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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677578/tobacco-outlet-density-and-tobacco-knowledge-beliefs-purchasing-behaviours-and-price-among-adolescents-in-scotland
#1
Helena Tunstall, Niamh K Shortt, Claire L Niedzwiedz, Elizabeth A Richardson, Richard J Mitchell, Jamie R Pearce
Despite long-term falls in global adult smoking prevalence and over 50 years of tobacco control policies, adolescent smoking persists. Research suggests greater densities of tobacco retail outlets in residential neighbourhoods are associated with higher adolescent smoking rates. Policies to reduce retail outlets have therefore been identified by public health researchers as a potential 'new frontier' in tobacco control. Better understanding of the pathways linking density of tobacco retailers and smoking behaviour could support these policies...
February 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673109/risk-factors-associated-with-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-subtype-h5n8-outbreaks-on-broiler-duck-farms-in-south-korea
#2
W-H Kim, J-U An, J Kim, O-K Moon, S H Bae, J B Bender, S Cho
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 outbreaks occurred in poultry farms in South Korea in 2014 resulting in significant damage to the poultry industry. Between 2014 and 2016, the pandemic disease caused significant economic loss and social disruption. To evaluate the risk factors for HPAI infection in broiler duck farms, we conducted a retrospective case-control study on broiler duck farms. Forty-three farms with confirmed laboratories on premises were selected as the case group, and 43 HPAI-negative farms were designated as the control group...
April 19, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659024/predictors-of-farmers-market-shopping-among-people-receiving-supplemental-nutrition-assistance-program-benefits
#3
Darcy A Freedman, Eunlye Lee, Punam Ohri-Vachaspati, Erika Trapl, Elaine Borawski, Kimberly Bess, Susan Flocke
Promoting use of farmers' markets (FMs) is a promising community-level strategy to increase access to nutritious foods such as fruits and vegetables. Yet, FM shopping among people with Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) benefits remains low. This research examined predictors of FM shopping among SNAP recipients living within 1 mile of a FM. A cross-sectional survey of SNAP participants (N = 270) was conducted in 2015 in Cleveland and East Cleveland, OH, USA. Multinomial regression and zero-truncated Poisson regression analyses were conducted to examine factors associated with FM shopping...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648845/online-and-offline-awareness-deficits-anosognosia-for-spatial-neglect
#4
Peii Chen, Joan Toglia
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Anosognosia for spatial neglect (ASN) can be offline or online. Offline ASN is general unawareness of having experienced spatial deficits. Online ASN is an awareness deficit of underestimating spatial difficulties that likely to occur in an upcoming task (anticipatory ASN) or have just occurred during the task (emergent ASN). We explored the relationships among spatial neglect, offline ASN, anticipatory ASN, and emergent ASN. Research Method/Design: Forty-four survivors of stroke answered questionnaires assessing offline and online self-awareness of spatial problems...
April 12, 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607548/motion-robust-sub-millimeter-isotropic-diffusion-imaging-through-motion-corrected-generalized-slice-dithered-enhanced-resolution-mc-gslider-acquisition
#5
Fuyixue Wang, Berkin Bilgic, Zijing Dong, Mary Kate Manhard, Ned Ohringer, Bo Zhao, Melissa Haskell, Stephen F Cauley, Qiuyun Fan, Thomas Witzel, Elfar Adalsteinsson, Lawrence L Wald, Kawin Setsompop
PURPOSE: To develop an efficient MR technique for ultra-high resolution diffusion MRI (dMRI) in the presence of motion. METHODS: gSlider is an SNR-efficient high-resolution dMRI acquisition technique. However, subject motion is inevitable during a prolonged scan for high spatial resolution, leading to potential image artifacts and blurring. In this study, an integrated technique termed Motion Corrected gSlider (MC-gSlider) is proposed to obtain high-quality, high-resolution dMRI in the presence of large in-plane and through-plane motion...
April 1, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604534/the-lived-experiences-of-flemish-midwifery-students-undertaking-an-internship-in-suriname-a-phenomenological-study
#6
Curinckx Hilde, Welsh Marion, Nieuwenhuijze Marianne
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore the lived experience of Flemish midwifery students undertaking an internship in Suriname. DESIGN: Hermeneutic phenomenological method as described by van Manen. METHODS: Seven midwifery students from one University College were selected purposefully for an in-depth interview during their internship abroad within the period October-November 2014. All interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically...
March 21, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601265/coronary-artery-fistulas-pathophysiology-imaging-findings-and-management
#7
Gabin Yun, Tae Hyun Nam, Eun Ju Chun
Coronary artery fistulas (CAFs) are abnormal communications of coronary arteries whereby venous circuits bypass the normal capillaries within the myocardium. CAFs are rare, and most affected patients are asymptomatic. However, these fistulas are the most common coronary artery anomalies that can alter coronary hemodynamic parameters. Although most CAFs are asymptomatic in young patients, symptoms and complications become more frequent with increasing age. CAFs are characterized by variable clinical manifestations that are based on the size, origin, and drainage site of the fistula...
March 27, 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597256/geospatial-analysis-and-seasonal-distribution-of-west-nile-virus-vectors-diptera-culicidae-in-southern-ontario-canada
#8
Bryan V Giordano, Kevin W Turner, Fiona F Hunter
The purpose of this study was to establish geospatial and seasonal distributions of West Nile virus vectors in southern Ontario, Canada using historical surveillance data from 2002 to 2014. We set out to produce mosquito abundance prediction surfaces for each of Ontario's thirteen West Nile virus vectors. We also set out to determine whether elevation and proximity to conservation areas and provincial parks, wetlands, and population centres could be used to improve our model. Our results indicated that the data sets for Anopheles quadrimaculatus , Anopheles punctipennis , Anopheles walkeri , Culex salinarius , Culex tarsalis , Ochlerotatus stimulans , and Ochlerotatus triseriatus were not suitable for geospatial modelling because they are randomly distributed throughout Ontario...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594831/neurology-and-the-internet-a-review
#9
Marcello Moccia, Francesco Brigo, Gioacchino Tedeschi, Simona Bonavita, Luigi Lavorgna
Nowadays, the Internet is the major source to obtain information about diseases and their treatments. The Internet is gaining relevance in the neurological setting, considering the possibility of timely social interaction, contributing to general public awareness on otherwise less-well-known neurological conditions, promoting health equity and improving the health-related coping. Neurological patients can easily find several online opportunities for peer interactions and learning. On the other hand, neurologist can analyze user-generated data to better understand patient needs and to run epidemiological studies...
March 28, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587157/cancer-mortality-rates-and-spillover-effects-among-different-areas-a-case-study-in-campania-southern-italy
#10
Massimiliano Agovino, Maria Carmela Aprile, Antonio Garofalo, Angela Mariani
The present study analyses the spatial distribution of cancer mortality rates in Campania (an Italian region with the highest population density), in which residents in several areas are exposed to major environmental health hazards. The paper has the methodological aims of verifying the existence, or otherwise, of a spatial correlation between mortality from different types of cancer and the occurrence of some specific area characteristics, using both Bayesian statistics and spatial econometrics. We show that the use of the Spatial Empirical Bayes Smoothed Rate, instead of the more commonly used Raw Rate, allows a more comprehensive analysis of the mortality rate, highlighting the existence of different cluster sizes throughout the region, according to the type of cancer mortality rate analysed...
March 21, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561314/neuropsychological-profile-of-a-girl-with-wiskott-aldrich-syndrome
#11
Andrea M Byrne, Tal Schechter, Robyn Westmacott
We report the neuropsychological profile of a 6-year-old girl with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, a rare X-linked immunodeficiency disorder associated with thrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, and malignancy. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome occurs almost exclusively in males and is extremely rare in females, with no known research focused on cognitive and academic functioning in this population. Our patient was referred due to concerns about her memory and academic functioning. She had a history of progressive thrombocytopenia and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at age 15 months...
March 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544779/slam-based-dense-surface-reconstruction-in-monocular-minimally-invasive-surgery-and-its-application-to-augmented-reality
#12
Long Chen, Wen Tang, Nigel W John, Tao Ruan Wan, Jian Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) offers considerable benefits to patients, it also imposes big challenges on a surgeon's performance due to well-known issues and restrictions associated with the field of view (FOV), hand-eye misalignment and disorientation, as well as the lack of stereoscopic depth perception in monocular endoscopy. Augmented Reality (AR) technology can help to overcome these limitations by augmenting the real scene with annotations, labels, tumour measurements or even a 3D reconstruction of anatomy structures at the target surgical locations...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543174/the-effect-of-transition-type-in-multi-view-360%C3%A2-media
#13
Andrew MacQuarrie, Anthony Steed
360° images and video have become extremely popular formats for immersive displays, due in large part to the technical ease of content production. While many experiences use a single camera viewpoint, an increasing number of experiences use multiple camera locations. In such multi-view 360° media (MV360M) systems, a visual effect is required when the user transitions from one camera location to another. This effect can take several forms, such as a cut or an image-based warp, and the choice of effect may impact many aspects of the experience, including issues related to enjoyment and scene understanding...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540406/impact-of-mammography-screening-programmes-on-breast-cancer-mortality-in-switzerland-a-country-with-different-regional-screening-policies
#14
Christian Herrmann, Penelope Vounatsou, Beat Thürlimann, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Christian Rothermundt, Silvia Ess
INTRODUCTION: In the past decades, mortality due to breast cancer has declined considerably in Switzerland and other developed countries. The reasons for this decline remain controversial as several factors occurred almost simultaneously, including important advances in treatment approaches, breast cancer awareness and the introduction of mammography screening programmes in many European countries. In Switzerland, mammography screening programmes (MSPs) have existed in some regions for over 20 years but do not yet exist in others...
March 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538421/endothiodon-cf-bathystoma-synapsida-dicynodontia-bony-labyrinth-anatomy-variation-and-body-mass-estimates
#15
Ricardo Araújo, Vincent Fernandez, Richard D Rabbitt, Eric G Ekdale, Miguel T Antunes, Rui Castanhinha, Jörg Fröbisch, Rui M S Martins
The semicircular canal (SC) system of the inner ear detects head angular accelerations and is essential for navigation and spatial awareness in vertebrates. Because the bony labyrinth encloses the membranous labyrinth SCs, it can be used as a proxy for animal behavior. The bony labyrinth of dicynodonts, a clade of herbivorous non-mammalian synapsids, has only been described in a handful of individuals and remains particularly obscure. Here we describe the bony labyrinth anatomy of three Endothiodon cf. bathystoma specimens from Mozambique based on digital reconstructions from propagation phase-contrast synchrotron micro-computed tomography...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533899/diverse-region-based-cnn-for-hyperspectral-image-classification
#16
Mengmeng Zhang, Wei Li, Qian Du
Convolutional neural network (CNN) is of great interest in machine learning and has demonstrated excellent performance in hyperspectral image classification. In this paper, we propose a classification framework, called diverse region-based CNN, which can encode semantic context-aware representation to obtain promising features. With merging a diverse set of discriminative appearance factors, the resulting CNN-based representation exhibits spatial-spectral context sensitivity that is essential for accurate pixel classification...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533659/a-microfluidic-co-culture-device-for-monitoring-of-inflammation-induced-myocardial-injury-dynamics
#17
Xiaoni Ai, Wenbo Lu, Kewu Zeng, Chun Li, Yong Jiang, Peng-Fei Tu
Emerging awareness of cardiac macrophages' role in inflammation after myocardial infarction indicates that overabundant pro-inflammatory macrophages induce accentuated myocardial injury. The investigation of macrophages-cardiomyocytes interaction and inflammation-induced dynamic damage in myocardial infarction, especially in a spatiotemporally controlled manner, remains a huge challenge. Here, we developed an in vitro model using a microfluidic co-culture system to mimic inflammatory cardiac injury. To our knowledge, on-chip pathological models focused on inflammation-induced myocardial injury have not been reported...
March 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533165/a-spatial-analysis-of-the-potato-cyst-nematode-globodera-pallida-in-idaho
#18
Louise-Marie Dandurand, Jean Bertrand Contina, Guy R Knudsen
The potato cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera pallida, is a globally regulated and quarantine potato pest. It was detected for the first time in the U.S. in the state of Idaho in 2006. A spatial analysis was performed to: (i) understand the spatial arrangement of PCN infested fields in southern Idaho using spatial point pattern analysis; and (ii) evaluate the potential threat of PCN for entry to new areas using spatial interpolation techniques. Data point locations, cyst numbers and egg viability values for each infested field were collected by USDA-APHIS during 2006-2014...
March 13, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519463/unilateral-spatial-neglect-after-posterior-parietal-damage
#19
Giuseppe Vallar, Elena Calzolari
Unilateral spatial neglect is a disabling neurologic deficit, most frequent and severe after right-hemispheric lesions. In most patients neglect involves the left side of space, contralateral to a right-hemispheric lesion. About 50% of stroke patients exhibit neglect in the acute phase. Patients fail to orient, respond to, and report sensory events occurring in the contralateral sides of space and of the body, to explore these portions of space through movements by action effectors (eye, limbs), and to move the contralateral limbs...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519454/the-parietal-cortex-and-pain-perception-a-body-protection-system
#20
Alberto Gallace, Valeria Bellan
Pain is a very relevant function for our survival and its alteration leads to important consequences for people's lives. In the last decades, researchers have started to investigate pain from a neurocognitive and neuropsychologic perspective, showing some important similarities and differences with other cognitive and perceptual functions. The complexity of pain perception, due to its multicomponential nature, has led to the need to interpret pain within a multisensory frame of reference. That is, this function and its neural foundation cannot be fully understood without taking into consideration the processing of other information that is concurrently presented together with noxious stimuli...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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