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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648569/impaired-processing-of-facial-happiness-with-or-without-awareness-in-developmental-prosopagnosia
#1
Edwin J Burns, Joel Martin, Alice H D Chan, Hong Xu
Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is associated with severe, lifelong deficits in face recognition, with such cases often cited as support for a dissociation between the processing of facial identity and emotion. Here we examine the evidence against this dissociation and propose that the processing of facial happiness, either with or without awareness, is actually integrated within the same neural network involved in facial identity recognition. We also test this hypothesis on a group of DP cases and neurotypical controls (NT) by adapting them to expressionless neutral faces, intact happy faces and hybrid faces...
June 22, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620399/timing-is-important-unmanned-aircraft-vs-satellite-imagery-in-plant-invasion-monitoring
#2
Jana Müllerová, Josef Brůna, Tomáš Bartaloš, Petr Dvořák, Michaela Vítková, Petr Pyšek
The rapid spread of invasive plants makes their management increasingly difficult. Remote sensing offers a means of fast and efficient monitoring, but still the optimal methodologies remain to be defined. The seasonal dynamics and spectral characteristics of the target invasive species are important factors, since, at certain time of the vegetation season (e.g., at flowering or senescing), plants are often more distinct (or more visible beneath the canopy). Our aim was to establish fast, repeatable and a cost-efficient, computer-assisted method applicable over larger areas, to reduce the costs of extensive field campaigns...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617810/population-level-impact-of-an-accelerated-hiv-response-plan-to-reach-the-unaids-90-90-90-target-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-insights-from-mathematical-modeling
#3
Mathieu Maheu-Giroux, Juan F Vesga, Souleymane Diabaté, Michel Alary, Stefan Baral, Daouda Diouf, Kouamé Abo, Marie-Claude Boily
BACKGROUND: National responses will need to be markedly accelerated to achieve the ambitious target of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). This target aims for 90% of HIV-positive individuals to be aware of their status, for 90% of those aware to receive antiretroviral therapy (ART), and for 90% of those on treatment to have a suppressed viral load by 2020, with each individual target reaching 95% by 2030. We aimed to estimate the impact of various treatment-as-prevention scenarios in Côte d'Ivoire, one of the countries with the highest HIV incidence in West Africa, with unmet HIV prevention and treatment needs, and where key populations are important to the broader HIV epidemic...
June 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610951/filling-the-gap-evidence-for-a-spatial-differentiation-in-trace-eyeblink-conditioning
#4
Mauro F Larra, Andreas Behrje, Johannes B Finke, Terry D Blumenthal, Hartmut Schächinger
Trace eyeblink conditioning is used as a translational model of declarative memory but restricted to the temporal domain. Potential spatial aspects have never been experimentally addressed. We employed a spatiotemporal trace eyeblink conditioning paradigm in which a spatial dimension (application side of the unconditioned stimulus) was differentially coded by tone frequency of the conditioned stimulus and recorded conditioned reactions from both eyes. We found more and stronger conditioned reactions at the side predicted by the conditioned stimulus but only in aware participants...
June 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579860/distinguishing-motor-weakness-from-impaired-spatial-awareness-a-helping-hand
#5
Suneil A Raju, Charles R Swift, Karna Dev Bardhan
Our patient, aged 73 years, had background peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause, stable for several years, which caused some difficulty in walking on uneven ground. He attended for a teaching session but now staggered in, a new development. He had apparent weakness of his right arm, but there was difficulty in distinguishing motor weakness from impaired spatial awareness suggestive of parietal lobe dysfunction. With the patient seated, eyes closed, and left arm outstretched, S.A.R. lifted the patient's right arm and asked him to indicate when both were level...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555147/contemporary-remotely-sensed-data-products-refine-invasive-plants-risk-mapping-in-data-poor-regions
#6
Tuyet T A Truong, Giles E St J Hardy, Margaret E Andrew
Invasive weeds are a serious problem worldwide, threatening biodiversity and damaging economies. Modeling potential distributions of invasive weeds can prioritize locations for monitoring and control efforts, increasing management efficiency. Forecasts of invasion risk at regional to continental scales are enabled by readily available downscaled climate surfaces together with an increasing number of digitized and georeferenced species occurrence records and species distribution modeling techniques. However, predictions at a finer scale and in landscapes with less topographic variation may require predictors that capture biotic processes and local abiotic conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534776/globally-consistent-wrinkle-aware-shading-of-line-drawings
#7
Pradeep Kumar Jayaraman, Chi-Wing Fu, Jianmin Zheng, Xueting Liu, Tien-Tsin Wong
Shading is a tedious process for artists involved in 2D cartoon and manga production given the volume of contents that the artists have to prepare regularly over tight schedule. While we can automate shading production with the presence of geometry, it is impractical for artists to model the geometry for every single drawing. In this work, we aim to automate shading generation by analyzing the local shapes, connections, and spatial arrangement of wrinkle strokes in a clean line drawing. By this, artists can focus more on the design rather than the tedious manual editing work, and experiment with different shading effects under different conditions...
May 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534647/considering-built-environment-and-spatial-correlation-in-modelling-pedestrian-injury-severity
#8
Carlo G Prato, Sigal Kaplan, Alexandre Patrier, Thomas K Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: This study looks at mitigating and aggravating factors that are associated with the injury severity of pedestrians when they have crashes with another road user and overcomes existing limitations in the literature by posing attention on the built environment and considering spatial correlation across crashes. METHOD: Reports for 6539 pedestrian crashes occurred in Denmark between 2006 and 2015 were merged with geographic information system resources containing detailed information about built environment and exposure at the crash locations...
May 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531155/developing-health-related-indicators-of-climate-change-australian-stakeholder-perspectives
#9
Maryam Navi, Alana Hansen, Monika Nitschke, Scott Hanson-Easey, Dino Pisaniello
Climate-related health indicators are potentially useful for tracking and predicting the adverse public health effects of climate change, identifying vulnerable populations, and monitoring interventions. However, there is a need to understand stakeholders' perspectives on the identification, development, and utility of such indicators. A qualitative approach was used, comprising semi-structured interviews with key informants and service providers from government and non-government stakeholder organizations in South Australia...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525938/logistic-regression-model-for-detecting-radon-prone-areas-in-ireland
#10
J Elío, Q Crowley, R Scanlon, J Hodgson, S Long
A new high spatial resolution radon risk map of Ireland has been developed, based on a combination of indoor radon measurements (n=31,910) and relevant geological information (i.e. Bedrock Geology, Quaternary Geology, soil permeability and aquifer type). Logistic regression was used to predict the probability of having an indoor radon concentration above the national reference level of 200Bqm(-3) in Ireland. The four geological datasets evaluated were found to be statistically significant, and, based on combinations of these four variables, the predicted probabilities ranged from 0...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520988/geographical-inequality-in-tobacco-control-in-china-multilevel-evidence-from-98-058-participants
#11
Thomas Astell-Burt, Mei Zhang, Xiaoqi Feng, Limin Wang, Yichong Li, Andrew Page, Maigeng Zhou, Linhong Wang
Background: We investigated the spatial patterning and correlates of tobacco smoking, exposure to second-hand smoke, smoking in public places, workplace smoking prohibition, pro- and counter-tobacco advertisements in mainland China. Methods: Choropleth maps and multilevel models were used to assess geographical variation and correlates of the aforementioned outcome variables for 98,058 participants across 31 provinces of China in 2010. Results: Current tobacco smoking prevalence was higher in the central provinces for men and in the north eastern provinces and Tibet for women...
May 17, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510506/signaling-at-the-crossroads-matrix-derived-proteoglycan-and-reactive-oxygen-species-signaling
#12
Madalina-Viviana Nastase, Andrea Janicova, Malgorzata Wygrecka, Liliana Schaefer
SIGNIFICANCE: Proteoglycans (PGs), besides their structural contribution, have emerged as dynamic components that mediate a multitude of cellular events. The various roles of PGs are attributed to their structure, spatial localization, and ability to act as ligands and receptors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are small mediators, which are generated in physiological and pathological conditions. Besides their reactivity and ability to induce oxidative stress, a growing body of data suggests that ROS signaling is more relevant than direct radical damage in development of human pathologies...
May 16, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508925/using-maldi-tof-ms-imaging-and-lc-hrms-for-the-investigation-of-the-degradation-of-polycaprolactone-diol-exposed-to-different-wastewater-treatments
#13
Daniel Rivas, Bozo Zonja, Peter Eichhorn, Antoni Ginebreda, Sandra Pérez, Damià Barceló
Polymers are used in high amounts in a wide range of applications from biomedicine to industry. Because of the growing awareness of the increasing amounts of plastic wastes in the aquatic environment during recent years, the evaluation of their biodegradability deserves special attention. In the past, most efforts were dedicated to studying the biodegradation of polyesters in soil and compost, while very little research has been conducted on their fate in wastewater. Here, we assessed the ability of bacterial communities residing in the aerobic and denitrification tank from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to degrade the polymeric ester polycaprolactone diol (PCLD; average molecular weight of 1250 Da)...
May 16, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490274/masked-primes-evoke-partial-responses
#14
Jennifer McBride, Petroc Sumner, Masud Husain
Backward-masked primes presented outside conscious awareness can affect responses to subsequently presented target stimuli. Differences in response times have been used to infer a pattern of sub-threshold activation and subsequent inhibition of motor plans associated with the primes. However, it is unclear whether competition between alternative responses is fully resolved in the brain, or whether activated responses can begin being executed before the final decision to act has been made. Here, we investigate the dynamics of responses evoked by masked primes using a continuous measure - voltage change in force sensing resistors simultaneously in both hands...
May 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489538/a-perception-driven-approach-to-supervised-dimensionality-reduction-for-visualization
#15
Yunhai Wang, Kang Feng, Xiaowei Chu, Jian Zhang, Chi-Wing Fu, Michael Sedlmair, Xiaohui Yu, Baoquan Chen
Dimensionality reduction (DR) is a common strategy for visual analysis of labeled high-dimensional data. Low-dimensional representations of the data help, for instance, to explore the class separability and the spatial distribution of the data. Widely-used unsupervised DR methods like PCA do not aim to maximize the class separation, while supervised DR methods like LDA often assume certain spatial distributions and do not take perceptual capabilities of humans into account. These issues make them ineffective for complicated class structures...
May 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469585/relative-spatial-frequency-processing-drives-hemispheric-asymmetry-in-conscious-awareness
#16
Elise A Piazza, Michael A Silver
Visual stimuli with different spatial frequencies (SFs) are processed asymmetrically in the two cerebral hemispheres. Specifically, low SFs are processed relatively more efficiently in the right hemisphere than the left hemisphere, whereas high SFs show the opposite pattern. In this study, we ask whether these differences between the two hemispheres reflect a low-level division that is based on absolute SF values or a flexible comparison of the SFs in the visual environment at any given time. In a recent study, we showed that conscious awareness of SF information (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462753/the-passive-surveillance-of-ticks-using-companion-animal-electronic-health-records
#17
J S P Tulloch, L McGinley, F Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M Medlock, A D Radford
Ticks represent a large global reservoir of zoonotic disease. Current surveillance systems can be time and labour intensive. We propose that the passive surveillance of companion animal electronic health records (EHRs) could provide a novel methodology for describing temporal and spatial tick activity. A total of 16 58 857 EHRs were collected over a 2-year period (31 March 2014 and 29 May 2016) from companion animals attending a large sentinel network of 192 veterinary clinics across Great Britain (the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network - SAVSNET)...
May 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455517/neural-activity-while-imitating-emotional-faces-is-related-to-both-lower-and-higher-level-social-cognitive-performance
#18
Colin Hawco, Natasa Kovacevic, Anil K Malhotra, Robert W Buchanan, Joseph D Viviano, Marco Iacoboni, Anthony R McIntosh, Aristotle N Voineskos
Imitation and observation of actions and facial emotional expressions activates the human fronto-parietal mirror network. There is skepticism regarding the role of this low-level network in more complex high-level social behaviour. We sought to test whether neural activation during an observation/imitation task was related to both lower and higher level social cognition. We employed an established observe/imitate task of emotional faces during functional MRI in 28 healthy adults, with final analyses based on 20 individuals following extensive quality control...
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451311/decreasing-the-electronic-confinement-in-layered-perovskites-through-intercalation
#19
Matthew D Smith, Laurent Pedesseau, Mikaël Kepenekian, Ian C Smith, Claudine Katan, Jacky Even, Hemamala I Karunadasa
We show that post-synthetic small-molecule intercalation can significantly reduce the electronic confinement of 2D hybrid perovskites. Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we explain structural, optical, and electronic effects of intercalating highly polarizable molecules in layered perovskites designed to stabilize the intercalants. Polarizable molecules in the organic layers substantially alter the optical and electronic properties of the inorganic layers. By calculating the spatially resolved dielectric profiles of the organic and inorganic layers within the hybrid structure, we show that the intercalants afford organic layers that are more polarizable than the inorganic layers...
March 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448253/a-map-of-abstract-relational-knowledge-in-the-human-hippocampal-entorhinal-cortex
#20
Mona M Garvert, Raymond J Dolan, Timothy Ej Behrens
The hippocampal-entorhinal system encodes a map of space that guides spatial navigation. Goal-directed behaviour outside of spatial navigation similarly requires a representation of abstract forms of relational knowledge. This information relies on the same neural system, but it is not known whether the organisational principles governing continuous maps may extend to the implicit encoding of discrete, non-spatial graphs. Here, we show that the human hippocampal-entorhinal system can represent relationships between objects using a metric that depends on associative strength...
April 27, 2017: ELife
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