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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913350/guided-wavelet-shrinkage-for-edge-aware-smoothing
#1
Guang Deng
Edge-aware smoothing has been extensively studied due to its wide range of applications in computer vision and graphics.Most published works have been focused on formulating the smoothing problem in the spatial domain. In this paper, we propose a new edge-aware smoothing framework called guided wavelet shrinkage (GWS) which is formulated in the wavelet domain as a maximum a posterior estimation problem. We impose a number of desirable properties on the statistical models and the associated parameters in order to derive an effective and computationally efficient algorithm...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913017/marine-anthropogenic-litter-on-british-beaches-a-10-year-nationwide-assessment-using-citizen-science-data
#2
S E Nelms, C Coombes, L C Foster, T S Galloway, B J Godley, P K Lindeque, M J Witt
Growing evidence suggests that anthropogenic litter, particularly plastic, represents a highly pervasive and persistent threat to global marine ecosystems. Multinational research is progressing to characterise its sources, distribution and abundance so that interventions aimed at reducing future inputs and clearing extant litter can be developed. Citizen science projects, whereby members of the public gather information, offer a low-cost method of collecting large volumes of data with considerable temporal and spatial coverage...
November 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905974/dynamic-denominators-the-impact-of-seasonally-varying-population-numbers-on-disease-incidence-estimates
#3
Elisabeth Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Victor A Alegana, Alessandro Sorichetta, Catherine Linard, Christoper Lourenço, Nick W Ruktanonchai, Bonita Graupe, Tomas J Bird, Carla Pezzulo, Amy Wesolowski, Andrew J Tatem
BACKGROUND: Reliable health metrics are crucial for accurately assessing disease burden and planning interventions. Many health indicators are measured through passive surveillance systems and are reliant on accurate estimates of denominators to transform case counts into incidence measures. These denominator estimates generally come from national censuses and use large area growth rates to estimate annual changes. Typically, they do not account for any seasonal fluctuations and thus assume a static denominator population...
October 12, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899738/beyond-phonology-visual-processes-predict-alphanumeric-and-nonalphanumeric-rapid-naming-in-poor-early-readers
#4
Richard S Kruk, Cassia Luther Ruban
Visual processes in Grade 1 were examined for their predictive influences in nonalphanumeric and alphanumeric rapid naming (RAN) in 51 poor early and 69 typical readers. In a lagged design, children were followed longitudinally from Grade 1 to Grade 3 over 5 testing occasions. RAN outcomes in early Grade 2 were predicted by speeded and nonspeeded visual processing measures, after controlling for initial (Grade 1) RAN, matrix reasoning, phonological awareness, and word decoding abilities. A predictive influence of backward visual masking-a speeded visual discrimination task-was found for nonalphanumeric RAN in early Grade 2 but not for alphanumeric RAN or subsequent RAN ability in Grades 2 and 3...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Learning Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895885/facing-the-spectator
#5
Jan Koenderink, Andrea van Doorn, Baingio Pinna, Robert Pepperell
We investigated the familiar phenomenon of the uncanny feeling that represented people in frontal pose invariably appear to "face you" from wherever you stand. We deploy two different methods. The stimuli include the conventional one-a flat portrait rocking back and forth about a vertical axis-augmented with two novel variations. In one alternative, the portrait frame rotates whereas the actual portrait stays motionless and fronto-parallel; in the other, we replace the (flat!) portrait with a volumetric object...
November 2016: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889815/modulating-adaptation-to-emotional-faces-by-spatial-frequency-filtering
#6
Giulia Prete, Bruno Laeng, Luca Tommasi
In four experiments, we investigated the presence and strength of perceptual aftereffects to emotional faces, using spatial frequency filtering to manipulate awareness of emotional content. We presented angry and happy faces as adapters and used a control condition without adaptation. Participants were subsequently requested to judge the friendliness level of a neutral target face. We confirmed the well-known aftereffect for unfiltered emotional faces in Experiment 1. In the experiment, friendliness judgments were greater for the angry than the happy or the control condition...
November 26, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889365/characterizing-and-modelling-river-channel-migration-rates-at-a-regional-scale-case-study-of-south-east-france
#7
Adrien Alber, Hervé Piégay
An increased awareness by river managers of the importance of river channel migration to sediment dynamics, habitat complexity and other ecosystem functions has led to an advance in the science and practice of identifying, protecting or restoring specific erodible corridors across which rivers are free to migrate. One current challenge is the application of these watershed-specific goals at the regional planning scales (e.g., the European Water Framework Directive). This study provides a GIS-based spatial analysis of the channel migration rates at the regional-scale...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882594/-cuts-in-action-a-high-density-eeg-study-investigating-the-neural-correlates-of-different-editing-techniques-in-film
#8
Katrin S Heimann, Sebo Uithol, Marta Calbi, Maria A Umiltà, Michele Guerra, Vittorio Gallese
In spite of their striking differences with real-life perception, films are perceived and understood without effort. Cognitive film theory attributes this to the system of continuity editing, a system of editing guidelines outlining the effect of different cuts and edits on spectators. A major principle in this framework is the 180° rule, a rule recommendation that, to avoid spectators' attention to the editing, two edited shots of the same event or action should not be filmed from angles differing in a way that expectations of spatial continuity are strongly violated...
November 24, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875188/pelvis-atlas-based-surgical-planning-for-oncological-pelvic-surgery
#9
Noeska Smit, Kai Lawonn, Annelot Kraima, Marco DeRuiter, Hessam Sokooti, Stefan Bruckner, Elmar Eisemann, Anna Vilanova
Due to the intricate relationship between the pelvic organs and vital structures, such as vessels and nerves, pelvic anatomy is often considered to be complex to comprehend. In oncological pelvic surgery, a trade-off has to be made between complete tumor resection and preserving function by preventing damage to the nerves. Damage to the autonomic nerves causes undesirable post-operative side-effects such as fecal and urinal incontinence, as well as sexual dysfunction in up to 80 percent of the cases. Since these autonomic nerves are not visible in pre-operative MRI scans or during surgery, avoiding nerve damage during such a surgical procedure becomes challenging...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866004/attention-capture-without-awareness-in-a-non-spatial-selection-task
#10
Chris Oriet, Mamata Pandey, Jun-Ichiro Kawahara
Distractors presented prior to a critical target in a rapid sequence of visually-presented items induce a lag-dependent deficit in target identification, particularly when the distractor shares a task-relevant feature of the target. Presumably, such capture of central attention is important for bringing a target into awareness. The results of the present investigation suggest that greater capture of attention by a distractor is not accompanied by greater awareness of it. Moreover, awareness tends to be limited to superficial characteristics of the target such as colour...
November 17, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849616/cortical-networks-involved-in-visual-awareness-independent-of-visual-attention
#11
Taylor W Webb, Kajsa M Igelström, Aaron Schurger, Michael S A Graziano
It is now well established that visual attention, as measured with standard spatial attention tasks, and visual awareness, as measured by report, can be dissociated. It is possible to attend to a stimulus with no reported awareness of the stimulus. We used a behavioral paradigm in which people were aware of a stimulus in one condition and unaware of it in another condition, but the stimulus drew a similar amount of spatial attention in both conditions. The paradigm allowed us to test for brain regions active in association with awareness independent of level of attention...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844342/statistical-regularities-guide-the-spatial-scale-of-attention
#12
Jiaying Zhao, Yu Luo
Visual scenes contain information on both a local scale (e.g., a tree) and a global scale (e.g., a forest). The question of whether the visual system prioritizes local or global elements has been debated for over a century. Given that visual scenes often contain distinct individual objects, here we examine how regularities between individual objects prioritize local or global processing. Participants viewed Navon-like figures consisting of small local objects making up a global object, and were asked to identify either the shape of the local objects or the shape of the global object, as fast and accurately as possible...
November 14, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825355/seahorses-in-focus-local-ecological-knowledge-of-seahorse-watching-operators-in-a-tropical-estuary
#13
Maria L F Ternes, Leopoldo C Gerhardinger, Alexandre Schiavetti
BACKGROUND: Seahorses are endangered teleost fishes under increasing human pressures worldwide. In Brazil, marine conservationists and policy-makers are thus often skeptical about the viability of sustainable human-seahorse interactions. This study focuses on local ecological knowledge on seahorses and the implications of their non-lethal touristic use by a coastal community in northeastern Brazil. Community-based seahorse-watching activities have been carried out in Maracaípe village since 1999, but remained uninvestigated until the present study...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797433/anopheles-plumbeus-diptera-culicidae-in-germany-updated-geographical-distribution-and-public-health-impact-of-a-nuisance-and-vector-mosquito
#14
Eva C Heym, Helge Kampen, Marcus Fahle, Tobias L Hohenbrink, Mandy Schäfer, Dorothee E Zielke, Doreen Walther
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to map the current spatial distribution of Anopheles plumbeus in Germany, a potential vector of malaria parasites and West Nile virus. Reports of mass occurrence and nuisance connected with artificial breeding site usage by this species were analysed. METHODS: Distribution data were collected from 2011 to 2014 mainly through trapping and submissions of adult mosquito specimens to a citizen science project. In the framework of the latter, additional information was gathered on recent nuisance incidents caused by An...
October 31, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777514/dynamic-denominators-the-impact-of-seasonally-varying-population-numbers-on-disease-incidence-estimates
#15
Elisabeth Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Victor A Alegana, Alessandro Sorichetta, Catherine Linard, Christoper Lourenço, Nick W Ruktanonchai, Bonita Graupe, Tomas J Bird, Carla Pezzulo, Amy Wesolowski, Andrew J Tatem
BACKGROUND: Reliable health metrics are crucial for accurately assessing disease burden and planning interventions. Many health indicators are measured through passive surveillance systems and are reliant on accurate estimates of denominators to transform case counts into incidence measures. These denominator estimates generally come from national censuses and use large area growth rates to estimate annual changes. Typically, they do not account for any seasonal fluctuations and thus assume a static denominator population...
2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767990/the-proactive-self-in-space-how%C3%A2-egocentric-and-allocentric-spatial-impairments-contribute-to-anosognosia-in%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Silvia Serino, Giuseppe Riva
In addition to impairments in episodic and spatial memory, anosognosia (i.e., loss of awareness of the deficient aspect of own cognitive functioning) may be considered an important cognitive marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, although a growing body of interesting models have been proposed to explain this early symptom, what is still missing is a unifying framework of all the characteristic signs occurring in patients with AD that may guide the search for its causal neuropathological process and, ultimately, the etiological process...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763405/land-and-nation-the-ancient-modernity-of-national-geography-piedmont-1750-1800
#17
Marco Cavarzere
This paper focuses on the shift that occurred in the spatial representation of states in the eighteenth century. This shift will be considered as a combination of institutional reforms and of a new social awareness of space. A consideration of the case of the Italian Piedmont will demonstrate how "national" space was created through antiquarian research and how a larger political confrontation took place in the guise of a learned debate. The diverse accounts of Piedmontese history under examination all employed methods derived from previous ages, relying upon a concept of space as historically continuous, embedded in time immemorial...
2016: Journal of the History of Ideas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751401/impact-of-air-pollution-on-the-burden-of-chronic-respiratory-diseases-in-china-time-for-urgent-action
#18
REVIEW
Wei-Jie Guan, Xue-Yan Zheng, Kian Fan Chung, Nan-Shan Zhong
In China, where air pollution has become a major threat to public health, public awareness of the detrimental effects of air pollution on respiratory health is increasing-particularly in relation to haze days. Air pollutant emission levels in China remain substantially higher than are those in developed countries. Moreover, industry, traffic, and household biomass combustion have become major sources of air pollutant emissions, with substantial spatial and temporal variations. In this Review, we focus on the major constituents of air pollutants and their impacts on chronic respiratory diseases...
October 15, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742521/time-is-life-increased-mortality-of-patients-with-aneurysmatic-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-caused-by-prolonged-transport-time-to-a-high-volume-neurosurgical-unit
#19
Jasper H van Lieshout, Iris Bruland, Igor Fischer, Jan F Cornelius, Marcel A Kamp, Bernd Turowski, Angelo Tortora, Hans-Jakob Steiger, Athanasios K Petridis
BACKGROUND: Time has shown to be a relevant factor in the prognosis for a multitude of clinical conditions. The current analysis aimed to establish whether delayed admission to specialized care is a risk factor for increased mortality in case of high-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were enrolled retrospectively if they had a World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Grading System grade of 5...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740476/a-3-d-riesz-covariance-texture-model-for-prediction-of-nodule-recurrence-in-lung-ct
#20
Pol Cirujeda, Yashin Dicente Cid, Henning Muller, Daniel Rubin, Todd A Aguilera, Billy W Loo, Maximilian Diehn, Xavier Binefa, Adrien Depeursinge
This paper proposes a novel imaging biomarker of lung cancer relapse from 3-D texture analysis of CT images. Three-dimensional morphological nodular tissue properties are described in terms of 3-D Riesz-wavelets. The responses of the latter are aggregated within nodular regions by means of feature covariances, which leverage rich intra- and inter- variations of the feature space dimensions. When compared to the classical use of the average for feature aggregation, feature covariances preserve spatial co-variations between features...
July 18, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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