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appearance is a function of face

Arnaud Leleu, Milena Dzhelyova, Bruno Rossion, Renaud Brochard, Karine Durand, Benoist Schaal, Jean-Yves Baudouin
Efficient decoding of even brief and slight intensity facial expression changes is important for social interactions. However, robust evidence for the human brain ability to automatically detect brief and subtle changes of facial expression remains limited. Here we built on a recently developed paradigm in human electrophysiology with full-blown expressions (Dzhelyova et al., 2017), to isolate and quantify a neural marker for the detection of brief and subtle changes of facial expression. Scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 18 participants during stimulation of a neutral face changing randomly in size at a rapid rate of 6 Hz...
June 16, 2018: NeuroImage
A Ritchie, J M Kramer
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a debilitating condition that has a striking female predilection. Although the oral mucosa is normal in appearance, patients with BMS experience oral burning that most commonly localizes to the lips and tongue. BMS is a diagnosis of exclusion, and all underlying pathoses associated with allodynia must be ruled out prior to rendering the diagnosis. The etiopathogenesis of BMS remains poorly understood, and thus patient management is challenging. Data indicate that oral and systemic factors both contribute to the development and persistence of the condition...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Hayoung Song, Xiangshu Dong, Hankuil Yi, Ju Young Ahn, Keunho Yun, Myungchul Song, Ching-Tack Han, Yoonkang Hur
For sustainable crop cultivation in the face of global warming, it is important to unravel the genetic mechanisms underlying plant adaptation to a warming climate and apply this information to breeding. Thermomorphogenesis and ambient temperature signaling pathways have been well studied in model plants, but little information is available for vegetable crops. Here, we investigated genes responsive to warming conditions from two Brassica rapa inbred lines with different geographic origins: subtropical (Kenshin) and temperate (Chiifu)...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Victoria Pile, Sally Robinson, Marta Topor, Tammy Hedderly, Jennifer Y F Lau
Many individuals with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders (TS/CTDs) report poor social functioning and comorbid social anxiety. Yet limited research has investigated the role of cognitive factors that highlight social threats in youth with TS/CTD, and whether these biases underlie tic severity and co-occurring social anxiety. This study examined whether selective attention to social threat is enhanced young people with TS/CTDs compared to healthy controls, and whether attention biases are associated with tic severity and social anxiety...
June 7, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Vasily Kerov, Joseph G Laird, Mei-Ling Joiner, Sharmon Knecht, Daniel Soh, Jussara Hagen, Sarah H Gardner, Wade Gutierrez, Takeshi Yoshimatsu, Sajag Bhattarai, Teresa Puthussery, Nikolai O Artemyev, Arlene V Drack, Rachel O Wong, Sheila A Baker, Amy Lee
α2 δ-4 is an auxiliary subunit of voltage-gated Cav 1.4 L-type channels that regulate the development and mature exocytotic function of the photoreceptor ribbon synapse. In humans, mutations in the CACNA2D4 gene encoding α2 δ-4 cause heterogeneous forms of vision impairment in humans, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of which remain unclear. To investigate the retinal function of α2 δ-4, we used genome editing to generate an α2 δ-4 knock-out (α2 δ-4 KO) mouse. In male and female α2 δ-4 KO mice, rod spherules lack ribbons and other synaptic hallmarks early in development...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Igor J Chybicki, Andrzej Oleksa
Background and Aims: Dispersal is crucial due to its direct impact on dynamics of a species' distribution as well as having a role in shaping adaptive potential through gene flow. In plants forming scarce and small populations, knowledge about the dispersal process is required to assess the potential for colonizing new habitats and connectivity of present and future populations. This study aimed to assess dispersal potential in Taxus baccata, a dioecious gymnosperm tree with a wide but highly fragmented distribution...
June 4, 2018: Annals of Botany
Hugo Botha, Rene L Utianski, Jennifer L Whitwell, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Mary M Machulda, Nirubol Tosakulwong, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Keith A Josephs, David T Jones
Apraxia of speech is a motor speech disorder thought to result from impaired planning or programming of articulatory movements. It can be the initial or only manifestation of a degenerative disease, termed primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS). The aim of this study was to use task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess large-scale brain network pathophysiology in PPAOS. Twenty-two PPAOS participants were identified from a prospective cohort of degenerative speech and language disorders patients...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Yoritaka Akimoto, Ryuichi Yamazaki, Motoaki Sugiura, Rui Nouchi, Chiaki Terao, Takashi Tsukiura, Ryuta Kawashima
Intelligence is among the key determinants of power and social status in modern societies. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we examined the neural correlates of intelligence evaluation from faces. Participants underwent scans while they evaluated the perceived intelligence and friendliness of faces. We found that medial orbitofrontal cortex activity increased linearly with friendliness ratings. The relationship between perceived intelligence and brain activity was positively linear in the right caudate nucleus, and U-shaped (i...
May 28, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ji H Son, Danielle C Marshall, Manish Valiathan, Todd Otteson, Gerald Ferretti, Paula A Grigorian, Carol Rosen, Devra Becker, David Rowe, Hooman Soltanian, Gregory Lakin
BACKGROUND: Cherubism is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by excessive bilateral maxillomandibular bony degeneration and fibrous tissue hyperplasia. Conservative management is the preferred treatment as cherubism has a self-limiting course. Functional or emotional disturbances may, however, demand surgical intervention. We report a patient who underwent surgical intervention. Method/Description: He had significant enlargement of lower cheeks and bilateral lower lid scleral show...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Louise Meijering, Nicky Theunissen, Ant T Lettinga
Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) is one of the most common causes of disability and death in adults worldwide. After a period of rehabilitation, many ABI survivors still face complex mind/body conditions when they try to take up their former life again. Besides lasting visible impairments such as weakness and loss of body balance, there are often less obvious disabilities such as extreme fatigue, hypersensitivity for stimuli, memory, concentration and attention problems or personality changes. The aim of this paper is to understand how ABI survivors and their significant others renegotiate their engagements with everyday places, using the concepts of bio-geo-graphical disruption and flow...
May 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Fritz Nübling, Dan Yang, Peter Muller-Buschbaum, Martin Brinkmann, Michael Sommer
A detailed investigation of in-situ synthesized all-conjugated block copolymer (BCP) compatibilized ternary blends containing poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly{[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dibcarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene)} (PNDIT2) as donor and acceptor polymers, respectively, is presented. Both polymers are incompatible and show strong segregation in blends, which renders compatibilization with their corresponding BCPs promising to enable nanometer-phase separated structures suitable for excitonic devices...
May 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Paul G M Knoops, Alessandro Borghi, Federica Ruggiero, Giovanni Badiali, Alberto Bianchi, Claudio Marchetti, Naiara Rodriguez-Florez, Richard W F Breakey, Owase Jeelani, David J Dunaway, Silvia Schievano
Repositioning of the maxilla in orthognathic surgery is carried out for functional and aesthetic purposes. Pre-surgical planning tools can predict 3D facial appearance by computing the response of the soft tissue to the changes to the underlying skeleton. The clinical use of commercial prediction software remains controversial, likely due to the deterministic nature of these computational predictions. A novel probabilistic finite element model (FEM) for the prediction of postoperative facial soft tissues is proposed in this paper...
2018: PloS One
Ayline Maier, Dirk Scheele, Franny B Spengler, Tugba Menba, Franziska Mohr, Onur Güntürkün, Birgit Stoffel-Wagner, Thomas M Kinfe, Wolfgang Maier, Sahib S Khalsa, René Hurlemann
Social transmission of fear is not restricted to visual or auditory cues, but extends to the phylogenetically more ancient olfactory domain. Anxious individuals exhibit heightened sensitivity towards chemosensory stress signals in sweat; however, it is still unknown whether endogenous neuromodulators such as the peptide hormone oxytocin (OXT) influence the chemosensory communication of stress. Here, we investigated whether OXT selectively diminishes behavioral and neural responses to social chemosensory stress cues utilizing a randomized, double-blind, placebo (PLC)-controlled, within-subject functional MRI study design...
April 12, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Tania Gudu, Laure Gossec
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a multi-organ chronic inflammatory disease which impacts patients both physically and psychologically. The highest priority for patients goes to pain relief, but also to ability to function and participate in social life, fatigue, and psychological distress. Areas covered: In the present article, we will review current knowledge on impairments of health-related quality of life related to PsA, as well as patient priorities and patient-reported outcome measures such as the PsA Impact of Disease or the PsA Quality of Life questionnaires...
May 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "The impact of uncertain threat on affective bias: Individual differences in response to ambiguity" by Maital Neta, Julie Cantelon, Zachary Haga, Caroline R. Mahoney, Holly A. Taylor and F. Caroline Davis ( Emotion , 2017[Dec], Vol 17[8], 1137-1143). In this article, the copyright attribution was incorrectly listed under the Creative Commons CC-BY license due to production-related error. The correct copyright should be "In the public domain." The online version of this article has been corrected...
April 2018: Emotion
Sara Santarossa, Deborah Kane, Charlene Y Senn, Sarah J Woodruff
The growth of the digital environment provides tremendous opportunities to revolutionize health behavior change efforts. This paper explores the use of Web-based, mobile, and social media health behavior change interventions and determines whether there is a need for a face-to-face or an in-person component. It is further argued that that although in-person components can be beneficial for online interventions, a digital person-to-person component can foster similar results while dealing with challenges faced by traditional intervention approaches...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Alan Boyd, Shilpa Ross, Ruth Robertson, Kieran Walshe, Rachael Smithson
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand how inspection team members work together to conduct surveys of hospitals, the challenges teams may face and how these might be addressed. Design/methodology/approach Data were gathered through an evaluation of a new regulatory model for acute hospitals in England, implemented by the Care Quality Commission (CQC) during 2013-2014. The authors interviewed key stakeholders, observed inspections and surveyed and interviewed inspection team members and hospital staff...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Health Organization and Management
Anna Członkowska, Tomasz Litwin, Karolina Dzieżyc, Michal Karliński, Johan Bring, Carl Bjartmar
BACKGROUND: Wilson disease is a rare genetic disorder in which impaired copper excretion results in toxic copper levels and tissue damage. Manifestations are primarily hepatic and/or neuropsychiatric, with a variety of neurological phenotypes. The aim of this study was to characterize neurological signs of Wilson disease in newly diagnosed patients and to determine whether they correlated with disability, liver function, and copper metabolism. METHODS: Fifty-three treatment-naïve patients recently diagnosed with Wilson disease who exhibited neurological symptoms were included...
April 5, 2018: BMC Neurology
Sara C Verosky, Jenny Porter, Joel E Martinez, Alexander Todorov
People form impressions of others from multiple sources of information. Facial appearance is one such source and judgments based on facial appearance are made after minimal exposure to faces. A more reliable source of information is affective person learning based on others' past actions. Here we investigated whether the effects of such appearance-independent learning on face evaluation emerge after rapid face exposure, a response deadline procedure, and a lack of explicit recognition of the faces. In three experiments, participants learned to associate novel faces with negative and positive behaviors, and then evaluated the faces presented on their own, without the behaviors...
April 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Mengxiong Pan, Tao Ma, Junwu Mao, Xiaorong Qin, Bo Li
This study aims to investigate the clinical efficacy of foci contralateral facial artery myomucosal flap (FAMF) in repairing the defect of tongue after tumor resection. There were 10 cases who received the operation to repair tongue tissue defects caused by tumor resection from January 2010 to January 2016. FAMF flap size ranged from 2.5 × 3 cm to 5 × 5 cm. All flaps survived after surgery, and no local necrosis occurred. For the donor and receptor sites of 10 cases, 8 cases got wounds healed at stage I, wound dehiscence of donor site occurred in 2 cases, and the dehisced wounds were healed after local cleaning...
February 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
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