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Acquired pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724206/vital-signs-health-care-associated-legionnaires-disease-surveillance-data-from-20-states-and-a-large-metropolitan-area-united-states-2015
#1
EDITORIAL
E A Soda, A E Barskey, P P Shah, S Schrag, C G Whitney, M J Arduino, S C Reddy, J M Kunz, C M Hunter, B H Raphael, L A Cooley
BACKGROUND: Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia, is typically acquired through inhalation of aerosolized water containing Legionella bacteria. Legionella can grow in the complex water systems of buildings, including health care facilities. Effective water management programs could prevent the growth of Legionella in building water systems. METHODS: Using national surveillance data, Legionnaires' disease cases were characterized from the 21 jurisdictions (20 U...
August 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723778/thoracic-splenosis-mimicking-a-pleuropneumonia-a-case-report
#2
Aurélie Baldolli, Solène Coeuret, Vincent Le Pennec, Denis Agostini, Renaud Verdon
RATIONALE: Splenosis is the development of one or more heterotopic splenic tissue autoimplants following rupture of the spleen and remains mostly asymptomatic. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 50-year old post-traumatic splenectomized man admitted for a left side community acquired pneumonia resistant to antibiotics. DIAGNOSES: The diagnosis of intrathoracic ectopic spleen was suspected because of the history of spleen trauma with diaphragm rupture and the absence of Howell-Jolly bodies...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723551/understanding-immunosuppression-after-sepsis
#3
Fatemeh Fattahi, Peter A Ward
Following a severe primary infection or trauma, the risk of developing pneumonia increases due to acquired immune defects collectively known as sepsis-induced immunosuppression. In this issue of Immunity, Roquilly et al. (2017) show that dendritic cells and macrophages developing in the lung after the resolution of a severe infection acquire tolerogenic properties that contribute to persistent immunosuppression and susceptibility to secondary infections.
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716657/evaluation-of-sofia-fluorescent-immunoassay-analyzer-for-pneumococcal-urinary-antigen-detection-in-hospitalized-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#4
Diego Vicente, Maddi López-Olaizola, Idoia de la Caba, Gustavo Cilla
The Sofia Streptococcus pneumoniae FIA® test was prospectively evaluated in non-concentrated urine samples of 106 hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. The test detected pneumococcal urinary antigen in 24/31 (77.4%) confirmed pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia episodes. The specificity of the test was 86.7% (92% after urine heating).
July 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715344/community-acquired-pneumonia-incidence-before-and-after-proton-pump-inhibitor-prescription-population-based-study
#5
Fatmah Othman, Colin J Crooks, Timothy R Card
Objective To examine the risk of community acquired pneumonia before and after prescription of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and assess whether unmeasured confounding explains this association.Design Cohort study and self controlled case series.Setting Clinical Practice Research Datalink (1990 to 2013) in UK.Participants Adult patients with a new prescription for a PPI individually matched with controls.Main outcome measures Association of community acquired pneumonia with PPI prescription estimated by three methods: a multivariable Cox model comparing risk in PPI exposed patients with controls, corrected for potential confounders; a self controlled case series; and a prior event rate ratio (PERR) analysis over the 12 month periods before and after the first PPI prescription...
November 15, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714287/bacteremia-prediction-model-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-external-validation-in-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort
#6
Byunghyun Kim, Jungho Choi, Kyuseok Kim, Sujin Jang, Tae Gun Shin, Won Young Kim, Jung-Youn Kim, Yoo Seok Park, Soo Hyun Kim, Hui Jai Lee, Jonghwan Shin, JeSung You, Kyung Su Kim, Sung Phil Chung
OBJECTIVE: Many studies have described constructing a prediction model for bacteremia in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), but these studies were not validated in external heterogeneous groups. The objective of this study was to test the generalizability of a previous bacteremia prediction model for CAP by external validation. METHODS: This multicenter retrospective cohort analysis was performed in eight tertiary urban hospital emergency departments (ED). We reviewed adult patients who were hospitalized after presentation to the ED with CAP...
July 16, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713357/extensively-drug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-causing-nosocomial-bloodstream-infections-in-china-molecular-investigation-of-antibiotic-resistance-determinants-informing-therapy-and-clinical-outcomes
#7
Wenzi Bi, Haiyang Liu, Rhys A Dunstan, Bin Li, Von Vergel L Torres, Jianming Cao, Lijiang Chen, Jonathan J Wilksch, Richard A Strugnell, Trevor Lithgow, Tieli Zhou
The rise in diversity of antimicrobial resistance phenotypes seen in Klebsiella pneumoniae is becoming a serious antibiotic management problem. We sought to investigate the molecular characteristics and clinical implications of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) K. pneumoniae isolated from different nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs) patients from July 2013 to November 2015. Even in combination treatment, meropenem did not protect against mortality of BSIs patients (P = 0.015). In contrast, tigecycline in combination with other antimicrobial agents significantly protected against mortality (P = 0...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711429/-appropriateness-of-antibiotic-prescribing-in-paediatric-patients-in-a-hospital-emergency-department
#8
Borja Croche Santander, Elena Campos Alonso, Adela Sánchez Carrión, Laura Marcos Fuentes, Isabel Diaz Flores, Juan Carlos Vargas, Bárbara Fernández Domínguez, Cristóbal Toro Ibañez
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotics represent one of the most widely prescribed therapeutic agents in children. It has been estimated that 30-50% of antibiotic prescriptions for this population are inappropriate. In this scenario, analysis of prescription data provides an invaluable source of information as a basis for implementing strategies for improvement in this field. OBJECTIVE: To assess the appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions in a paediatric population at an emergency department...
July 12, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711128/care-of-respiratory-conditions-in-an-observation-unit
#9
REVIEW
Margarita E Pena, Viviane M Kazan, Michael N Helmreich, Sharon E Mace
In adults, respiratory disorders are the second most frequent diagnoses treated in emergency department observation units (EDOUs) and account for the most frequent indication for placement of pediatric patients into an EDOU. With appropriate patient selection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations, and community-acquired pneumonia can be managed in the EDOU. EDOU management results in equivalent or better outcomes than inpatient care with decreased length of stay, increased patient satisfaction, lower cost and in some studies decreased mortality...
August 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710862/identification-of-elor-spr1851-as-a-regulator-of-cell-elongation-in-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#10
Gro Anita Stamsås, Daniel Straume, Anja Ruud Winther, Morten Kjos, Cyril Alexander Frantzen, Leiv Sigve Håvarstein
In a screen for mutations suppressing the lethal loss of PBP2b in Streptococcus pneumoniae we identified Spr1851 (named EloR), a cytoplasmic protein of unknown function whose inactivation removed the requirement for PBP2b as well as RodA. It follows from this that EloR and the two elongasome proteins must be part of the same functional network. This network also includes StkP, as this serine/threonine kinase phosphorylates EloR on threonine 89 (T89). We found that ΔeloR cells, and cells expressing the phosphoablative form of EloR (EloR(T89A) ), are significantly shorter than wild-type cells...
July 15, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710027/admission-lactate-predicts-poor-prognosis-independently-of-the-crb-curb-65-scores-in-community-acquired-pneumonia
#11
Frederik S Frenzen, Ulrike Kutschan, Nils Meiswinkel, Bernhard Schulte-Hubbert, Santiago Ewig, Martin Kolditz
OBJECTIVES: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with a high risk of respiratory failure or septic organ dysfunction. Lactate is an established early marker of prognosis and sepsis severity, but few data exist in patients with CAP. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of consecutive adult CAP patients without treatment restrictions or direct ICU admission. Lactate was measured as point of care test within the capillary admission blood gas analysis and its prognostic value was compared to the CRB/CURB-65 criteria by multivariate and ROC curve analysis...
July 11, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708954/pneumococcal-and-influenza-vaccination-status-of-hospitalized-adults-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-the-effects-of-vaccination-on-clinical-presentation
#12
Ezgi Demirdogen Cetinoglu, Esra Uzaslan, Abdullah Sayıner, Aykut Cilli, Oguz Kılınc, Aysın Sakar Coskun, Armağan Hazar, Nurdan Kokturk, Ayten Filiz, Mehmet Polatli
Background Previous reports have shown that vaccination rates of adult at-risk populations are low in Turkey. There are differing reports with regards to the effectiveness of the influenza and the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) on the clinical outcomes of community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The purpose of this study was to analyse the influenza (FV) and pneumococcal vaccination (PV) status, the factors that influence the receipt of influenza/pneumococcal vaccine and the effects of prior vaccination on the clinical outcomes in adults hospitalized with CAP...
July 14, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704495/space-time-analysis-of-pneumonia-hospitalisations-in-the-netherlands
#13
Elisa Benincà, Michiel van Boven, Thomas Hagenaars, Wim van der Hoek
Community acquired pneumonia is a major global public health problem. In the Netherlands there are 40,000-50,000 hospital admissions for pneumonia per year. In the large majority of these hospital admissions the etiologic agent is not determined and a real-time surveillance system is lacking. Localised and temporal increases in hospital admissions for pneumonia are therefore only detected retrospectively and the etiologic agents remain unknown. Here, we perform spatio-temporal analyses of pneumonia hospital admission data in the Netherlands...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703323/professional-oral-healthcare-for-preventing-nursing-home-acquired-pneumonia-a-cost-effectiveness-and-value-of-information-analysis
#14
Falk Schwendicke, Michael Stolpe, Frauke Müller
AIM: Professional oral healthcare (POHC) prevents nursing-home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) and its related mortality. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of POHC versus no POHC (nPOHC) and the monetary value of eliminating uncertainty by future research. METHODS: German public-private-payer-perspective was adopted. A Markov-model was used, following Long-Term-Care residents from admission to death. Cost-effectiveness was estimated as Euro/disability-adjusted-life-year (DALY) using Monte-Carlo microsimulations...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702467/ceftaroline-for-severe-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Reese A Cosimi, Nahal Beik, David W Kubiak, Jennifer A Johnson
Ceftaroline is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, including cases with concurrent bacteremia. Use for serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections has risen for a multitude of reasons. The aim of this article is to review the literature evaluating clinical outcomes and safety of ceftaroline prescribed for serious MRSA infections. We conducted a literature search in Ovid (Medline) and PubMed for reputable case reports, clinical trials, and reviews focusing on the use of ceftaroline for treatment of MRSA infections...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702305/increased-risk-of-pneumonia-in-residents-living-near-poultry-farms-does-the-upper-respiratory-tract-microbiota-play-a-role
#16
Lidwien A M Smit, Gert Jan Boender, Wouter A A de Steenhuijsen Piters, Thomas J Hagenaars, Elisabeth G W Huijskens, John W A Rossen, Marion Koopmans, Gonnie Nodelijk, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Joris Yzermans, Debby Bogaert, Dick Heederik
BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been shown to increase the susceptibility to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Previously, we observed an increased incidence of CAP in adults living within 1 km from poultry farms, potentially related to particulate matter and endotoxin emissions. We aim to confirm the increased risk of CAP near poultry farms by refined spatial analyses, and we hypothesize that the oropharyngeal microbiota composition in CAP patients may be associated with residential proximity to poultry farms...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702304/oral-versus-intravenous-clarithromycin-in-moderate-to-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-an-observational-study
#17
Nikolas Rae, Aran Singanayagam, Stuart Schembri, James D Chalmers
OBJECTIVES: British Thoracic Society guidelines recommend clarithromycin in addition to beta-lactam antibiotics for patients with community-acquired pneumonia and CURB-65 score 2-5. Intravenous therapy is commonly used but there are few data on whether oral therapy is equally effective. METHODS: This observational study used propensity matching to compare two groups of patients with moderate to severe community-acquired pneumonia (CURB-65 score 2-5) treated with oral (n = 226) or intravenous (n = 226) clarithromycin on admission...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701159/bacterial-bloodstream-infections-in-a-tertiary-infectious-diseases-hospital-in-northern-vietnam-aetiology-drug-resistance-and-treatment-outcome
#18
Vu Quoc Dat, Hieu Ngoc Vu, Hung Nguyen The, Hoa Thi Nguyen, Long Bao Hoang, Dung Vu Tien Viet, Chi Linh Bui, Kinh Van Nguyen, Trung Vu Nguyen, Dao Tuyet Trinh, Alessandro Torre, H Rogier van Doorn, Behzad Nadjm, Heiman F L Wertheim
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. However their aetiology, antimicrobial susceptibilities and associated outcomes differ between developed and developing countries. Systematic data from Vietnam are scarce. Here we present aetiologic data on BSI in adults admitted to a large tertiary referral hospital for infectious diseases in Hanoi, Vietnam. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at the National Hospital for Tropical Diseases between January 2011 and December 2013...
July 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701117/antibiotics-for-acute-respiratory-infections-in-general-practice-comparison-of-prescribing-rates-with-guideline-recommendations
#19
Amanda R McCullough, Allan J Pollack, Malene Plejdrup Hansen, Paul P Glasziou, David Fm Looke, Helena C Britt, Christopher B Del Mar
OBJECTIVE: To compare the current rate of antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in Australian general practice with the recommendations in the most widely consulted therapeutic guidelines in Australia (Therapeutic Guidelines). DESIGN AND SETTING: Comparison of general practice activity data for April 2010 - March 2015 (derived from Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health [BEACH] study) with estimated rates of prescribing recommended by Therapeutic Guidelines...
July 17, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699887/upward-trend-of-dapsone-induced-methemoglobinemia-in-renal-transplant-community%C3%A2
#20
Sohail Abdul Salim, Lakshmi Ramachandran Nair, Venkataraman Palabindala, Iasmina Craici
Dapsone, a sulfone antibiotic, is used for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients with documented sulfa allergy. Acquired methemoglobinemia caused by dapsone is not uncommon in patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) levels. Discrepancy between oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) readings, a phenomenon known as "saturation gap," is noted with cases of methemoglobinemia. Although its prevalence in renal transplant patients is poorly described, there is evidence that its incidence is increasing...
July 12, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
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