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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419682/game-theoretical-mapping-of-causal-interactions-underlying-visuo-spatial-attention-in-the-human-brain-based-on-stroke-lesions
#1
Monica N Toba, Melissa Zavaglia, Federica Rastelli, Romain Valabrégue, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Antoni Valero-Cabré, Claus C Hilgetag
Anatomical studies conducted in neurological conditions have developed our understanding of the causal relationships between brain lesions and their clinical consequences. The analysis of lesion patterns extended across brain networks has been particularly useful in offering new insights on brain-behavior relationships. Here we applied multiperturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), a multivariate method based on coalitional game theory inferring causal regional contributions to specific behavioral outcomes from the characteristic functional deficits after stroke lesions...
April 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414113/sept8a-and-sept8b-mrna-expression-in-the-developing-and-adult-zebrafish
#2
Constantin Berger, Frederik Helmprobst, Prisca Chapouton, Christina Lillesaar, Christian Stigloher
Septins are highly conserved GTP-binding proteins involved in numerous cellular processes. Despite a growing awareness of their roles in the cell biology, development and signal transmission in nervous systems, comparably little is known about precise septin expression. Here, we use the well-established model organism zebrafish (Danio rerio) to unravel the expression of sept8a and sept8b, with special focus on the CNS. We performed whole mount RNA in situ hybridization on zebrafish 1-4 dpf in combination with serial sectioning of epon-embedded samples as well as on brain sections of adult zebrafish to obtain precise histological mapping of gene expression...
April 14, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385053/using-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-to-restore-right-occipital-cortex-activity-in-patients-with-left-visuo-spatial-neglect-proof-of-principle-and-preliminary-results
#3
Fabien Robineau, Arnaud Saj, Rémi Neveu, Dimitri Van De Ville, Frank Scharnowski, Patrik Vuilleumier
Hemineglect is common after right parietal stroke, characterised by impaired awareness for stimuli in left visual space, with suppressed neural activity in the right visual cortex due to losses in top-down attention signals. Here we sought to assess whether hemineglect patients are able to up-regulate their right visual cortex activity using auditory real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback. We also examined any effect of this training procedure on neglect severity. Two different neurofeedback methods were used...
April 6, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375321/great-a-gradient-based-color-sampling-scheme-for-retinex
#4
Michela Lecca, Alessandro Rizzi, Raul Paolo Serapioni
Modeling the local color spatial distribution is a crucial step for the algorithms of the Milano Retinex family. Here we present GREAT, a novel, noise-free Milano Retinex implementation based on an image-aware spatial color sampling. For each channel of a color input image, GREAT computes a 2D set of edges whose magnitude exceeds a pre-defined threshold. Then GREAT re-scales the channel intensity of each image pixel, called target, by the average of the intensities of the selected edges weighted by a function of their positions, gradient magnitudes, and intensities relative to the target...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358684/grass-a-gradient-based-sampling-scheme-for-retinex
#5
Michela Lecca, Alessandro Rizzi, Raul P Serapioni
Retinex is an early and famous theory attempting to estimate the human color sensation derived from an observed scene. When applied to a digital image, the original implementation of Retinex estimates the color sensation by modifying the pixels channel intensities with respect to a local reference white, selected from a set of random paths. The spatial search of the local reference white influences the final estimation. The recent algorithm Energy-driven Termite Retinex (ETR), as well as its predecessor Termite Retinex, has introduced a new path-based image aware sampling scheme, where the paths depend on local visual properties of the input image...
March 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334687/neurocognitive-status-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-brain-tumors-in-good-neurological-condition-the-impact-of-tumor-type-volume-and-location
#6
Philipp Hendrix, Elisa Hans, Christoph J Griessenauer, Andreas Simgen, Joachim Oertel, Julia Karbach
OBJECTIVE: Neurocognitive function is of great importance in patients with brain tumors. Even patients in good neurological condition may suffer from neurocognitive dysfunction that affects their daily living. The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for neurocognitive dysfunction in patients suffering from common supratentorial brain tumors with minor neurological deficits. METHODS: A prospective study evaluating neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with a newly-diagnosed brain tumor in good neurological condition was performed at a major German academic institution...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289998/slim-slit-lamp-image-mosaicing-handling-reflection-artifacts
#7
Kristina Prokopetc, Adrien Bartoli
PURPOSE: The slit lamp is an essential instrument for eye care. It is used in navigated laser treatment with retina mosaicing to assist diagnosis. Specifics of the imaging setup introduce bothersome illumination artifacts. They not only degrade the quality of the mosaic but may also affect the diagnosis. Existing solutions in SLIM manage to deal with strong glares which corrupt the retinal content entirely while leaving aside the correction of semitransparent specular highlights and lens flare...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287018/do-you-remember-where-sounds-pictures-and-words-came-from-the-role-of-the-stimulus-format-in-object-location-memory
#8
Franco Delogu, Christopher C Lilla
Contrasting results in visual and auditory spatial memory stimulate the debate over the role of sensory modality and attention in identity-to-location binding. We investigated the role of sensory modality in the incidental/deliberate encoding of the location of a sequence of items. In 4 separated blocks, 88 participants memorised sequences of environmental sounds, spoken words, pictures and written words, respectively. After memorisation, participants were asked to recognise old from new items in a new sequence of stimuli...
March 13, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284987/orienting-of-attention-with-and-without-cue-awareness
#9
Laura Herreros, Anthony J Lambert, Ana B Chica
Many cognitive processes operate without consciousness, and exogenous attentional capture seems to be one of them. While endogenously attending to the opposite location of a cue cannot occur without cue awareness, attending the cued location in an exogenous or stimulus driven form can occur even when participants are not aware of the presence of the cue (McCormick, 1997). Orienting attention to a specific location shortens reaction times to supra-threshold stimuli, and increases the likelihood of consciously perceiving near-threshold stimuli in that location...
March 8, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270759/attentional-modulation-of-change-detection-erp-components-by-peripheral-retro-cueing
#10
Paula Pazo-Álvarez, Adriana Roca-Fernández, Francisco-Javier Gutiérrez-Domínguez, Elena Amenedo
Change detection is essential for visual perception and performance in our environment. However, observers often miss changes that should be easily noticed. A failure in any of the processes involved in conscious detection (encoding the pre-change display, maintenance of that information within working memory, and comparison of the pre and post change displays) can lead to change blindness. Given that unnoticed visual changes in a scene can be easily detected once attention is drawn to them, it has been suggested that attention plays an important role on visual awareness...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257402/poorly-controlled-diabetes-in-new-york-city-mapping-high-density-neighborhoods
#11
Winfred Y Wu, Qun Jiang, Steve S Di Lonardo
OBJECTIVE: To identify geographic areas in New York City (NYC) for implementing programming focused on reducing the burden attributed to poor glycemic control and improving the health of New Yorkers. DESIGN: We geocoded addresses of NYC residents in the NYC Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C) Registry with high (>9%) HbA1c test values from 2011 to 2013 on an NYC base map. The ArcGIS point density spatial analysis tool was applied to create a map of NYC residents with diabetes in poor glycemic control...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254649/altered-perceptual-pseudoneglect-in-adhd-evidence-for-a-functional-disconnection-from-early-visual-activation
#12
Jiaqing Chen, Matthias Niemeier
Novel insights into the right-brain dominant functions of spatial attention and visual awareness may come from the peculiar observation that the attentional bias to the left in healthy individuals, called "pseudoneglect," increases with visual noise superimposed onto test stimuli. However, it is unclear if this effect originates from noise activating early visual areas or causing higher-level cognitive interference. Cognitive distraction and load are known to induce neglect-like rightward biases in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
February 28, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245489/eidolons-novel-stimuli-for-vision-research
#13
Jan Koenderink, Matteo Valsecchi, Andrea van Doorn, Johan Wagemans, Karl Gegenfurtner
Meanings and qualities are fundamental attributes of visual awareness. We propose "eidolons" as a tool for establishing equivalence classes of appearance along meaningful dimensions. The "eidolon factory" is an algorithm that generates stimuli in such a meaningful and transparent way. The algorithm allows us to focus on location, scale, and size of perceptually salient structures, proto-objects, and perhaps even semantics rather than global overall parameters, such as contrast and spatial frequency. The eidolon factory is based on models of the psychogenesis of visual awareness...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242690/human-started-wildfires-expand-the-fire-niche-across-the-united-states
#14
Jennifer K Balch, Bethany A Bradley, John T Abatzoglou, R Chelsea Nagy, Emily J Fusco, Adam L Mahood
The economic and ecological costs of wildfire in the United States have risen substantially in recent decades. Although climate change has likely enabled a portion of the increase in wildfire activity, the direct role of people in increasing wildfire activity has been largely overlooked. We evaluate over 1.5 million government records of wildfires that had to be extinguished or managed by state or federal agencies from 1992 to 2012, and examined geographic and seasonal extents of human-ignited wildfires relative to lightning-ignited wildfires...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239342/informative-cues-facilitate-saccadic-localization-in-blindsight-monkeys
#15
Masatoshi Yoshida, Ziad M Hafed, Tadashi Isa
Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237431/early-visual-processing-allows-for-selective-behavior-shifts-of-attention-and-conscious-visual-experience-in-spite-of-masking
#16
Sébastien M Crouzet, Lyudmyla Y Kovalenko, Simon Hviid Del Pin, Morten Overgaard, Niko A Busch
Object-substitution masking (OSM) occurs when a briefly displayed target in a search array is surrounded by a mask, which remains onscreen after the target has disappeared. It has been suggested that OSM results from a specific interference with reentrant visual processing, while the initial feedforward processing is left intact. Here, we tested the prediction that the fastest saccadic responses towards a masked target, supposedly triggered before the onset of reentrant processing, are not impaired by OSM. Indeed, saccades faster than 350ms "escaped" the influence of the mask...
February 22, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210486/touch-accelerates-visual-awareness
#17
Claudia Lunghi, Luca Lo Verde, David Alais
To efficiently interact with the external environment, our nervous system combines information arising from different sensory modalities. Recent evidence suggests that cross-modal interactions can be automatic and even unconscious, reflecting the ecological relevance of cross-modal processing. Here, we use continuous flash suppression (CFS) to directly investigate whether haptic signals can interact with visual signals outside of visual awareness. We measured suppression durations of visual gratings rendered invisible by CFS either during visual stimulation alone or during visuo-haptic stimulation...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208745/astrocytic-pathological-calcium-homeostasis-and-impaired-vesicle-trafficking-in-neurodegeneration
#18
REVIEW
Nina Vardjan, Alexej Verkhratsky, Robert Zorec
Although the central nervous system (CNS) consists of highly heterogeneous populations of neurones and glial cells, clustered into diverse anatomical regions with specific functions, there are some conditions, including alertness, awareness and attention that require simultaneous, coordinated and spatially homogeneous activity within a large area of the brain. During such events, the brain, representing only about two percent of body mass, but consuming one fifth of body glucose at rest, needs additional energy to be produced...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202719/sleep-enhances-knowledge-of-routes-and-regions-in-spatial-environments
#19
Hannes Noack, Wiebke Schick, Hanspeter Mallot, Jan Born
Sleep is thought to preferentially consolidate hippocampus-dependent memory, and as such, spatial navigation. Here, we investigated the effects of sleep on route knowledge and explicit and implicit semantic regions in a virtual environment. Sleep, compared with wakefulness, improved route knowledge and also enhanced awareness of the semantic regionalization within the environment, whereas signs of implicit regionalization remained unchanged. Results support the view that sleep specifically enhances explicit aspects of memory, also in the spatial domain...
March 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181903/widespread-activity-of-multiple-lineages-of-usutu-virus-western-europe-2016
#20
Daniel Cadar, Renke Lühken, Henk van der Jeugd, Mutien Garigliany, Ute Ziegler, Markus Keller, Jennifer Lahoreau, Lars Lachmann, Norbert Becker, Marja Kik, Bas B Oude Munnink, Stefan Bosch, Egbert Tannich, Annick Linden, Volker Schmidt, Marion P Koopmans, Jolianne Rijks, Daniel Desmecht, Martin H Groschup, Chantal Reusken, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit
In the summer of 2016, Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands reported widespread Usutu virus (USUV) activity based on live and dead bird surveillance. The causative USUV strains represented four lineages, of which two putative novel lineages were most likely recently introduced into Germany and spread to other western European countries. The spatial extent of the outbreak area corresponded with R0 values > 1. The occurrence of the outbreak, the largest USUV epizootic registered so far in Europe, allowed us to gain insight in how a recently introduced arbovirus with potential public health implications can spread and become a resident pathogen in a naïve environment...
January 26, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
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