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Yutaka Maeda, Yuya Takehana, Jing-Shuang Dang, Mitsuaki Suzuki, Michio Yamada, Shigeru Nagase
Alkylated SWNTs were thermally treated to determine the influence of the substituents and the degree of functionalization on their thermal stability and photoluminescence (PL) properties. Alkylated SWNTs were prepared using sodium naphthalenide and alkyl bromide. The defunctionalization of alkylated SWNTs was monitored by absorption and Raman spectra. A selective recovery of the characteristic absorption and RBM peaks were observed during the thermal treatment, which indicates that the thermal stability of alkylated SWNTs decreased with an increase in SWNT diameter and with an increase in the degree of functionalization...
October 24, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Teobald Kupka, Michal Stachów, Leszek Stobiński, Jakub Kaminský
Structural and selected Raman features of pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCTNs) with diameters from 0.4 to 1.2 nm and total lengths up to 2.15 nm were studied using the density functional theory (DFT) at the UB3LYP/6-31G* level. Models of different lengths (1, 4, 6 and 10 adjacent bamboo-units) of zigzag (n, 0) SWCNTs, for n ranging from 5 to 15, were studied. Highly systematic changes of individual CC bond lengths and angles along the nanotube axis were observed and described for the longest models...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Stina Söderlund, Lisa Christiansson, Inger Persson, Henrik Hjorth-Hansen, Johan Richter, Bengt Simonsson, Satu Mustjoki, Ulla Olsson-Strömberg, Angelica Loskog
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The simultaneous measurement of many proteins is now possible using multiplex assays. In this pilot study we investigated a total of 124 proteins in plasma from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients with the purpose of identifying proteins that are differently expressed at diagnosis and after tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment initiation. METHODS: Samples were taken from 14 CML patients at diagnosis and after three months of TKI treatment (imatinib or dasatinib)...
September 27, 2016: Leukemia Research
Mercedes Rodriguez-Teja, Claudia Breit, Mitchell Clarke, Kamil Talar, Kai Wang, Mohammad A Mohammad, Sage Pickwell, Guillermina Etchandy, Graeme J Stasiuk, Justin Sturge
Here we describe a protocol that can be used to study the biophysical microenvironment related to increased thickness and stiffness of the basement membrane (BM) during age-related pathologies and metabolic disorders (e.g. cancer, diabetes, microvascular disease, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy). The premise of the model is non-enzymatic crosslinking of reconstituted BM (rBM) matrix by treatment with glycolaldehyde (GLA) to promote advanced glycation endproduct (AGE) generation via the Maillard reaction...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yeon Soo Yeom, Zhao Jun Wang, Thang Tat Nguyen, Han Sung Kim, Chansoo Choi, Min Cheol Han, Chan Hyeong Kim, Jai Ki Lee, Beom Sun Chung, Maria Zankl, Nina Petoussi-Henss, Wesley E Bolch, Choonsik Lee
The reference adult computational phantoms of the international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) described in Publication 110 are voxel-type computational phantoms based on whole-body computed tomography (CT) images of adult male and female patients. The voxel resolutions of these phantoms are in the order of a few millimeters and smaller tissues such as the eye lens, the skin, and the walls of some organs cannot be properly defined in the phantoms, resulting in limitations in dose coefficient calculations for weakly penetrating radiations...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Xinnuo Xiong, Kailin Xu, Shanshan Li, Peixiao Tang, Ying Xiao, Hui Li
Solid-state amorphization of crystalline rebamipide (RBM) was realized by ball milling and spray drying. The amorphous content of samples milled for various time was quantified using X-ray powder diffraction. Crystalline RBM and three amorphous RBM obtained by milling and spray drying were characterized by morphological analysis, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and vibrational spectroscopy. The crystal structure of RBM was first determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In addition, the solubility and dissolution rate of the RBM samples were investigated in different media...
October 6, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Caroline Hurley, Frances Shiely, Jessica Power, Mike Clarke, Joseph A Eustace, Evelyn Flanagan, Patricia M Kearney
INTRODUCTION: In November 2016, the Integrated Addendum to ICH-GCP E6 (R2) will advise trial sponsors to develop a risk-based approach to clinical trial monitoring. This new process is commonly known as risk based monitoring (RBM). To date, a variety of tools have been developed to guide RBM. However, a gold standard approach does not exist. This review aims to identify and examine RBM tools. METHODS: Review of published and grey literature using a detailed search-strategy and cross-checking of reference lists...
September 15, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Stefan Elfwing, Eiji Uchibe, Kenji Doya
Free-energy based reinforcement learning (FERL) was proposed for learning in high-dimensional state and action spaces. However, the FERL method does only really work well with binary, or close to binary, state input, where the number of active states is fewer than the number of non-active states. In the FERL method, the value function is approximated by the negative free energy of a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM). In our earlier study, we demonstrated that the performance and the robustness of the FERL method can be improved by scaling the free energy by a constant that is related to the size of network...
August 26, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Yutaka Maeda, Erika Sone, Akane Nishino, Yuri Amagai, Wei-Wei Wang, Michio Yamada, Mitsuaki Suzuki, Jun Matsui, Masaya Mitsuishi, Toshiya Okazaki, Shigeru Nagase
The thermal stability of oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with various degrees of oxidation was investigated. The oxidized SWNTs exhibited lower absorption and radial breathing mode (RBM) peaks and a higher intensity ratio of the D band to the G band (D/G) in their absorption and Raman spectra than those of the pristine SWNTs. After the thermal treatment, the D/G ratio of the oxidized SWNTs almost recovered its original intensity, regardless of the degree of oxidation. The absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and RBM peaks could not recover their original intensities when the oxidation degree was high...
October 17, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Malik Q Mahmood, David Reid, Chris Ward, Hans K Muller, Darryl A Knight, Sukhwinder S Sohal, Eugene H Walters
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: COPD is characterized by poorly reversible airflow obstruction usually due to cigarette smoking. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, and in particular a process called epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), which may well be an intermediatory between smoking and both airway fibrosis and lung cancer. The downstream classical or 'canonical' TGF-β1 pathway is via the phosphorylated (p) Smad transcription factor system...
September 11, 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Jason D Keene, Sean Jacobson, Katerina Kechris, Gregory L Kinney, Marilyn G Foreman, Claire M Doerschuk, Barry J Make, Jeffrey L Curtis, Stephen I Rennard, R Graham Barr, Eugene R Bleecker, Richard E Kanner, Eric C Kleerup, Nadia N Hansel, Prescott G Woodruff, MeiLan K Han, Robert Paine Iii, Fernando J Martinez, Russell P Bowler, Wanda K O'Neal
RATIONALE: COPD exacerbations are associated with disease progression, higher healthcare cost, and increased mortality. Published predictors of future exacerbations include previous exacerbation, airflow obstruction, poor overall health, home oxygen use, and gastroesophageal reflux. The value of adding blood biomarkers to clinical variables to predict exacerbations remains unproven. METHODS: Subjects from SPIROMICS (n=1544) and COPDGene (n=602) cohorts had 90 plasma or serum candidate proteins measured on study entry using Myriad-RBM multiplex panels...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Noridzzaida Ridzuan, Akram Al Abbar, Wai Kien Yip, Maryam Maqbool, Rajesh Ramasamy
The present study is aimed at optimizing the in vitro culture protocol for generation of rat bone marrow- (BM-) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and characterizing the culture-mediated cellular senescence. The initial phase of generation and characterization was conducted using the adherent cells from Sprague Dawley (SD) rat's BM via morphological analysis, growth kinetics, colony forming unit capacity, immunophenotyping, and mesodermal lineage differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells were successfully generated and characterized as delineated by the expressions of CD90...
2016: Stem Cells International
Na Lu, Tengfei Li, Xiaodong Ren, Hongyu Miao
Motor imagery classification is an important topic in brain computer interface (BCI) research that enables the recognition of a subject's intension to, e.g., implement prosthesis control. The brain dynamics of motor imagery are usually measured by electroencephalography (EEG) as nonstationary time series of low signal-to-noise ratio. Although a variety of methods have been previously developed to learn EEG signal features, the deep learning idea has rarely been explored to generate new representation of EEG features and achieve further performance improvement for motor imagery classification...
August 17, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Sang-Hyuk Sohn, Sung-Am Cho
PURPOSE: Sandblasted and acid-etched (SLA) implants are widely known and used by many practitioners. A resorbable blasting media (RBM) surface is produced by blasting with bioceramic particles. We studied the correlation between the particle sizes of the media and the biomechanical force, evaluating the removal torque of hydroxyapatite-blasted implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Commercial SLA implants comprised the control group, and RBM surface-treated implants of the same size and design comprised the experimental group...
October 2016: Implant Dentistry
Benjamin L Brett, Nathan Smyk, Gary Solomon, Brandon C Baughman, Philip Schatz
OBJECTIVE: The ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing) neurocognitive testing battery is a widely used tool used for the assessment and management of sports-related concussion. Research on the stability of ImPACT in high school athletes at a 1- and 2-year intervals have been inconsistent, requiring further investigation. We documented 1-, 2-, and 3-year test-retest reliability of repeated ImPACT baseline assessments in a sample of high school athletes, using multiple statistical methods for examining stability...
August 18, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Qi Zhang, Yang Xiao, Wei Dai, Jingfeng Suo, Congzhi Wang, Jun Shi, Hairong Zheng
This study aims to build a deep learning (DL) architecture for automated extraction of learned-from-data image features from the shear-wave elastography (SWE), and to evaluate the DL architecture in differentiation between benign and malignant breast tumors. We construct a two-layer DL architecture for SWE feature extraction, comprised of the point-wise gated Boltzmann machine (PGBM) and the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM). The PGBM contains task-relevant and task-irrelevant hidden units, and the task-relevant units are connected to the RBM...
December 2016: Ultrasonics
Hannah C Pulcastro, Peter O Awinda, Mei Methawasin, Henk Granzier, Wenji Dong, Bertrand C W Tanner
Titin is a giant protein spanning from the Z-disk to the M-band of the cardiac sarcomere. In the I-band titin acts as a molecular spring, contributing to passive mechanical characteristics of the myocardium throughout a heartbeat. RNA Binding Motif Protein 20 (RBM20) is required for normal titin splicing, and its absence or altered function leads to greater expression of a very large, more compliant N2BA titin isoform in Rbm20 homozygous mice (Rbm20 (ΔRRM) ) compared to wild-type mice (WT) that almost exclusively express the stiffer N2B titin isoform...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Serena Di Cecilia, Fan Zhang, Ana Sancho, SiDe Li, Francesca Aguiló, Yifei Sun, Madhumitha Rengasamy, Weijia Zhang, Luigi Del Vecchio, Francesco Salvatore, Martin J Walsh
Cancer-initiating cells (CIC) undergo asymmetric growth patterns that increase phenotypic diversity and drive selection for chemotherapeutic resistance and tumor relapse. WNT signaling is a hallmark of colon CIC, often caused by APC mutations, which enable activation of β-catenin and MYC Accumulating evidence indicates that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) contribute to the stem-like character of colon cancer cells. In this study, we report enrichment of the lncRNA RBM5-AS1/LUST during sphere formation of colon CIC...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Research
Lei Yang, Shuang Wang, Xiaoqian Jiang, Samuel Cheng, Hyeon-Eui Kim
BACKGROUND: Accurately assessing pain for those who cannot make self-report of pain, such as minimally responsive or severely brain-injured patients, is challenging. In this paper, we attempted to address this challenge by answering the following questions: (1) if the pain has dependency structures in electronic signals and if so, (2) how to apply this pattern in predicting the state of pain. To this end, we have been investigating and comparing the performance of several machine learning techniques...
2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Jing Wang, Linfeng He, Dunhuang Fan, Defang Ding, Xufei Wang, Yun Gao, Xuxia Zhang, Qiang Li, Honghong Chen
The biodosimetric information is critical for assessment of cancer risk in populations exposed to high radon. However, no tools are available for biological dose estimation following radon exposure. Here, we established a γ-H2AX foci-based assay to determine biological dose to red bone marrow (RBM) in radon-inhaled rats. After 1-3 h of in vitro radon exposure, a specific pattern of γ-H2AX foci, linear tracks with individual p-ATM and p-DNA-PKcs foci, was observed, and the yield of γ-H2AX foci and its linear tracks displayed a linear dose-response manner in both rat peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) and bone-marrow lymphocytes (BMLs)...
2016: Scientific Reports
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