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spatial awareness

Zakaryah Abdulkarim, H Henrik Ehrsson
Precise knowledge of one's limbs' position in space is fundamental for goal-directed action. The brain's representation of the body in space is thought to be generated through a process of multisensory integration of visual, tactile and proprioceptive signals. In this study, we devised a setup that allowed us to displace participants' right hand without their subjective awareness. We accomplished this task by instructing the participants to view a live video feed of their hand from the first-person perspective...
December 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Hong Yao, Bo Liu, Zhen You, Li Zhao
According to "the Layout Scheme of the Chemical Industry in Jiangsu Province From 2016 to 2030" and "the Development Planning in the Coastal Area of Jiangsu Province, China," several chemical industry clusters will be located in the coastal area of Jiangsu province, China, and the risk of surface water pollution will be inevitably higher in the densely populated region. To get to know the risk acceptance level of the residents near the clusters, public perception was analyzed from the five risk factors: the basic knowledge about the pollution, the negative effects on aquatic environment imposed by the clusters, the positive effects brought by the clusters, the trust of controlling aquatic pollution, and the acceptance of the clusters...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Eszter Somogyi, Lisa Jacquey, Tobias Heed, Matej Hoffmann, Jeffrey J Lockman, Lionel Granjon, Jacqueline Fagard, J Kevin O'Regan
This study focuses on how the body schema develops during the first months of life, by investigating infants' motor responses to localized vibrotactile stimulation on their limbs. Vibrotactile stimulation was provided by small buzzers that were attached to the infants' four limbs one at a time. Four age groups were compared cross-sectionally (3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-month-olds). We show that before they actually reach for the buzzer, which, according to previous studies, occurs around 7-8 months of age, infants demonstrate emerging knowledge about their body's configuration by producing specific movement patterns associated with the stimulated body area...
December 11, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Johannes Euler, Sonja Heldt
The European Union Water Framework Directive (EU WFD, 2000) calls for active inclusion of the public in the governance of waterbodies to enhance the effectiveness and legitimacy of water management schemes across the EU. As complex socio-ecological systems, river basins in western Europe could benefit from further support for inclusive management schemes. This paper makes use of case studies from Germany, England and Spain to explore the potential opportunities and challenges of different participatory management approaches...
December 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Gerardo Salvato, Gabriele De Maio, Gabriella Bottini
Stimuli of great social relevance exogenously capture attention. Here we explored the impact of body-related stimuli on endogenous attention. Additionally, we investigate the influence of internal states on biased attention towards this class of stimuli. Participants were presented with a body, face, or chair cue to hold in memory (Memory task) or to merely attend (Priming task) and, subsequently, they were asked to find a circle in an unrelated visual search task. In the valid condition, the circle was flanked by the cue...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yichong Li, Limin Wang, Xiaoqi Feng, Mei Zhang, Zhengjing Huang, Qian Deng, Maigeng Zhou, Thomas Astell-Burt, Linhong Wang
OBJECTIVES: Hypertension has been the most important risk factor for disease burden in China. We aimed to conduct the first national spatial analysis of hypertension status, awareness, treatment and control in China. METHODS: Choropleth maps were used to examine the spatial patterning of hypertension, awareness, treatment and control in a nationally and provincially representative sample of 174 389 adults from the 2013 to 2014 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factors Surveillance...
January 2018: Journal of Hypertension
Idrissa Kaboré, O Moog, A Ouéda, J Sendzimir, R Ouédraogo, W Guenda, A H Melcher
Awareness of sustainable management of water and its biological resources is rising in West Africa, but application of effective tools for biomonitoring and detecting habitats at risk in aquatic ecosystems is limited. In this study, we provide key environmental descriptors to characterize reference sites by applying the following "a priori criteria" (physical and chemical, hydro-morphological, and land use parameters) by exploring their potential to determine suitable reference sites. Using data collected from 44 sites, we identified 37 criteria that reliably identify reference conditions in semi-arid rivers by reflecting the impacts of multiple pressures ranging from low to very high intensity of human uses and impairments...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Christine M Salahub, Stephen M Emrich
To keep track of dynamically changing objects in one's environment, it is necessary to individuate them from other objects, both temporally and spatially. Spatially, objects can be selected from nearby distractors using selective attention. Temporally, object updating processes incorporate new information into existing representations over time. Both of these processes have been implicated in a type of visual masking called object-substitution masking (OSM). Previous studies have found that the number of distractors (impacting selective attention) interacts with the strength of OSM...
December 4, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Megan L Hoffman, Michael J Beran, David A Washburn
The purpose of the present study was to examine whether rhesus monkeys remember information about their own agency-along with spatial, temporal and contextual properties-from a previously experienced event. In Experiment 1, rhesus monkeys (n = 4) used symbols to reliably indicate whether they had performed or observed an event on a computer screen. In Experiment 2, naïve and experienced monkeys (n = 8) reported agency information when stringent controls for perceptual and proprioceptive cues were included...
December 1, 2017: Animal Cognition
Kevin G Chan, Michael Liebling
To achieve approximately parallel projection geometry, traditional optical projection tomography (OPT) requires the use of low numerical aperture (NA) objectives, which have a long depth-of-field at the expense of poor lateral resolution. Particularly promising methods to improve spatial resolution include ad-hoc post-processing filters that limit the effect of the system's MTF and focal-plane-scanning OPT (FPS-OPT), an alternative acquisition procedure that allows the use of higher NA objectives by limiting the effect of their shallow depth of field yet still assumes parallel projection rays during reconstruction...
November 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
Poppy L A Schoenberg, Andrea Ruf, John Churchill, Daniel P Brown, Judson A Brewer
Specific mental training cultivates diminished self-reference, encompassing non-duality, emptiness, awakened-awareness, and compassionate experiences. We aimed to elucidate the neural substrates of four distinct, interdependent Essence-of-Mind states: (1) timelessness, (2) non-preference, non-duality, non-conceptualization, (3) the view of luminosity and limitlessness, (4) unified compassionate experience of oneness (stable awakened-awareness). EEG data were collected from 30 advanced meditators concomitant to eyes-open/eyes-closed resting baseline, followed by 60-min of instructed practice...
November 20, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Antonio Carota, Julien Bogousslavsky
A right "minor hemisphere" does not exist as the right hemisphere is dominant for awareness (nosognosia), spatial attention, emotional regulation, facial and voice expressions, visual recognition, and topographical orientation. Without the right hemisphere, the world would be flat, deprived of general and spatial attentions, pointing preferentially to the right side of the space, lacking visual experiences and emotions, exhibiting diminished awareness of the self and environment. Clinical-related syndromes of the right hemisphere are unilateral spatial neglect, object and face visual agnosia, the anosognosia for hemiparesis and/or hemianopia, misidentification syndromes, mania, and other obsessions for the food and the body...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
Laura Lucas, Roulla Katiri, Pádraig Thomas Kitterick
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the subjective psychological and social effects of highly asymmetric hearing loss (single-sided deafness [SSD]) in adults. DESIGN: Three group interviews were conducted using the critical incident technique and analysed using an inductive thematic analysis. STUDY SAMPLE: Eight adults with a clinical diagnosis of a moderately severe hearing loss or greater in one ear and normal or near-normal hearing in the other ear...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
Nicholas M Fountain-Jones, William D Pearse, Luis E Escobar, Ana Alba-Casals, Scott Carver, T Jonathan Davies, Simona Kraberger, Monica Papeş, Kurt Vandegrift, Katherine Worsley-Tonks, Meggan E Craft
Identifying patterns and drivers of infectious disease dynamics across multiple scales is a fundamental challenge for modern science. There is growing awareness that it is necessary to incorporate multi-host and/or multi-parasite interactions to understand and predict current and future disease threats better, and new tools are needed to help address this task. Eco-phylogenetics (phylogenetic community ecology) provides one avenue for exploring multi-host multi-parasite systems, yet the incorporation of eco-phylogenetic concepts and methods into studies of host pathogen dynamics has lagged behind...
November 8, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
F Michael Williams-Bell, Brad Aisbett, Bernadette A Murphy, Brianna Larsen
Background: The severity of wildland fires is increasing due to continually hotter and drier summers. Firefighters are required to make life altering decisions on the fireground, which requires analytical thinking, problem solving, and situational awareness. This study aimed to determine the effects of very hot (45°C; HOT) conditions on cognitive function following periods of simulated wildfire suppression work when compared to a temperate environment (18°C; CON). Methods: Ten male volunteer firefighters intermittently performed a simulated fireground task for 3 h in both the CON and HOT environments, with cognitive function tests (paired associates learning and spatial span) assessed at baseline (cog 1) and during the final 20-min of each hour (cog 2, 3, and 4)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Véronique Cornu, Christine Schiltz, Romain Martin, Caroline Hornung
Children's development of verbal number skills (i.e., counting abilities and knowledge of the number names) presents a milestone in mathematical development. Different factors such as visuo-spatial and verbal abilities have been discussed as contributing to the development of these foundational skills. To understand the cognitive nature of verbal number skills in young children, the current study assessed the relation of preschoolers' verbal and visuo-spatial abilities to their verbal number skills. In total, 141 children aged 5 or 6 years participated in the current study...
February 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Chongyang Wang, Weijiao Li, Shuisen Chen, Dan Li, Danni Wang, Jia Liu
The movement and migration of total suspended solid (TSS) are the essential component of global material cycling and change. Based on the TSS concentrations retrieved from 112 scenes of Landsat remote sensing imageries during 1987-2015, the spatial and temporal variations of TSS concentration in high flow season and low flow seasons of six sub-regions (west shoal, west channel, middle shoal, east channel, east shoal and Pearl River Estuary Chinese White Dolphin National Nature Reserve and its adjacent waters (NNR)) of Pearl River Estuary (PRE) were analyzed and compared by statistical simulation...
October 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Virginia Best, Elin Roverud, Christine R Mason, Gerald Kidd
A hearing-aid strategy that combines a beamforming microphone array in the high frequencies with natural binaural signals in the low frequencies was examined. This strategy attempts to balance the benefits of beamforming (improved signal-to-noise ratio) with the benefits of binaural listening (spatial awareness and location-based segregation). The crossover frequency was varied from 200 to 1200 Hz, and performance was compared to full-spectrum binaural and beamformer conditions. Speech intelligibility in the presence of noise or competing speech was measured in listeners with and without hearing loss...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Julian Schmidberger, Wolfgang Kratzer, Klaus Stark, Beate Grüner
PURPOSE: Alveolar echinococcosis is a rare disease caused by the parasite Echinococcus multilocularis. The newly established national database should enable us to determine high-risk areas and evaluate the endemic levels. METHODS: The national database was implemented using SQL Workbench. We used EpiInfo™ software to display the prevalence of disease. Moran's I geodata analysis according to cluster and high risk areas was performed with GeoDa™. SAS Version 9...
October 31, 2017: Infection
Ente J J Rood, Marga G A Goris, Roan Pijnacker, Mirjam I Bakker, Rudy A Hartskeerl
Leptospirosis is a globally emerging zoonotic disease, associated with various climatic, biotic and abiotic factors. Mapping and quantifying geographical variations in the occurrence of leptospirosis and the surrounding environment offer innovative methods to study disease transmission and to identify associations between the disease and the environment. This study aims to investigate geographic variations in leptospirosis incidence in the Netherlands and to identify associations with environmental factors driving the emergence of the disease...
2017: PloS One
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