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Disa Dahlman, Farnaz Jalalvand, Marianne Alanko Blomé, Anders Håkansson, Håkan Janson, Susanne Quick, Anna C Nilsson
To investigate the prevalence, distribution, and colonization burden of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and MRSA in different body sites among people who inject drugs (PWID) and compare it to a control group consisting of non-injectors. In this cross-sectional survey, 49 active PWID from the needle exchange program (NEP) in Malmö, Sweden, and 60 non-injecting controls from an emergency psychiatric inpatient ward at Malmö Addiction Centre were tested for S. aureus (including MRSA) by culture, PCR, and MALDI-TOF...
November 28, 2016: Current Microbiology
Jon C Rees, John R Barr
Antibiotic resistance continues to contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality across the world. Developing new tests for antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a core action to combat resistant infections. We describe a method that uses phage amplification detection (PAD) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to rapidly identify Staphylococcus aureus and determine phenotypic susceptibility to cefoxitin. Samples tested for S. aureus are incubated together with bacteriophage in the presence and absence of cefoxitin and subjected to rapid trypsin digestion followed by MALDI-MS analysis...
November 19, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Silke Schelenz, Ferry Hagen, Johanna L Rhodes, Alireza Abdolrasouli, Anuradha Chowdhary, Anne Hall, Lisa Ryan, Joanne Shackleton, Richard Trimlett, Jacques F Meis, Darius Armstrong-James, Matthew C Fisher
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a globally emerging multidrug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. We report an ongoing outbreak of C. auris in a London cardio-thoracic center between April 2015 and July 2016. This is the first report of C. auris in Europe and the largest outbreak so far. We describe the identification, investigation and implementation of control measures. METHODS: Data on C. auris case demographics, environmental screening, implementation of infection prevention/control measures, and antifungal susceptibility of patient isolates were prospectively recorded then analysed retrospectively...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Paul Griffin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Mojgan Aminnejad, Massimo Cogliati, Shuyao Duan, Michael Arabatzis, Kathrin Tintelnot, Elizabeth Castañeda, Marcia Lazéra, Aristea Velegraki, David Ellis, Tania C Sorrell, Wieland Meyer
Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii are pathogenic basidiomycetous yeasts and the commonest cause of fungal infection of the central nervous system. Cryptococci are typically haploid but several inter-species, inter-varietal and intra-varietal hybrids have been reported. It has a bipolar mating system with sexual reproduction occurring normally between two individuals with opposite mating types, α and a. This study set out to characterize hybrid isolates within the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex: seven unisexual mating intra-varietal VNI/VNII (αAAα) and six novel inter-varietal VNII/VNIV (aADα)...
2016: PloS One
Pumza Magangane, Raveendra Sookhayi, Dhirendra Govender, Richard Naidoo
DLBCL is the most common lymphoma subtype occurring in older populations as well as in younger HIV infected patients. The current treatment options for DLBCL are effective for most patients yet the relapse rate is high. While many biomarkers for DLBCL exist, they are not in clinical use due to low sensitivity and specificity. In addition, these biomarkers have not been studied in the HIV context. Therefore, the identification of new biomarkers for HIV negative and HIV positive DLBCL, may lead to a better understanding of the disease pathology and better therapeutic design...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Molecular Histology
Ahmad Al Atrouni, Monzer Hamze, Tamima Jisr, Carole Lemarié, Matthieu Eveillard, Marie-Laure Joly-Guillou, Marie Kempf
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the molecular epidemiology of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolated from different hospitals in Lebanon. METHODS: A total of 119 non-duplicate Acinetobacter strains were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and partial rpoB gene sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion method and all identified carbapenem-resistant isolates were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of the carbapenemase-encoding genes...
September 20, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Alexandre Mery, Boualem Sendid, Nadine François, Marjorie Cornu, Julien Poissy, Yann Guerardel, Daniel Poulain
BACKGROUND: We recently developed a mass spectrometry (MS) procedure based on the detection of a serum disaccharide (MS-DS) in patients with invasive candidiasis (IC). Here, we compare the performance of MS-DS for the diagnosis of IC, invasive aspergillosis (IA) and mucormycosis (MM) with commercially available antigen detection tests. METHODS: This retrospective study included 48 patients (23 IC/74 sera, 15 IA/40 sera and 10 MM/15 sera) and 49 appropriate controls (102 sera)...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Yuki Yamada, Kentaro Endo, Kaori Sawase, Marie Anetai, Kazuya Narita, Yuji Hatakeyama, Katsunori Ishifuji, Makiko Kurota, Akira Suwabe
The spread of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. has become a global problem. In this study, 18 carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii (ACB) complexes, identified using a conventional biochemical method at our hospital during 2004-2013, were studied for species identification and epidemiological analyses. Species identification was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight MS, a partial sequence analysis of rpoB and a PCR-based ORF typing (POT) method...
September 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Thais Bergamin Lima, Osmar Nascimento Silva, Keyla Caroline de Almeida, Suzana Meira Ribeiro, Dielle de Oliveira Motta, Simone Maria-Neto, Michelle Brizolla Lara, Carlos Roberto Souza Filho, Alicia Simalie Ombredane, Celio de Faria Junior, Nadia Skorupa Parachin, Beatriz Simas Magalhães, Octávio Luiz Franco
Enterobacter cloacae is a Gram-negative bacterium associated with high morbidity and mortality in intensive care patients due to its resistance to multiple antibiotics. Currently, therapy against multi-resistant bacteria consists of using colistin, in spite of its toxic effects at higher concentrations. In this context, colistin-resistant E. cloacae strains were challenged with lower levels of colistin combined with other antibiotics to reduce colistin-associated side effects. Colistin-resistant E. cloacae (ATCC 49141) strains were generated by serial propagation in subinhibitory colistin concentrations...
July 6, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
Deborah Steensels, Ariane Deplano, Olivier Denis, Anne Simon, Alexia Verroken
BACKGROUND: The early detection of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak is decisive to control its spread and rapidly initiate adequate infection control measures. Therefore, prompt determination of epidemiologic relatedness of clinical MRSA isolates is essential. Genetic typing methods have a high discriminatory power but their availability remains restricted. In this study, we aimed to challenge matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a typing tool of a nosocomial MRSA outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit...
June 24, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
Caroline Malcolmson, Karen Ng, Shevaun Hughes, Niranjan Kissoon, Jillian Schina, Peter A Tilley, Ashley Roberts
BACKGROUND: Early definitive identification of infectious pathogens coupled with antimicrobial stewardship interventions allow for targeted and timely administration of antimicrobials. We investigated the combined impact of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) technology and an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in pediatric patients with blood stream infections (BSIs). METHODS: This is a single-center study comparing a control group of patients from October 2009 to July 2010 with BSIs to a cohort of patients postimplementation of MALDI-TOF and an ASP, from October 2013 to July 2014...
June 23, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Gülşah Malkoçoğlu, Elif Aktaş, Banu Bayraktar, Bariş Otlu, Mehmet Emin Bulut
Worldwide increase in carbapenem resistance and transferable carbapenemases are significant challenges in treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. In this study, investigation of carbapenemase production in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from clinical specimens in a tertiary hospital was aimed. A total of 84 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were examined. "Carbapenem inactivation method" (CIM) was used for phenotypic detection of carbapenemase production. The existence of blaKPC, blaNDM, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaOXA-48, and blaGES genes was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
June 21, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Farhan Anwar Khan, Muhammad Faisal, Jin Chao, Kai Liu, Xi Chen, Gang Zhao, Harish Menghwar, Hui Zhang, Xifang Zhu, Muhammad Asif Rasheed, Chenfei He, Changmin Hu, Yingyu Chen, Eric Baranowski, Huanchun Chen, Aizhen Guo
A lack of knowledge regarding the antigenic properties of Mycoplasma bovis proteins prevents the effective control of bovine infections using immunological approaches. In this study, we detected and characterized a specific and sensitive M. bovis diagnostic biomarker. After M. bovis total proteins and membrane fractions were separated with two dimensional gel electrophoresis, proteins reacting with antiserawere detected using MALDI-TOF MS. Thirty-nine proteins were identified, 32 of which were previously unreported...
June 2, 2016: Oncotarget
Joseph J Carreno, Ben M Lomaestro, Apryl L Jacobs, Rachel E Meyer, Ann Evans, Clemente I Montero
OBJECTIVE To evaluate time to clinical response before and after implementation of rapid blood culture identification technologies. DESIGN Before-and-after trial. SETTING Large, tertiary, urban, academic health-sciences center. PATIENTS Patients >18 years old with sepsis and concurrent bacteremia or fungemia were included in the study; patients who were pregnant, had polymicrobial septicemia, or were transferred from an outside hospital were excluded. INTERVENTION Prior to the intervention, polymerase chain reaction was used to identify Staphylococcus species from positive blood cultures, and traditional laboratory techniques were used to identify non-staphylococcal species...
August 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Jia-Hao Fan, Si-Hui Hou, Li Qing-Ling, Jun Hu, Hong Peng, Jin-Jun Guo
UNLABELLED:  Background and aim. Leukocyte antigen DQ (HLA-DQ) and interferon-λ4 (IFNL4) gene polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection. This study further confirmed that variants of these genes were associated with susceptibility and spontaneous clearance of HBV infection in a Chinese population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 1,069 subjects were recruited and divided into three groups i.e. 397 with CLD (HBV-related chronic liver disease), 434 with SC (spontaneous clearance), and 238 HC (healthy controls)...
July 2016: Annals of Hepatology
Najla Mathlouthi, Allaaeddin Ali El Salabi, Mariem Ben Jomàa-Jemili, Sofiane Bakour, Charbel Al-Bayssari, Abdulaziz A Zorgani, Abdulmajeed Kraiema, Omar Elahmer, Liliane Okdah, Jean-Marc Rolain, Chedly Chouchani
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen causing various nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to characterise the molecular support of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered from two Libyan hospitals. Bacterial isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods, and carbapenem resistance determinants were studied by PCR amplification and sequencing...
July 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Riddhi Datta, Deepak Kumar, Sharmila Chattopadhyay
The leaf spot disease of Mentha arvensis, caused by Alternaria alternata, is a devastating foliar disease worldwide and leads to considerable economic losses. In this investigation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to identify the membrane proteins potentially involved in M. arvensis - A. alternata interaction. Membrane proteins, isolated from leaves of control and infected plants, were analyzed by 2-DE and identified using mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF-TOF MS/MS). Our analysis identified 21 differentially expressed membrane proteins including several interesting receptors and channel proteins...
May 13, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Sabina Herrera, Luisa Sorlí, Maria Jose Pérez-Sáez, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa, Clara Barrios, Virginia Plasencia, Milagro Montero, Roser Terradas, Marta Crespo, Xavier Castells, Rafael Cantón, Julio Pascual, Juan Pablo Horcajada
OBJECTIVE: To describe a clonal outbreak due to vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) in the nephrology and renal transplant unit of a tertiary teaching hospital in Barcelona, Spain, and to highlight how active patient and environment surveillance cultures, as well as prompt and directed intervention strategies, mainly environmental, helped to successfully bring it under control. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A study was conducted on patients admitted to the nephrology ward with any culture positive for VREF over a 6-month period (August 2012-January 2013)...
May 4, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Andres Garcia-Campos, Alessandra Ravidà, D Linh Nguyen, Krystyna Cwiklinski, John P Dalton, Cornelis H Hokke, Sandra O'Neill, Grace Mulcahy
Recently, the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in some areas has increased considerably and the availability of a vaccine to protect livestock from infection would represent a major advance in tools available for controlling this disease. To date, most vaccine-target discovery research on this parasite has concentrated on proteomic and transcriptomic approaches whereas little work has been carried out on glycosylation. As the F. hepatica tegument (Teg) may contain glycans potentially relevant to vaccine development and the Newly Excysted Juvenile (NEJ) is the first lifecycle stage in contact with the definitive host, our work has focused on assessing the glycosylation of the NEJTeg and identifying the NEJTeg glycoprotein repertoire...
May 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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