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Acquired pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925784/management-of-adults-with-hospital-acquired-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#1
Christopher T Erb, Bela Patel, Jeremy E Orr, Thomas Bice, Jeremy B Richards, Mark L Metersky, Kevin C Wilson, Carey C Thomson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924871/prognostic-implications-of-aspiration-pneumonia-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#2
Kosaku Komiya, Bruce K Rubin, Jun-Ichi Kadota, Hiroshi Mukae, Tomohiro Akaba, Hiroshi Moro, Nobumasa Aoki, Hiroki Tsukada, Shingo Noguchi, Nobuaki Shime, Osamu Takahashi, Shigeru Kohno
: Aspiration pneumonia is thought to be associated with a poor outcome in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, there has been no systematic review regarding the impact of aspiration pneumonia on the outcomes in patients with CAP. This review was conducted using the MOOSE guidelines: Patients: patients defined CAP. EXPOSURE: aspiration pneumonia defined as pneumonia in patients who have aspiration risk. Comparison: confirmed pneumonia in patients who were not considered to be at high risk for oral aspiration...
December 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924681/factors-associated-with-30-day-mortality-in-elderly-inpatients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-during-two-influenza-seasons
#3
Núria Torner, Conchita Izquierdo, Núria Soldevila, Diana Toledo, Judith Chamorro, Elena Espejo, Amelia Fernández-Sierra, Angela Domínguez
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia unrelated to hospitals or extended-care facilities. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with 30-day mortality in patients with CAP aged ≥65 years admitted to 20 hospitals in seven Spanish regions during the 2013-14 and 2014-15 influenza seasons. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with 30-day mortality. The adjusted model included variables selected by backward elimination with a cut off of < 0.02. A total of 1928 CAP cases were recorded; 60...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924169/hospital-acquired-infections-after-cardiac-surgery-and-current-physician-practices-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
Scott O'Keefe, Kenneth Williams, Jean-Francois Legare
BACKGROUND: The management of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) with respect to physician practices remains largely unexplored despite increasing efforts to standardize care. In the present study, we report findings from a 2-month audit of all patients that have undergone cardiac surgery at a large referral center in Atlantic Canada. METHODS: All patients who underwent cardiac surgical procedures during May and June 2013 at the Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Center in Halifax, Nova Scotia were identified...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923372/community-acquired-meningitis-caused-by-a-cg86-hypervirulent-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strain-first-case-report-in-the-caribbean
#5
Bénédicte Melot, Sylvain Brisse, Sébastien Breurec, Virginie Passet, Edith Malpote, Isabelle Lamaury, Guillaume Thiery, Bruno Hoen
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired bacterial meningitis due to Klebsiella pneumoniae has mainly been described in Southeast Asia and has a poor prognosis. Severe invasive infections caused by K. pneumoniae, including meningitis, are often due to hypervirulent strains (hvKP), which are characterized by capsular serotypes K1 and K2, a gene responsible for hypermucoviscosity, and the cluster for synthesis of the siderophore aerobactin. CASE PRESENTATION: A 55 year old man with a history of essential hypertension, benign prostate hyperplasia, hyperlipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, and chronic alcoholism was admitted for meningitis due to Klebsiella pneumoniae with a wild-type susceptibility profile...
December 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922910/impact-of-medicare-s-nonpayment-program-on-hospital-acquired-conditions
#6
Caroline P Thirukumaran, Laurent G Glance, Helena Temkin-Greener, Meredith B Rosenthal, Yue Li
BACKGROUND: Medicare's Nonpayment Program of 2008 (hereafter called Program) withholds hospital reimbursement for costs related to hospital-acquired conditions (HACs). Little is known whether a hospital's Medicare patient load [quantified by the hospital's Medicare utilization ratio (MUR), which is the proportion of inpatient days financed by Medicare] influences its response to the Program. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the Program was associated with changes in HAC incidence, and whether this association varies across hospitals with differential Medicare patient load...
December 5, 2016: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922126/viral-and-bacterial-co-infection-in-severe-pneumonia-triggers-innate-immune-responses-and-specifically-enhances-ip-10-a-translational-study
#7
Jonathan Hoffmann, Daniela Machado, Olivier Terrier, Stephane Pouzol, Mélina Messaoudi, Wilma Basualdo, Emilio E Espínola, Rosa M Guillen, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava, Valentina Picot, Thomas Bénet, Hubert Endtz, Graciela Russomando, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà
Mixed viral and bacterial infections are widely described in community-acquired pneumonia; however, the clinical implications of co-infection on the associated immunopathology remain poorly studied. In this study, microRNA, mRNA and cytokine/chemokine secretion profiling were investigated for human monocyte-derived macrophages infected in-vitro with Influenza virus A/H1N1 and/or Streptococcus pneumoniae. We observed that the in-vitro co-infection synergistically increased interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (CXCL10, IP-10) expression compared to the singly-infected cells conditions...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921227/-nosocomial-pneumonia-from-a%C3%A2-radiological-perspective
#8
REVIEW
P Agarwal, A Wielandner
Due to the high morbidity and mortality, nosocomial pneumonia represents a serious risk in hospitalized patients. The increased risk of infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens makes a timely diagnosis and prompt therapy indispensable. A newly occurring or progressive infiltrate in any patient who has been hospitalized for more than 48 h should be viewed with suspicion. In contrast to community acquired pneumonia (CAP), radiography plays a limited role in the diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)...
December 5, 2016: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918958/drivers-of-airborne-human-to-human-pathogen-transmission
#9
REVIEW
Sander Herfst, Michael Böhringer, Basel Karo, Philip Lawrence, Nicola S Lewis, Michael J Mina, Charles J Russell, John Steel, Rik L de Swart, Christian Menge
Airborne pathogens - either transmitted via aerosol or droplets - include a wide variety of highly infectious and dangerous microbes such as variola virus, measles virus, influenza A viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Bordetella pertussis. Emerging zoonotic pathogens, for example, MERS coronavirus, avian influenza viruses, Coxiella, and Francisella, would have pandemic potential were they to acquire efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Here, we synthesize insights from microbiological, medical, social, and economic sciences to provide known mechanisms of aerosolized transmissibility and identify knowledge gaps that limit emergency preparedness plans...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917707/management-of-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-critical-care-unit-an-area-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#10
Aimee M Dassner, David P Nicolau, Jennifer E Girotto
Pediatric pneumonia is one of the most common causes of childhood infection requiring hospitalization and is a substantial driver of antimicrobial use among hospitalized children. About 12-20% of pediatric patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) require critical care. Additionally, nosocomial pneumonias (i.e. hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonias) are responsible for 15-53% of hospital-associated infections and are the most common indication for empiric antibiotics in the pediatric intensive care unit...
December 4, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916621/point-should-inhaled-antibiotic-therapy-be-routinely-used-for-the-treatment-of-bacterial-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-icu-setting-yes
#11
EDITORIAL
Richard G Wunderink
Routine use of aerosolized antibiotics is the most rational approach to the current treatment dilemmas for severe hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) requiring endotracheal intubation or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The two main issues for HAP/VAP are inappropriate initial therapy and ineffective therapy for multidrug resistant (MDR) pathogens, particularly gram negative bacilli such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter species. The emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) and carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have made even common pathogens such as Escherichia coli difficult to treat...
November 22, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916211/a-32-year-study-of-the-effect-of-pneumococcal-vaccines-on-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-disease
#12
Ronald J Stanek, Nancy B Norton, Maurice A Mufson
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly causes community-acquired pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia and otitis media. Invasive pneumococcal infection (IPD) represents the most serious presentation, occurs in approximately 1 in 4 cases and engenders case fatality rates (CFR) in pneumonia of 20-25% and meningitis of 35-40%. We investigated IPD for 32 years in an American city to assess the effect of differing pneumococcal vaccines on serotype occurrence and CFR among children and adults...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914135/is-%C3%AE-lactam-plus-macrolide-more-effective-than-%C3%AE-lactam-plus-fluoroquinolone-among-patients-with-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-systemic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Jong Hoo Lee, Hyun Jung Kim, Yee Hyung Kim
Adding either macrolide or fluoroquinolone (FQ) to β-lactam has been recommended for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, due to the limited evidence available, there is a question as to the superiority of the two combination therapies. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched for systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of eight trials were analyzed. The total number of patients in the β-lactam plus macrolide (BL-M) and β-lactam plus fluoroquinolone (BL-F) groups was 2,273 and 1,600, respectively...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912925/cardiac-arrest-in-pediatric-patients-receiving-azithromycin
#14
Santiago O Valdés, Jeffrey J Kim, Mary C Niu, Caridad M de la Uz, Christina Y Miyake, Brady S Moffett
OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes of pediatric patients treated with azithromycin compared with penicillin or cephalosporin. We hypothesized that azithromycin use would not be associated with increased cardiac mortality in the pediatric population. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study from the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2008 and 2012. Patients <19 years of age with a principal diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia who received an antibiotic were included...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911103/tools-for-outcome-prediction-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#15
Faheem Khan, Mark B Owens, Marcos Restrepo, Pedro Povoa, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common causes of mortality world-wide. The mortality rate of patients with CAP is influenced by the severity of the disease, treatment failure and the requirement for hospitalization and/or intensive care unit (ICU) management, all of which may be predicted by biomarkers and clinical scoring systems. Areas Covered: We review the recent literature examining the efficacy of established and newly-developed clinical scores, biological and inflammatory markers such as C-Reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6), whether used alone or in conjunction with clinical severity scores to assess the severity of CAP, predict treatment failure, guide acute in-hospital or ICU admission and predict mortality...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909995/solithromycin-a-novel-fluoroketolide-for-the-treatment-of-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia
#16
REVIEW
George G Zhanel, Erika Hartel, Heather Adam, Sheryl Zelenitsky, Michael A Zhanel, Alyssa Golden, Frank Schweizer, Bala Gorityala, Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens, Andrew J Walkty, Alfred S Gin, Daryl J Hoban, Joseph P Lynch, James A Karlowsky
Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide developed in both oral and intravenous formulations to address increasing macrolide resistance in pathogens causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). When compared with its macrolide and ketolide predecessors, solithromycin has several structural modifications which increase its ribosomal binding and reduce its propensity to known macrolide resistance mechanisms. Solithromycin, like telithromycin, affects 50S ribosomal subunit formation and function, as well as causing frame-shift errors during translation...
December 1, 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906087/legionella-pneumonia-in-the-niagara-region-ontario-canada-a-case-series
#17
Stephanie Cargnelli, Jeff Powis, Jennifer L Y Tsang
BACKGROUND: Legionella pneumophila, a major cause of Legionnaires' disease, accounts for 2-15 % of all community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization and up to 30 % of community-acquired pneumonia requiring intensive care unit admission. Early initiation of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is a crucial step in the prevention of morbidity and mortality. However, recognition of Legionnaires' disease continues to be challenging because of its nonspecific clinical features. We sought to describe hospitalized community-acquired Legionnaires' disease to increase awareness of this important and potentially lethal disease...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905845/hospital-acquired-pneumonia-a-host-of-factors
#18
Timothy E Sweeney, Purvesh Khatri
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904565/is-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-mechanically-ventilated-adult-trauma-patients-potentially-related-to-the-occurrence-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#19
Hadi Darvishi-Khezri, Abbas Alipour, Amir Emami Zeydi, Abolfazl Firouzian, Ghahraman Mahmudi, Melody Omrani-Nava
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a type of lung infection that typically affects critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are considered to be more susceptible to several types of infections including community-acquired pneumonia. However, it is not clear whether T2DM is a risk factor for the development of VAP. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of VAP for diabetic and nondiabetic mechanically ventilated trauma patients...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904113/fanconi-syndrome-associated-with-hyponatremia-in-two-patients-with-legionella-pneumonia
#20
Akihiro Ryuge, Yasuhiko Ito, Taishi Yamakawa, Hitoshi Tanaka, Hirotoshi Yasui, Shuko Mashimo, Kenshi Watanabe, Rie Nomura, Nobukazu Suganuma, Shoichi Maruyama
Legionella pneumophila is a cause of community-acquired pneumonia that is reported to induce electrolyte disorders, including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia. We herein report two Japanese men with Legionella pneumonia and hyponatremia and hypophosphatemia. These findings were associated with an elevation of urinary low-molecular-weight tubular protein, including urinary β2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, the fractional excretion of phosphate and uric acid, and the presence of glycosuria and panaminoaciduria, suggesting that their electrolyte disorders had been caused by Fanconi syndrome...
2016: Internal Medicine
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