townsend, Brent Adrian, Daniel Jager
We described newly discovered baenid specimens from the Uintan North American Land Mammal Age (NALMA), in the Uinta Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah. These specimens include a partial skull and several previously undescribed postcranial elements of Baena arenosa, and numerous well-preserved shells of B. arenosa and Chisternon undatum. Baenids from the Uintan NALMA (46.5-40 Ma) are critical in that they provide valuable insight into the morphology and evolution of the diverse and speciose baenid family near the end of its extensive radiation, just prior to the disappearance of this clade from the fossil record...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685813/the-evolution-of-phenotypic-integration-how-directional-selection-reshapes-covariation-in-mice
#8
Anna Penna, Diogo Melo, Sandra Bernardi, Maria Inés Oyarzabal, Gabriel Marroig
Variation is the basis for evolution, and understanding how variation can evolve is a central question in biology. In complex phenotypes, covariation plays an even more important role, as genetic associations between traits can bias and alter evolutionary change. Covariation can be shaped by complex interactions between loci, and this genetic architecture can also change during evolution. In this article, we analyzed mouse lines experimentally selected for changes in size to address the question of how multivariate covariation changes under directional selection, as well as to identify the consequences of these changes to evolution...
July 7, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660104/use-of-bivector-traction-for-stabilization-of-the-head-and-maintenance-of-optimal-cervical-alignment-in-posterior-cervical-fusions
#9
Isaac O Karikari, David B Bumpass, Jeffrey Gum, Patrick Sugrue, Todd M Chapman, Aladine A Elsamadicy, K Daniel Riew
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of consecutive case series. OBJECTIVE: To introduce a novel method of stabilizing the cranium using bivector traction in posterior cervical fusions. METHODS: A retrospective review of 50 consecutive patients undergoing instrumented posterior cervical arthrodesis was performed. All patients had at least 3 levels of subaxial fusion using the bivector traction apparatus. Patients' demographic data was recorded for the following: pre- and postoperative cervical lordosis, pre- and postoperative cervical sagittal vertical alignment (cSVA), and intraoperative complications from pin placements...
May 2017: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656622/a-population-level-atlas-of-mus-musculus-craniofacial-skeleton-and-automated-image-based-shape-analysis
#10
A Murat Maga, Nicholas J Tustison, Brian B Avants
Laboratory mice are staples for evo/devo and genetics studies. Inbred strains provide a uniform genetic background to manipulate and understand gene-environment interactions, while their crosses have been instrumental in studies of genetic architecture, integration and modularity, and mapping of complex biological traits. Recently, there have been multiple large-scale studies of laboratory mice to further our understanding of the developmental basis, evolution, and genetic control of shape variation in the craniofacial skeleton (i...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649268/muscle-development-in-the-shark-scyliorhinus-canicula-implications-for-the-evolution-of-the-gnathostome-head-and-paired-appendage-musculature
#11
Janine M Ziermann, Renata Freitas, Rui Diogo
BACKGROUND: The origin of jawed vertebrates was marked by profound reconfigurations of the skeleton and muscles of the head and by the acquisition of two sets of paired appendages. Extant cartilaginous fish retained numerous plesiomorphic characters of jawed vertebrates, which include several aspects of their musculature. Therefore, myogenic studies on sharks are essential in yielding clues on the developmental processes involved in the origin of the muscular anatomy. RESULTS: Here we provide a detailed description of the development of specific muscular units integrating the cephalic and appendicular musculature of the shark model, Scyliorhinus canicula...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647798/a-new-model-for-biofilm-formation-and-inflammatory-tissue-reaction-intraoperative-infection-of-a-cranial-implant-with-staphylococcus-aureus-in-rats
#12
Silke Glage, Silke Paret, Andreas Winkel, Meike Stiesch, André Bleich, Joachim K Krauss, Kerstin Schwabe
BACKGROUND: Implant failure is a severe and frequent adverse event in all areas of neurosurgery. It often involves infection with biofilm formation, accompanied by inflammation of surrounding tissue, including the brain, and bone loss. The most common bacteria involved are Staphylococcus aureus. We here test whether intraoperative infection of intracranial screws with Staphylococcus aureus would lead to biofilm formation and inflammatory tissue reaction in rats. METHODS: Two titanium screws were implanted in the cranium of Sprague-Dawley rats, anesthetized with xylazine (4 mg/kg) and ketamine (75 mg/kg)...
June 25, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642643/tomographic-morphological-study-of-the-cranium-and-its-correlation-with-cranial-halo-use-in-adults
#13
Tiago Ferreira DE Almeida, Homar Toledo Charafeddine, Fernando Flores DE Araújo, Alexandre Fogaça Cristante, Raphael Martus Marcon, Olavo Biraghi Letaif
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate using tomographic study the thickness of the cranial board at the insertions points of the cranial halo pins in adults. METHODS: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive analysis of Computed Tomography (CT) scans of adult patients' crania. The study included adults between 20 and 50 years without cranial abnormalities. We excluded any exam with cranial abnormalities. RESULTS: We analyzed 50 CT scans, including 27 men and 23 women, at the original insertion points and alternative points (1 and 2 cm above the frontal and parietal bones)...
January 2017: Acta Ortopedica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620006/cancer-surveillance-in-gorlin-syndrome-and-rhabdoid-tumor-predisposition-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
William D Foulkes, Junne Kamihara, D Gareth R Evans, Laurence Brugières, Franck Bourdeaut, Jan J Molenaar, Michael F Walsh, Garrett M Brodeur, Lisa Diller
Gorlin syndrome and rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome (RTPS) are autosomal dominant syndromes associated with an increased risk of childhood-onset brain tumors. Individuals with Gorlin syndrome can manifest a wide range of phenotypic abnormalities, with about 5% of family members developing medulloblastoma, usually occurring in the first 3 years of life. Gorlin syndrome is associated with germline mutations in components of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway, including Patched1 (PTCH1) and Suppressor of fused (SUFU)SUFU mutation carriers appear to have an especially high risk of early-onset medulloblastoma...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615110/an-accident-at-work-traumatic-lesions-in-the-skeleton-of-a-4th-millennium-bce-wagon-driver-from-sharakhalsun-russia
#15
K Tucker, N Berezina, S Reinhold, A Kalmykov, A Belinskiy, J Gresky
The study of ante-mortem trauma is a popular and important aspect of palaeopathological analysis. The majority of publications focus on a particular assemblage, skeletal element or type of fracture, with case studies of single individuals with multiple/unusual traumata being much rarer in the literature. This paper presents the case of an adult male from the Bronze Age site of Sharakhalsun, Russia, buried, uniquely, in a sitting position on a fully assembled wagon, who displayed evidence for multiple healed ante-mortem fractures of the cranium, axial and appendicular skeleton...
June 1, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585065/the-right-vertebral-artery-originating-from-the-right-occipital-artery-and-the-absence-of-the-transverse-foramen-a-rare-anatomical-variation
#16
Zülal Öner, Serkan Öner, Ayşegül Sağır Kahraman
Variations in the origin of the vertebral artery (VA) is a congenital anomaly that occurs during embryological development. Multiple variations related to VA origin have been reported in the literature. Abnormal VA origin is usually determined as incidental findings during angiographic or postmortem anatomical studies. Although most of the cases are asymptomatic, in patients with VA anomaly symptoms such as dizziness have been described. The anomalous variation in the origin of the right VA is rare and separated into three categories: (1) originating from the aorta, (2) originating from the carotid arteries, (3) duplicated origin...
June 5, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577333/mri-based-assessment-of-acute-effect-of-head-down-tilt-position-on-intracranial-hemodynamics-and-hydrodynamics
#17
Shota Ishida, Tosiaki Miyati, Naoki Ohno, Shinnosuke Hiratsuka, Noam Alperin, Mitsuhito Mase, Toshifumi Gabata
PURPOSE: To quantify the acute effect of the head-down tilt (HDT) posture on intracranial hemodynamics and hydrodynamics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the intracranial physiological parameters, blood flow-related parameters, and brain morphology in the HDT (-6° and -12°) and the horizontal supine (HS) positions. Seven and 15 healthy subjects were scanned for each position using 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging system. The peak-to-peak intracranial volume change, the peak-to-peak cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure gradient (PGp-p ), and the intracranial compliance index were calculated from the blood and CSF flow determined using a cine phase-contrast technique...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576559/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-melatonin-on-the-hippocampus-exposed-to-diclofenac-sodium-during-the-prenatal-period
#18
Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Süleyman Kaplan, Elfide Gizem Kıvrak
Melatonin (Mel) has strong antioxidant properties since it is a direct scavenger of oxygen-based free radicals and related species. The main aim of this study is to show whether the effects of Mel can prevent the potential adverse effects of diclofenac sodium (DS), used as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) during the prenatal period, on the newborn experimental rat brain tissues using stereological methods Twenty-four male 12-week old Wistar albino rats were used. The study involved four groups (each containing six rats), those exposed, during the prenatal period, to saline 1ml/kg (Saline group), to diclofenac sodium 3...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565782/hybrid-composites-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-sheets-hydroxyapatite-and-platelet-rich-fibrin-granules-for-bone-regeneration-in-a-rabbit-calvarial-critical-size-defect-model
#19
Xi Wang, Guanghui Li, Jia Guo, Lei Yang, Yiming Liu, Qiang Sun, Rui Li, Weiwei Yu
The reconstruction of large bone defects remains a major clinical challenge, and tissue engineering is a promising technique for resolving this problem. Many attempts have been made to optimize bone tissue engineering protocols. The aim of the present study was to develop a process incorporating mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets with nanoscale hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) and autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) granules for enhanced bone formation within a critical-sized rabbit cranial defect. MSC sheets and PRF were prepared prior to in vivo experiments...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562736/bariatric-surgery-as-a-treatment-for-pseudotumor-cerebri-case-study-and-narrative-review-of-the-literature
#20
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, Felipe David Mendonça Chaim, Fábio Henrique Mendonça Chaim, Elaine Cristina Cândido, Luciana Bueno da Silveira Jarolavsky, Ana Maria Neder de Almeida, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim
CONTEXT: Pseudotumor cerebri occurs when there is an increase in intracranial pressure without an underlying cause, usually leading to loss of vision. It is most commonly observed in obese women of child-bearing age. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old woman presented at our service with idiopathic intracranial hypertension that had been diagnosed two years earlier, which had led to chronic refractory headache and an estimated 30% loss of visual acuity, associated with bilateral papilledema...
May 29, 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
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