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spatial awareness

Paul Phamduy, John-Ross Rizzo, Todd E Hudson, Marina Torre, Kalle Levon, Maurizio Porfiri
Research into sensory substitution systems has expanded, as alternative senses are utilized in real-time to afford object recognition or spatial understanding. Tactile stimulation has long shown promise as a communicatory strategy when applied unobtrusively to the redundant surface areas of the skin. Here, a novel belt, integrating a matrix of macro fiber composites, is purposed to deliver tactile stimuli to the abdomen. The design and development of the belt is presented and a systematic experimental study is conducted to analyze the impact of frequency and duty cycle...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
Yuma Osako, Yoshio Sakurai, Junya Hirokawa
The dissociation between a subjective-criterion performance and forced performance in a sensory detection can provide critical insights into the neural correlates of sensory awareness. Here, we established a behavioral task for rats to test their spatial-visual cue detection ability, using a two alternative choice task with and without a third choice option where animals get rewards only in the objective absence of a visual cue. In the trials without the third option, spatial choice accuracy decreased from near perfect to near chance levels as the visual cue brightness decreased...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
S Dall'Orso, J Steinweg, A G Allievi, A D Edwards, E Burdet, T Arichi
In the mature mammalian brain, the primary somatosensory and motor cortices are known to be spatially organized such that neural activity relating to specific body parts can be somatopically mapped onto an anatomical "homunculus". This organization creates an internal body representation which is fundamental for precise motor control, spatial awareness and social interaction. Although it is unknown when this organization develops in humans, animal studies suggest that it may emerge even before the time of normal birth...
July 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Stephan Bartke, Alexandra E Boekhold, Jos Brils, Detlef Grimski, Uwe Ferber, Justyna Gorgon, Valérie Guérin, Franz Makeschin, Linda Maring, C Paul Nathanail, Jacques Villeneuve, Josef Zeyer, Christoph Schröter-Schlaack
We introduce the INSPIRATION bottom-up approach for the development of a strategic research agenda for spatial planning, land use and soil-sediment-water-system management in Europe. Research and innovation needs were identified by more than 500 European funders, endusers, scientists, policy makers, public administrators and consultants. We report both on the concept and on the implementation of the bottom-up approach, provide a critique of the process and draw key lessons for the development of research agendas in the future...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
R N Gejl, P L Bjerg, H J Henriksen, M Z Hauschild, J Rasmussen, M Rygaard
Understanding groundwater abstraction effects is vital for holistic impact assessments in areas depending on groundwater resources. The objective of our study was to modify the state-of-the-art AWaRe (available water remaining), freshwater impact assessment specifically for use in LCAs in areas dependent on groundwater resources. The new method, called "AGWaRe" (available groundwater remaining), reflects groundwater availability, based on a fraction of available groundwater remaining locally relative to a reference...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Sandra Payen, Shelley Falconer, Stewart F Ledgard
Water scarcity footprinting now has a consensual life cycle impact assessment indicator recommended by the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative called AWaRe. It was used in this study to calculate the water scarcity footprint of New Zealand (NZ) milk produced in two contrasting regions; "non-irrigated moderate rainfall" (Waikato) and "irrigated low rainfall" (Canterbury). Two different spatial and temporal resolutions for the inventory flows and characterisation factors (CFs) were tested and compared: country and annual vs...
May 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ben William Strafford, Pawel van der Steen, Keith Davids, Joseph Antony Stone
Analyses of talent development in sport have identified that skill can be enhanced through early and continued involvement in donor sports which share affordances (opportunities for action) with a performer's main target sport. Aligning key ideas of the Athletic Skills Model and ecological dynamics theory, we propose how the sport of parkour could provide a representative and adaptive platform for developing athletic skill (e.g. coordination, timing, balance, agility, spatial awareness and muscular strength)...
May 24, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Luiz Fernando F G de Assis, Flávio E A Horita, Edison P de Freitas, Jó Ueyama, João Porto de Albuquerque
The increasing number of sensors used in diverse applications has provided a massive number of continuous, unbounded, rapid data and requires the management of distinct protocols, interfaces and intermittent connections. As traditional sensor networks are error-prone and difficult to maintain, the study highlights the emerging role of "citizens as sensors" as a complementary data source to increase public awareness. To this end, an interoperable, reusable middleware for managing spatial, temporal, and thematic data using Sensor Web Enablement initiative services and a processing engine was designed, implemented, and deployed...
May 24, 2018: Sensors
David Becker, Stephen Cain
Space object detection is of great importance in the highly dependent yet competitive and congested space domain. The detection algorithms employed play a crucial role in fulfilling the detection component in the space situational awareness mission to detect, track, characterize, and catalog unknown space objects. Many current space detection algorithms use a matched filter or a spatial correlator on long-exposure data to make a detection decision at a single pixel point of a spatial image based on the assumption that the data follow a Gaussian distribution...
May 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Cooper A Smout, Jason B Mattingley
Recent evidence suggests that voluntary spatial attention can affect neural processing of visual stimuli that do not enter conscious awareness (i.e., invisible stimuli), supporting the notion that attention and awareness are dissociable processes [Wyart, V., Dehaene, S., & Tallon-Baudry, C. Early dissociation between neural signatures of endogenous spatial attention and perceptual awareness during visual masking. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 1-14, 2012; Watanabe, M., Cheng, K., Murayama, Y., Ueno, K...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Stephan Arlt, Hansrudi Noser, Andreas Wienke, Florian Radetzki, Gunther Olaf Hofmann, Thomas Mendel
BACKGROUND: Acetabular fracture surgery is directed toward anatomical reduction and stable fixation to allow for the early functional rehabilitation of an injured hip joint. Recent biomechanical investigations have shown the superiority of using an additional screw in the infraacetabular (IA) region, thereby transfixing the separated columns to strengthen the construct by closing the periacetabular fixation frame. However, the inter-individual existence and variance concerning secure IA screw corridors are poorly understood...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Anthony M Harris, Paul E Dux, Jason B Mattingley
Delineating the neural correlates of sensory awareness is a key requirement for developing a neuroscientific understanding of consciousness. A neural signal that has been proposed as a key neural correlate of awareness is amplitude reduction of 8-14 Hz alpha oscillations. Alpha oscillations are also closely linked to processes of spatial attention, providing potential alternative explanations for past results associating alpha oscillations with awareness. We employed a no-report inattentional blindness (IB) paradigm with electroencephalography to examine the association between awareness and the power of 8-14 Hz alpha oscillations...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Biyu J He
While neuroscientific research on perceptual awareness has traditionally focused on the spatial and temporal localizations of neural activity underlying conscious processing, recent development suggests that the dynamic characteristics of spatiotemporally distributed neural activity contain important clues about the neural computational mechanisms underlying conscious processing. Here, we summarize recent progress.
May 12, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Isabella Pasqualini, Maria Laura Blefari, Tej Tadi, Andrea Serino, Olaf Blanke
The environment shapes our experience of space in constant interaction with the body. Architectonic interiors amplify the perception of space through the bodily senses; an effect also known as embodiment. The interaction of the bodily senses with the space surrounding the body can be tested experimentally through the manipulation of multisensory stimulation and measured via a range of behaviors related to bodily self-consciousness. Many studies have used Virtual Reality to show that visuotactile conflicts mediated via a virtual body or avatar can disrupt the unified subjective experience of the body and self...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
John Salamon, Xiaoyan Qian, Mats Nilsson, David John Lynn
In situ sequencing methods generate spatially resolved RNA localization and expression data at an almost single-cell resolution. Few methods, however, currently exist to analyze and visualize the complex data that is produced, which can encode the localization and expression of a million or more individual transcripts in a tissue section. Here, we present InsituNet, an application that converts in situ sequencing data into interactive network-based visualizations, where each unique transcript is a node in the network and edges represent the spatial co-expression relationships between transcripts...
April 27, 2018: Cell Systems
Xiaolu Zhou, Dongying Li
BACKGROUND: Advancement in location-aware technologies, and information and communication technology in the past decades has furthered our knowledge of the interaction between human activities and the built environment. An increasing number of studies have collected data regarding individual activities to better understand how the environment shapes human behavior. Despite this growing interest, some challenges exist in collecting and processing individual's activity data, e.g., capturing people's precise environmental contexts and analyzing data at multiple spatial scales...
May 9, 2018: International Journal of Health Geographics
Alicia Meconi, Ryan C Wortman, David K Wright, Katie J Neale, Melissa Clarkson, Sandy R Shultz, Brian R Christie
Repeated concussion is becoming increasingly recognized as a serious public health concern around the world. Moreover, there is a greater awareness amongst health professionals of the potential for repeated pediatric concussions to detrimentally alter the structure and function of the developing brain. To better study this issue, we developed an awake closed head injury (ACHI) model that enabled repeated concussions to be performed reliably and reproducibly in juvenile rats. A neurological assessment protocol (NAP) score was generated immediately after each ACHI to help quantify the cumulative effects of repeated injury on level of consciousness, and basic motor and reflexive capacity...
2018: PloS One
Fatemeh Jahanishakib, Seyed Hamed Mirkarimi, Abdolrassoul Salmanmahiny, Fatemeh Poodat
Efficient land use management requires awareness of past changes, present actions, and plans for future developments. Part of these requirements is achieved using scenarios that describe a future situation and the course of changes. This research aims to link scenario results with spatially explicit and quantitative forecasting of land use development. To develop land use scenarios, SMIC PROB-EXPERT and MORPHOL methods were used. It revealed eight scenarios as the most probable. To apply the scenarios, we considered population growth rate and used a cellular automata-Markov chain (CA-MC) model to implement the quantified changes described by each scenario...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Shota Uono, Wataru Sato, Reiko Sawada, Takanori Kochiyama, Toichi Motomi
Eye gaze triggers attentional shifts with and without conscious awareness. It remains unclear whether the spatiotemporal patterns of electric neural activity are the same for conscious and unconscious attentional shifts. Thus, the present study recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) and evaluated the neural activation involved in attentional orienting induced by subliminal and supraliminal gaze cues. Nonpredictive gaze cues were presented in the central field of vision, and participants were asked to detect a subsequent peripheral target...
May 4, 2018: Biological Psychology
Yuankai Qi, Lei Qin, Jian Zhang, Shengping Zhang, Qingming Huang, Ming-Hsuan Yang
Sparse coding has been applied to visual tracking and related vision problems with demonstrated success in recent years. Existing tracking methods based on local sparse coding sample patches from a target candidate and sparsely encode these using a dictionary consisting of patches sampled from target template images. The discriminative strength of existing methods based on local sparse coding is limited as spatial structure constraints among the template patches are not exploited. To address this problem, we propose a structure-aware local sparse coding algorithm, which encodes a target candidate using templates with both global and local sparsity constraints...
August 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
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