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spatial awareness

Yvonne Andersson-Sköld, Jenny Klingberg, Bengt Gunnarsson, Kevin Cullinane, Ingela Gustafsson, Marcus Hedblom, Igor Knez, Fredrik Lindberg, Åsa Ode Sang, Håkan Pleijel, Pontus Thorsson, Sofia Thorsson
Ongoing urban exploitation is increasing pressure to transform urban green spaces, while there is increasing awareness that greenery provides a range of important benefits to city residents. In efforts to help resolve associated problems we have developed a framework for integrated assessments of ecosystem service (ES) benefits and values provided by urban greenery, based on the ecosystem service cascade model. The aim is to provide a method for assessing the contribution to, and valuing, multiple ES provided by urban greenery that can be readily applied in routine planning processes...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Elena Panagiotopoulou, Maria Laura Filippetti, Manos Tsakiris, Aikaterini Fotopoulou
Multisensory integration is a powerful mechanism for constructing body awareness and key for the sense of selfhood. Recent evidence has shown that the specialised C tactile modality that gives rise to feelings of pleasant, affective touch, can enhance the experience of body ownership during multisensory integration. Nevertheless, no study has examined whether affective touch can also modulate psychological identification with our face, the hallmark of our identity. The current study used the enfacement illusion paradigm to investigate the role of affective touch in the modulation of self-face recognition during multisensory integration...
October 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nicolas Burra, Alexis Hervais-Adelman, Alessia Celeghin, Beatrice de Gelder, Alan J Pegna
The human brain can process facial expressions of emotions rapidly and without awareness. Several studies in patients with damage to their primary visual cortices have shown that they may be able to guess the emotional expression on a face despite their cortical blindness. This non-conscious processing, called affective blindsight, may arise through an intact subcortical visual route that leads from the superior colliculus to the pulvinar, and thence to the amygdala. This pathway is thought to process the crude visual information conveyed by the low spatial frequencies of the stimuli...
October 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
V J Brookes, G S Gill, C K Singh, B S Sandhu, N K Dhand, B B Singh, J P S Gill, M P Ward
Previous studies estimate that one-third of the annual global burden of rabies (~20,000 cases) occurs in India. Elimination of canine rabies is essential to reduce this burden. Surveillance of animal cases can assess both the risk to humans and the efficacy of control strategies. The objective of this study was to describe the spatial and temporal occurrence of reported confirmed cases of rabies in animals in Punjab, India, from 2004 to 2014. We analysed passive surveillance data on 556 samples submitted from 2004 to 2014 to GADVASU, Ludhiana, Punjab, India...
October 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
J-P Rossi, I Kadaouré, M Godefroid, G Dobigny
Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites found worldwide, infecting humans and animals. In the past decade, the number of reports on atypical human cases due to Trypanosoma lewisi or T. lewisi-like has increased urging to investigate the multiple factors driving the disease dynamics, particularly in cities where rodents and humans co-exist at high densities. In the present survey, we used a species distribution model, Maxent, to assess the spatial pattern of Trypanosoma-positive rodents in the city of Niamey. The explanatory variables were landscape metrics describing urban landscape composition and physiognomy computed from 8 land-cover classes...
October 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Laura Almeling, Holger Sennhenn-Reulen, Kurt Hammerschmidt, Alexandra M Freund, Julia Fischer
Human aging is accompanied by a decrease in social activity and a narrowing in social networks. Studies in nonhuman primates may provide valuable comparative insights in which way aging impacts social life, in the absence of cultural conventions and an awareness of a limited lifetime. For female Barbary macaques at "La Forêt des Singes" in Rocamadour, France, we previously reported an age-associated decrease in active grooming time and network size. Here, we aimed to extend these findings by investigating in which way physical decline, spatial proximity, and aggression vary with age in female Barbary macaques...
October 6, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
Tânia Pimentel, Joana Marcelino, Fernando Ricardo, Amadeu M V M Soares, Ricardo Calado
Traceability of seafood has become crucial with market globalization and consumer's awareness. The present study used PCR-DGGE and 454 pyrosequencing to assess if bacterial communities fingerprint associated to seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) skin mucus can be used to discriminate the geographic origin of fishes cultured in three semi-intensive fish farms. PCR-DGGE and pyrosequencing results were congruent and suggested that this molecular approach has the potential to trace fish farms with a spatial resolution <500 m...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daniel Fuller, Martine Shareck, Kevin Stanley
Quantification of individual behaviours using mobile sensing devices, including physical activity and spatial location, is a rapidly growing field in both academic research and the corporate world. In this case study, we summarize the literature examining the ethical aspects of mobile sensing and argue that a robust discussion about the ethical implications of mobile sensing for research purposes has not occurred sufficiently in the literature. Based on our literature summary and guided by basic ethical principles set out in Canadian, US, and International Ethics documents we propose four areas where further discussion should occur: consent, privacy and confidentiality, mitigating risk, and consideration of vulnerable populations...
September 12, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
George A Michael, Isabelle Tapiero, Germán Gálvez-García, Laurence Jacquot
Sensations and thoughts have been described as potentially related to self-awareness. We therefore asked whether sensations that arise in the absence of external triggers, i.e., spontaneous sensations (SPS), which were shown to relate to interoception and perception of the self, vary as a function of the individual propensity to generate spontaneous thoughts, i.e., mind-wandering. The Mind Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) was used as a specific tool to assess the frequency and propensity to mind-wander several weeks before completing an SPS task...
October 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
Esther González-Martínez, Adrian Bangerter, Kim Lê Van
We conducted a workplace research project on staff mobility in a Swiss hospital outpatient clinic that involved extensive fieldwork and video recordings. The article describes monitoring practices and routines that staff engage in as they walk through the corridors and in and out of the clinic's rooms. The staff perform checks on on-going activity, share their observations with colleagues, and take responsive action while engaged in away-oriented walk or in specific roaming, action-seeking, rallying, and patrolling walk...
September 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
Won-Mo Jung, Yeonhee Ryu, Ye-Seul Lee, Christian Wallraven, Younbyoung Chae
The emotion-associated bodily sensation map is composed of a specific topographical distribution of bodily sensations to categorical emotions. The present study investigated whether or not interoceptive accuracy was associated with topographical changes in this map following emotion-induced bodily sensations. This study included 31 participants who observed short video clips containing emotional stimuli and then reported their sensations on the body map. Interoceptive accuracy was evaluated with a heartbeat detection task and the spatial patterns of bodily sensations to specific emotions, including anger, fear, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral, were visualized using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) analyses...
2017: PloS One
Gennady Andrienko, Natalia Andrienko, Georg Fuchs, Jose Manuel Cordero Garcia
Clustering of trajectories of moving objects by similarity is an important technique in movement analysis. Existing distance functions assess the similarity between trajectories based on properties of the trajectory points or segments. The properties may include the spatial positions, times, and thematic attributes. There may be a need to focus the analysis on certain parts of trajectories, i.e., points and segments that have particular properties. According to the analysis focus, the analyst may need to cluster trajectories by similarity of their relevant parts only...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Sajid Javed, Arif Mahmood, Thierry Bouwmans, Soon Ki Jung
Background estimation and foreground segmentation are important steps in many high-level vision tasks. Many existing methods estimate background as a low-rank component and foreground as a sparse matrix without incorporating the structural information. Therefore, these algorithms exhibit degraded performance in the presence of dynamic backgrounds, photometric variations, jitter, shadows, and large occlusions. We observe that these backgrounds often span multiple manifolds. Therefore, constraints that ensure continuity on those manifolds will result in better background estimation...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Bryan V Giordano, Sukhdeep Kaur, Fiona F Hunter
West Nile Virus (WNV) first arrived in Ontario, Canada in 2001 and has since spread throughout most of the province, causing disease in humans. The provincial government established a province-wide surveillance program to monitor WNV transmission throughout the 36 regional health units. Here we have acquired records of WNV human and mosquito surveillance from 2002 to 2013 to describe seasonal and geographic trends in WNV activity in southern Ontario. Additionally, we obtained climate data from seven municipalities to investigate how temperature and precipitation affect WNV transmission dynamics...
2017: PloS One
Graeme N Carvlin, Humberto Lugo, Luis Olmedo, Ester Bejarano, Alexa Wilkie, Dan Meltzer, Michelle Wong, Galatea King, Amanda Northcross, Michael Jerrett, Paul B English, Donald Hammond, Edmund Seto
The Imperial County Community Air Monitoring Network was developed as part of a community-engaged research study to provide real-time particulate matter (PM) air quality information at a high spatial resolution in Imperial County, California. The network augmented the few existing regulatory monitors and increased monitoring near susceptible populations. Monitors were both calibrated and field validated, a key component of evaluating the quality of the data produced by the community-monitoring network. This paper examines the performance of a customized version of the low-cost Dylos optical particle counter used in the community air monitors compared to both PM2...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Nathan C Higgins, Susan A McLaughlin, Teemu Rinne, G Christopher Stecker
Few auditory functions are as important or as universal as the capacity for auditory spatial awareness (e.g., sound localization). That ability relies on sensitivity to acoustical cues-particularly interaural time and level differences (ITD and ILD)-that correlate with sound-source locations. Under nonspatial listening conditions, cortical sensitivity to ITD and ILD takes the form of broad contralaterally dominated response functions. It is unknown, however, whether that sensitivity reflects representations of the specific physical cues or a higher-order representation of auditory space (i...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Charles M Giattino, Zaynah M Alam, Marty G Woldorff
Despite long being of interest to both philosophers and scientists, the relationship between attention and perceptual awareness is not well understood, especially to what extent they are even dissociable. Previous studies have shown that stimuli of which we are unaware can orient spatial attention and affect behavior. Yet, relatively little is understood about the neural processes underlying such unconscious orienting of attention, and how they compare to conscious orienting. To directly compare the cascade of attentional processes with and without awareness of the orienting stimulus, we employed a spatial-cueing paradigm and used object-substitution masking to manipulate subjects' awareness of the cues...
July 22, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Anat Gesser-Edelsburg, Yael Birman
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle change can be influenced through effective interaction between care receiver and care provider. The physical environment where the interaction occurs can affect the dynamics of long-term therapeutic treatment. There have been no studies on the perception of the physical environment in nutritional treatment. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to ascertain the impact of the physical environment on the dynamics and communication between dietitian and patient based on perceptions of dietitians...
August 17, 2017: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Anne Minert, Shai-Lee Yatziv, Marshall Devor
The transition from wakefulness to general anesthesia is widely attributed to suppressive actions of anesthetic molecules distributed by the systemic circulation to the cerebral cortex (for amnesia and loss of consciousness) and to the spinal cord (for atonia and antinociception). An alternative hypothesis proposes that anesthetics act on one or more brainstem or diencephalic nuclei, with suppression of cortex and spinal cord mediated by dedicated axonal pathways. Previously, we documented induction of an anesthesia-like state in rats by microinjection of small amounts of GABAA-receptor agonists into an upper brainstem region named the mesopontine tegmental anesthesia area (MPTA)...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Tobias Schoeberl, Thomas Ditye, Ulrich Ansorge
Prior studies using the peripheral cueing paradigm have shown that singleton cues that do not match to the top-down search settings of the observer can impair performance in visual search when the cue appears at the target location (in valid conditions) compared with when the cue appears at a location away from the target (in invalid conditions). This pattern, the same-location cost (SLC), has recently been suggested to originate from an awareness-dependent updating of object files in working memory. It has also been argued that the processes underlying the SLC could have obscured results of prior studies by masking attentional capture effects by peripheral cues under certain conditions...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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