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spatial awareness

Marco Cavarzere
This paper focuses on the shift that occurred in the spatial representation of states in the eighteenth century. This shift will be considered as a combination of institutional reforms and of a new social awareness of space. A consideration of the case of the Italian Piedmont will demonstrate how "national" space was created through antiquarian research and how a larger political confrontation took place in the guise of a learned debate. The diverse accounts of Piedmontese history under examination all employed methods derived from previous ages, relying upon a concept of space as historically continuous, embedded in time immemorial...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
Wei-Jie Guan, Xue-Yan Zheng, Kian Fan Chung, Nan-Shan Zhong
In China, where air pollution has become a major threat to public health, public awareness of the detrimental effects of air pollution on respiratory health is increasing-particularly in relation to haze days. Air pollutant emission levels in China remain substantially higher than are those in developed countries. Moreover, industry, traffic, and household biomass combustion have become major sources of air pollutant emissions, with substantial spatial and temporal variations. In this Review, we focus on the major constituents of air pollutants and their impacts on chronic respiratory diseases...
October 15, 2016: Lancet
Jasper H van Lieshout, Iris Bruland, Igor Fischer, Jan F Cornelius, Marcel A Kamp, Bernd Turowski, Angelo Tortora, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Athanasios K Petridis
BACKGROUND: Time has shown to be a relevant factor in the prognosis for a multitude of clinical conditions. The current analysis aimed to establish whether delayed admission to specialized care is a risk factor for increased mortality in case of high-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were enrolled retrospectively if they had a World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Grading System grade of 5...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Pol Cirujeda, Yashin Dicente Cid, Henning Muller, Daniel Rubin, Todd A Aguilera, Billy W Loo, Maximilian Diehn, Xavier Binefa, Adrien Depeursinge
This paper proposes a novel imaging biomarker of lung cancer relapse from 3-D texture analysis of CT images. Three-dimensional morphological nodular tissue properties are described in terms of 3-D Riesz-wavelets. The responses of the latter are aggregated within nodular regions by means of feature covariances, which leverage rich intra- and inter- variations of the feature space dimensions. When compared to the classical use of the average for feature aggregation, feature covariances preserve spatial co-variations between features...
July 18, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Mengyi Liu, Shiguang Shan, Ruiping Wang, Xilin Chen
Facial expression is a temporally dynamic event which can be decomposed into a set of muscle motions occurring in different facial regions over various time intervals. For dynamic expression recognition, two key issues, temporal alignment and semantics-aware dynamic representation, must be taken into account. In this paper, we attempt to solve both problems via manifold modeling of videos based on a novel midlevel representation, i.e. expressionlet. Specifically, our method contains three key stages: 1) each expression video clip is characterized as a spatial-temporal manifold (STM) formed by dense low-level features; 2) a Universal Manifold Model (UMM) is learned over all low-level features and represented as a set of local modes to statistically unify all the STMs...
October 5, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
C Mubamba, G Ramsay, C Abolnik, G Dautu, B Gummow
Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly infectious disease of poultry that seriously impacts on food security and livelihoods of livestock farmers and communities in tropical regions of the world. ND is a constant problem in the eastern province of Zambia which has more than 740 000 rural poultry. Very few studies give a situational analysis of the disease that can be used for disease control planning in the region. With this background in mind, a retrospective epidemiological study was conducted using Newcastle Disease data submitted to the eastern province headquarters for the period from 1989 to 2014...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Corey J A Bradshaw, Boris Leroy, Céline Bellard, David Roiz, Céline Albert, Alice Fournier, Morgane Barbet-Massin, Jean-Michel Salles, Frédéric Simard, Franck Courchamp
Insects have presented human society with some of its greatest development challenges by spreading diseases, consuming crops and damaging infrastructure. Despite the massive human and financial toll of invasive insects, cost estimates of their impacts remain sporadic, spatially incomplete and of questionable quality. Here we compile a comprehensive database of economic costs of invasive insects. Taking all reported goods and service estimates, invasive insects cost a minimum of US$70.0 billion per year globally, while associated health costs exceed US$6...
October 4, 2016: Nature Communications
Étienne Allart, Cécile Caruel, Mathieu Levecque, Walter Daveluy, Odile Kozlowski, Laure Zeroukhi-Delepouve, Marc Rousseaux
OBJECTIVE: In the spectrum of spatial neglect, personal neglect (body neglect) plays an important role in the difficulties encountered by patients, but its assessment is often centered on the sphere of the face and/or involves tests that have no ecological value. The objective of this study was to develop an assessment tool adressing these two pitfalls. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: The scale includes seven items assessing personal neglect on the entire body (face, but also upper and lower parts of the body)...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Patricia L Hardré, Mikio Nihira, Edgar LeClaire, Michael Moen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe how professional expertise is defined and understood among gynecologic surgeons and what experiential factors contribute to that understanding. METHODS: Semistructured interviews with 16 experts in Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery were conducted to identify how expertise in their field is defined, recognized, and assessed. Independent thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was performed by each member of the research team and then distilled and synthesized into convergent themes...
September 21, 2016: Female Pelvic Medicine & Reconstructive Surgery
Hoehun Ha, Peter A Rogerson, James R Olson, Daikwon Han, Ling Bian, Wanyun Shao
Heavy industrialization has resulted in the contamination of soil by metals from anthropogenic sources in Anniston, Alabama. This situation calls for increased public awareness of the soil contamination issue and better knowledge of the main factors contributing to the potential sources contaminating residential soil. The purpose of this spatial epidemiology research is to describe the effects of physical factors on the concentration of lead (Pb) in soil in Anniston AL, and to determine the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of those residing in areas with higher soil contamination...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alfredo Ardila, Monica Rosselli
It is proposed that depending upon the specific pattern of cognitive abilities, each individual lives in an idiosyncratic "cognitive world." Brain pathology can be associated with some disturbed abilities, and frequently experiential changes (i.e., how the world is understood) are observed. Because these patients often are aware of their intellectual changes, they may represent excellent models to illustrate the diversity of cognitive interpretations an individual can have about the surrounding environmental conditions...
September 20, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Feng Yang, JaeEun Kim, Jose Munoz
The awareness of potential slip risk has been shown to cause protective changes to human gait during overground walking. It remains unknown if such adaptations to walking pattern also exist when ambulating on a treadmill. This study sought to determine whether and to what extent individuals, when being aware of a potential slip risk during treadmill walking, could adjust their gait pattern to improve their dynamic stability against backward balance loss in response to the impending slip hazard. Fifty-four healthy young subjects (age: 23...
September 12, 2016: Gait & Posture
Eric Ford, Jim Deye
There is a growing awareness of the gaps in the technical methods employed in radiation biology experiments. These quality gaps can have a substantial effect on the reliability and reproducibility of results as outlined in several recent meta-studies. This is especially true in the context of the newer laboratory irradiation technologies. These technologies allow for delivery of highly localized dose distributions and increased spatial accuracy but also present increased challenges of their own. In this article, we highlight some of the features of the new technologies and the experiments they support; this includes image-guided localized radiation systems, microirradiator systems using carbon nanotubes and physical radiation modifiers like gold nanoparticles...
October 2016: Seminars in Radiation Oncology
R David, A Stoessel, A Berthoz, F Spoor, D Bennequin
The semicircular duct system is part of the sensory organ of balance and essential for navigation and spatial awareness in vertebrates. Its function in detecting head rotations has been modelled with increasing sophistication, but the biomechanics of actual semicircular duct systems has rarely been analyzed, foremost because the fragile membranous structures in the inner ear are hard to visualize undistorted and in full. Here we present a new, easy-to-apply and non-invasive method for three-dimensional in-situ visualization and quantification of the semicircular duct system, using X-ray micro tomography and tissue staining with phosphotungstic acid...
2016: Scientific Reports
Andrew Schrepf, Daniel E Harper, David A Williams, Afton L Hassett, Steven E Harte
: Somatic awareness (SA) refers to heightened sensitivity to a variety of physical sensations and symptoms. Few attempts have been made to dissociate the relationship of SA and affective symptoms with pain outcomes. We used a validated measure of mood and anxiety symptoms that includes questions related to SA to predict the number of tender points found on physical examination in a large cross-sectional community sample (the Midlife in the United States [MIDUS] Biomarker study). General distress, positive affect, and SA, which were all significantly associated with tender point number in bivariate analyses, were used as predictors of the number of tender points in a multivariate negative binomial regression model...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Cyril Mory, Guillaume Janssens, Simon Rit
Four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D-CBCT) of the free-breathing thorax is a valuable tool in image-guided radiation therapy of the thorax and the upper abdomen. It allows the determination of the position of a tumor throughout the breathing cycle, while only its mean position can be extracted from three-dimensional CBCT. The classical approaches are not fully satisfactory: respiration-correlated methods allow one to accurately locate high-contrast structures in any frame, but contain strong streak artifacts unless the acquisition is significantly slowed down...
September 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Eric D Ragan, Siroberto Scerbo, Felipe Bacim, Doug A Bowman
Many types of virtual reality (VR) systems allow users to use natural, physical head movements to view a 3D environment. In some situations, such as when using systems that lack a fully surrounding display or when opting for convenient low-effort interaction, view control can be enabled through a combination of physical and virtual turns to view the environment, but the reduced realism could potentially interfere with the ability to maintain spatial orientation. One solution to this problem is to amplify head rotations such that smaller physical turns are mapped to larger virtual turns, allowing trainees to view the entire surrounding environment with small head movements...
August 19, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Danielle F Haley, Stephen A Matthews, Hannah L F Cooper, Regine Haardörfer, Adaora A Adimora, Gina M Wingood, Michael R Kramer
Understanding whether and how the places where people live, work, and play are associated with health behaviors and health is essential to understanding the social determinants of health. However, social-spatial data which link a person and their attributes to a geographic location (e.g., home address) create potential confidentiality risks. Despite the growing body of literature describing approaches to protect individual confidentiality when utilizing social-spatial data, peer-reviewed manuscripts displaying identifiable individual point data or quasi-identifiers (attributes associated with the individual or disease that narrow identification) in maps persist, suggesting that knowledge has not been effectively translated into public health research practices...
October 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Xiaoyang Wen, Wenyuan Tao, Chung-Ming Own, Zhenjiang Pan
Location data is one of the most widely used context data types in context-aware and ubiquitous computing applications. To support locating applications in indoor environments, numerous systems with different deployment costs and positioning accuracies have been developed over the past decade. One useful method, based on received signal strength (RSS), provides a set of signal transmission access points. However, compiling a remeasurement RSS database involves a high cost, which is impractical in dynamically changing environments, particularly in highly crowded areas...
2016: Sensors
Peter James, Marta Jankowska, Christine Marx, Jaime E Hart, David Berrigan, Jacqueline Kerr, Philip M Hurvitz, J Aaron Hipp, Francine Laden
To address the current obesity and inactivity epidemics, public health researchers have attempted to identify spatial factors that influence physical inactivity and obesity. Technologic and methodologic developments have led to a revolutionary ability to examine dynamic, high-resolution measures of temporally matched location and behavior data through GPS, accelerometry, and GIS. These advances allow the investigation of spatial energetics, high-spatiotemporal resolution data on location and time-matched energetics, to examine how environmental characteristics, space, and time are linked to activity-related health behaviors with far more robust and detailed data than in previous work...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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