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manual dexterity

Jan Pieter Marchal, Heleen Maurice-Stam, Bregje A Houtzager, Susanne L Rutgers van Rozenburg-Marres, Kim J Oostrom, Martha A Grootenhuis, A S Paul van Trotsenburg
BACKGROUND: We analysed developmental outcomes from a clinical trial early in life and its follow-up at 10.7 years in 123 children with Down syndrome. AIMS: To determine 1) strengths and weaknesses in adaptive functioning and motor skills at 10.7 years, and 2) prognostic value of early-life characteristics (early developmental outcomes, parental and child characteristics, and comorbidity) for later intelligence, adaptive functioning and motor skills. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: We used standardized assessments of mental and motor development at ages 6, 12 and 24 months, and of intelligence, adaptive functioning and motor skills at 10...
October 13, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Toru Akiyama, Kosuke Uehara, Koichi Ogura, Yusuke Shinoda, Shintaro Iwata, Kazuo Saita, Yoshikazu Tanzawa, Fumihiko Nakatani, Tsukasa Yonemoto, Hirotaka Kawano, Aileen M Davis, Akira Kawai
BACKGROUND: The Toronto Extremity Salvage Score (TESS) is a widely used disease-specific patient-completed questionnaire for the assessment of physical function in patients with musculoskeletal tumors; however, there had not been the validated Japanese version of the TESS. The aim of this study was to validate the Japanese version of the TESS in patients with musculoskeletal tumors in the upper extremity. METHODS: After developing a Japanese version of the TESS, the questionnaire was administered to 53 patients to examine its reliability and validity in comparison with the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scoring system and Short Form-36 (SF-36)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Giulia Purpura, Francesca Fulceri, Vittoria Puglisi, Patrizia Masoni, Annarita Contaldo
BACKGROUND: Some research suggests that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience diverse motor difficulties that appear closely related to the severity of symptomatology, including repetitive behaviors. Therefore, motor assessment in ASD has crucial relevance in order to plan a specific intervention. The aim of this study is to assess and describe the motor functioning in school-aged children with ASD and to evaluate the relationship between their motor profile and clinical features...
October 12, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Emilio Trignano, Nefer Fallico, Gino Zingone, Luca Andrea Dessy, Gian Vittorio Campus
Background Microsurgery is very challenging, requiring a high degree of dexterity and manual skills that should be fully trained outside of the operating room. Common microsurgery courses usually follow a stepwise training approach beginning practice on nonliving models and proceeding with live rats. However, training on live rats raises certain issues, including ethical concerns as well as the associated costs. As such, there is an increasing drive toward alternative models. The current article describes a three-step training approach (latex glove-endovascular prosthesis-human placenta), which aims to prepare trainees for the clinical direct application...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Reconstructive Microsurgery
Udit Rawat, Jennifer L Pierce, Scott Evans, A Bobby Chhabra, Nicholas C Nacey
Despite having many unique anatomic features relative to the other digits, the thumb has received little attention in the radiology literature. The thumb, with its opposable and prehensile abilities, enables fine manual dexterity. However, most radiologists have little familiarity with the structures that allow these dynamic movements, other than their recognition of the role of the ulnar collateral ligament in the setting of gamekeeper injury. High-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows optimal assessment of the intricate soft-tissue anatomy of the thumb, which enables thumb flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction...
October 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Vincent Koppelmans, Yoo Young Hoogendam, Sarah Hirsiger, Susan Mérillat, Lutz Jäncke, Rachael D Seidler
Cerebellar volume declines with aging. Few studies have investigated age differences in regional cerebellar volume (RCV) and their association with motor and cognitive function. In 213 healthy older adults, we investigated the association of age with motor skills, cognition and RCV. Subsequently, we studied the association of RCV with motor skills and cognition. RCVs were derived from T1-weighted MRI scans using the automated SUIT segmentation method and clustered using principal component analysis (PCA). Motor skill (manual dexterity, tapping speed, bimanual visuomotor coordination, grip force) and cognition (mental rotation, verbal memory, inhibition, mental flexibility) were assessed...
October 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Drew M Morris, June J Pilcher
Cool vehicle cabin temperatures can induce short-term non-hypothermic cold stress. The current study created a cold condition to examine the impact of cold stress on driving behavior. Forty-four participants drove a high-fidelity driving simulator during a thermal neutral or local torso cooled condition. Participants performed additional tasks to assess attention, psychomotor vigilance, and manual dexterity. Skin temperature was significantly lower in the cold condition while internal temperature was unaffected...
October 2016: Biological Psychology
Alastair J M Key
The human hand is unparalleled amongst primates in its ability to manipulate objects forcefully and dexterously. Previous research has predominantly sought to explain the evolution of these capabilities through an adaptive relationship between more modern human-like anatomical features in the upper limb and increased stone tool production and use proficiency. To date, however, we know little about the influence that other manipulatively demanding behaviors may have had upon the evolution of the human hand. The present study addresses one aspect of this deficiency by examining the recruitment of the distal phalanges during a range of manual transportation (i...
2016: PloS One
Lu Yeh, Mario Montealegre-Gallegos, Feroze Mahmood, Philip E Hess, Marc Shnider, John D Mitchell, Stephanie B Jones, Azad Mashari, Vanessa Wong, Robina Matyal
OBJECTIVES: Understanding of the workflow of perioperative ultrasound (US) examination is an integral component of proficiency. Workflow consists of the practical steps prior to executing an US examination (eg, equipment operation). Whereas other proficiency components (ie, cognitive knowledge and manual dexterity) can be tested, workflow understanding is difficult to define and assess due to its contextual and institution-specific nature. The objective was to define the workflow components of specific perioperative US applications using an iterative process to reach a consensus opinion...
July 9, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Anjo J W M Janssen, Rob A B Oostendorp, Reinier P Akkermans, Katerina Steiner, Louis A A Kollée, Maria W G Nijhuis-van der Sanden
AIM: To determine longitudinal motor performance in very preterm (VPT) infants from 6 months to 5 years of age for the entire cohort of infants, according to gender and gestational age and at the individual level. METHOD: Single-center, prospective longitudinal study of 201 VPT infants (106 boys) without severe impairments. OUTCOMES: Motor performance was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II-MS: 6, 12, 24 months) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2-NL: 5 years)...
September 22, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Najmeh Hoseini, Felipe Munoz-Rubke, Hsuan-Yu Wan, Hannah J Block
Motor point associative stimulation (MPAS) in hand muscles is known to modify motor cortex excitability and improve learning rate, but not plateau of performance, in manual dexterity tasks. Central stimulation of motor cortex, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), can have similar effects if accompanied by motor practice, which can be difficult and tiring for patients. Here we asked whether adding tDCS to MPAS could improve manual dexterity in healthy individuals who are already performing at their plateau, with no motor practice during stimulation...
September 21, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Abigail Thompson, Declan Murphy, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Christine Ecker, Grainne McAlonan, Henrietta Howells, Simon Baron-Cohen, Meng-Chuan Lai, Michael V Lombardo
BACKGROUND: Fine motor skill impairments are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), significantly affecting quality of life. Sensory inputs reaching the primary motor cortex (M1) from the somatosensory cortex (S1) are likely involved in fine motor skill and specifically motor learning. However, the role of these connections has not been directly investigated in humans. This study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the role of the S1-M1 connections in healthy subjects in vivo and whether microstructural alterations are associated with motor impairment in ASD...
July 1, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Tim Vanbellingen, Manuela Wapp, Katharina Stegmayer, Manuel Bertschi, Eugenio Abela, Stefanie Kübel, Thomas Nyffeler, René Müri, Sebastian Walther, Tobias Nef, Mark Hallett, Stephan Bohlhalter
Dorsal pre-motor cortex (PMd) is thought to play a role in fine motor control. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inhibitory or excitatory stimulation of PMd would have an impact on manual dexterity in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fifteen patients with PD participated in this study. High resolution structural MRI was used for neuro-navigated TBS. Participants were targeted with one train of TBS in three experimental sessions: sham stimulation over vertex, continuous TBS (cTBS) over PMd and intermittent TBS (iTBS) over PMd, respectively...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
F Mushtaq, R C Baraas, L M Al-Saud, I Mirghani, C van der Zee, E Yates, A Keeling, M A Mon-Williams, M Manogue
A perennial question in dental education is: what skills and aptitudes should be assessed in prospective dental students? Intellectual capacity and manual dexterity understandably rank highly, but are there minimum thresholds for visual perception that applicants need be able to demonstrate before they enter the profession? We have recently flagged this issue with regard to the thresholds of stereoscopic acuity required for a dentist when operating on teeth. In the present article, we highlight the issue of identifying a minimum acceptable level of colour vision...
September 9, 2016: British Dental Journal
Rudolf Psotta, Ondřej Brom
The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition is one of the most frequently used tests for assessment of the fundamental motor skills in children. However, there is the question which sensorimotor functions are really captured by the tasks involved in the test for the preschool (3-6 years) children (age band 1). The aim of the study was to examine the factorial structure of the age band 1 test. Results of the testing by the age band 1 in a sample of three- to- six-year-old children (N = 399; 202 boys, 197 girls) were put to confirmatory factor analysis...
September 1, 2016: Perceptual and Motor Skills
Steven Dirven, Jacqueline Allen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Investigation and surgical manipulation of the larynx, pharynx, and oesophagus suffer from inherent challenges with access to the sites of interest. To reduce trauma and external scarring, visualization and minimally invasive interventions by the transnasal or transoral routes have become more prevalent. This article discusses engineering methods used to understand and overcome the mechanical constraints inside the airway and upper gastrointestinal tract, and examines the role that robotics and engineering are beginning to play in modelling of surgical interventions in this region...
August 31, 2016: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
Chiung-Ju Liu, Deana Marie, Aaron Fredrick, Jessica Bertram, Kristen Utley, Elaine Ewing Fess
BACKGROUND: Hand function is critical for independence in activities of daily living for older adults. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to examine how grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterous coordination contributed to time-based versus self-report assessment of hand function in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Adults aged ≥60 years without low vision or neurological disorders were recruited. Purdue Pegboard Test, Jamar hand dynamometer, 30-second arm curl test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument were administered to assess manual dexterous coordination, grip strength, arm curl strength, time-based hand function, and self-report of hand function, respectively...
August 30, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Jeffrey S Wefel, Kyle R Noll, Ganesh Rao, Daniel P Cahill
BACKGROUND: Patients with malignant gliomas present with variation in neurocognitive function (NCF) not attributable to lesion size or location alone. A potential contributor is the rate at which tumors grow, or "lesion momentum." Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 wild type (IDH1-WT) are more proliferative and aggressive than IDH1-mutant (IDH1-M) tumors. We hypothesized that patients with IDH1-WT would exhibit worse NCF than patients with IDH1-M tumors. METHODS: Comprehensive NCF testing was completed in 119 patients with malignant glioma prior to surgical resection...
August 30, 2016: Neuro-oncology
Johanna Neufuss, Tatyana Humle, Andrea Cremaschi, Tracy L Kivell
There has been an enduring interest in primate tool-use and manipulative abilities, most often with the goal of providing insight into the evolution of human manual dexterity, right-hand preference, and what behaviours make humans unique. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are arguably the most well-studied tool-users amongst non-human primates, and are particularly well-known for their complex nut-cracking behaviour, which has been documented in several West African populations. However, their sister-taxon, the bonobos (Pan paniscus), rarely engage in even simple tool-use and are not known to nut-crack in the wild...
August 26, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
Oyéné Kossi, Charles Sèbiyo Batcho, Thierry Adoukonou, Jean-Louis Thonnard
OBJECTIVE: Stroke is a major public health problem in developing countries. However, few studies have quantified the functional recovery of stroke patients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the functional recovery of stroke patients in the Republic of Benin. METHODS: A total of 68 patients with acute stroke were recruited from hospitals and health centres in Benin. Patients were evaluated at enrolment and 1, 3 and 6 months post-stroke. The ACTIVLIM-Stroke scale, Barthel Index, and modified Rankin Scale were used to assess activity limitations, functional autonomy, and overall level of disability, respectively...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
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