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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571023/is-the-fight-against-doping-in-sport-a-legal-minefield-like-any-other
#1
Ulrich Haas
In the fight against doping, creating a level playing field across all sports is very challenging from a legal perspective. A harmonized approach presupposes first and foremost a supreme regulatory authority on a global level. This task cannot be attributed to the public sector, because there is no supranational authority of public international law capable of dealing with it. Thus, responsibility has to be assumed by a private law entity. This in turn requires complicated contractual agreements by which duties and responsibilities are transferred from the individual to the national level and from there to the top of the pyramid...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558602/how-activism-features-in-the-career-lives-of-four-generations-of-canadian-nurses
#2
Judith A MacDonnell, Ellen Buck-McFadyen
Recent nursing research using a critical feminist lens challenges the prevailing view of political inertia in nursing. This comparative life history study using a critical feminist lens explores the relevance of activism with four generations of Canadian nurses. Purposeful sampling of Ontario nurses resulted in 40 participants who were diverse in terms of generation, practice setting, and activist practice. Interviews and focus groups were completed with the sample of Ontario registered nurses or undergraduate and graduate nursing students: 8 Generation X, 9 Generation Y (Millennials), 20 Boomers, and 3 Overboomers...
November 2016: Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544136/conceptualizations-of-fairness-and-legitimacy-in-the-context-of-ethiopian-health-priority-setting-reflections-on-the-applicability-of-accountability-for-reasonableness
#3
Kadia Petricca, Asfaw Bekele
A critical element in building stronger health systems involves strengthening good governance to build capacity for transparent and fair health planning and priority setting. Over the past 20 years, the ethical framework Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) has been a prominent conceptual guide in strengthening fair and legitimate processes of health decision-making. While many of the principles embedded within the framework are congruent with Western conceptualizations of what constitutes procedural fairness, there is a paucity in the literature that captures the degree of resonance between these principles and the views of decision makers from non-Western settings; particularly in Africa, where many countries have only recently, within the last 20-30 years, become more democratic...
May 22, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471207/the-dynamics-of-punishment-and-trust
#4
Long Wang, J Keith Murnighan
The trade-off between mercy and justice is a classic moral dilemma, particularly for organizational leaders and managers. In 3 complementary studies, we investigated how resolving the "punishment dilemma" influences interpersonal trust. Study 1 used controlled scenarios to show that uninvolved observers trusted leaders who administered large or medium punishment more than leaders who administered no punishment when transgressors deserved punishment. At the same time, large punishment decreased trust more than medium or no punishment for less deserving targets...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428764/employee-age-alters-the-effects-of-justice-on-emotional-exhaustion-and-organizational-deviance
#5
Justin P Brienza, D Ramona Bobocel
Fairness in the workplace attenuates a host of negative individual and organizational outcomes. However, research on the psychology of aging challenges the assumption that fairness operates similarly across different age groups. The current research explored how older workers, vis-à-vis younger workers, react to perceptions of fairness. Integrating socioemotional selectivity theory and the multiple needs theory of organizational justice, we generated novel predictions regarding the relations between perceptions of workplace justice, emotional exhaustion, and employee deviance...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347897/the-changing-health-care-landscape-and-implications-of-organizational-ethics-on-modern-medical-practice
#6
REVIEW
Joseph P Castlen, David J Cote, Wouter A Moojen, Pierre A Robe, Naci Balak, Jannick Brennum, Mario Ammirati, Tiit Mathiesen, Marike L D Broekman
INTRODUCTION: Medicine is rapidly changing, both in the level of collective medical knowledge and in how it is being delivered. The increased presence of administrators in hospitals helps to facilitate these changes and ease administrative workloads on physicians; however, tensions sometimes form between physicians and administrators. ANALYSIS: This situation is based on perceptions from both sides that physicians obstruct cost-saving measures and administrators put profits before patients...
June 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302088/a-systematic-review-including-meta-analysis-of-work-environment-and-burnout-symptoms
#7
Gunnar Aronsson, Töres Theorell, Tom Grape, Anne Hammarström, Christer Hogstedt, Ina Marteinsdottir, Ingmar Skoog, Lil Träskman-Bendz, Charlotte Hall
BACKGROUND: Practitioners and decision makers in the medical and insurance systems need knowledge on the relationship between work exposures and burnout. Many burnout studies - original as well as reviews - restricted their analyses to emotional exhaustion or did not report results on cynicism, personal accomplishment or global burnout. To meet this need we carried out this review and meta-analyses with the aim to provide systematically graded evidence for associations between working conditions and near-future development of burnout symptoms...
March 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263207/common-predictors-of-nurse-reported-quality-of-care-and-patient-safety
#8
Amy Witkoski Stimpfel, Maja Djukic, Carol S Brewer, Christine T Kovner
BACKGROUND: In the era of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, quality of care and patient safety in health care have never been more visible to patients or providers. Registered nurses (nurses) are key players not only in providing direct patient care but also in evaluating the quality and safety of care provided to patients and families. PURPOSE: We had the opportunity to study a unique cohort of nurses to understand more about the common predictors of nurse-reported quality of care and patient safety across acute care settings...
March 3, 2017: Health Care Management Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225845/-judicial-institutions-of-medical-experts
#9
Roberto Lm Godoy
This article considers the evolutive process that judicial organisms of medical experts have experienced in Argentina since their creation and formulates a proposal for its adequacy and modernization. Due to multiple and various evolutive factors, judicial organisms managing medicolegal expert activities show, nowadays, signals that a structural and dynamic reform is needed. They remain as organizational units of Public Administration and their effectiveness and efficiency depends not only of a scientific criteria but a managing one...
May 2016: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191999/chronic-and-episodic-anger-and-gratitude-toward-the-organization-relationships-with-organizational-and-supervisor-supportiveness-and-extrarole-behavior
#10
Michael T Ford, Yanxia Wang, Jiafei Jin, Robert Eisenberger
Gratitude and anger represent 2 fundamental moral emotions in response to help or harm. Research suggests that individuals perceive organizations to have humanlike qualities and thus hold them responsible for helpful or harmful treatment. Given this line of reasoning, we hypothesized that workers direct gratitude toward their organizations in response to supportive treatment and anger toward their organizations in response to unsupportive treatment. Gratitude and anger, in turn, were expected to influence daily extrarole behavior...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166362/organizational-change-psychosocial-work-environment-and-non-disability-early-retirement-a-prospective-study-among-senior-public-employees
#11
Nina Breinegaard, Johan Høy Jensen, Jens Peter Bonde
Objective This study examines the impact of organizational change and psychosocial work environment on non-disability early retirement among senior public service employees. Methods In January and February 2011, Danish senior public service employees aged 58-64 years (N=3254) from the Capital Region of Denmark responded to a survey assessing psychosocial work environment (ie, social capital, organizational justice, and quality of management). Work-unit organizational changes (ie, change of management, merging, demerging, and relocation) were recorded from January 2009 to March 2011...
May 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142388/organizational-justice-and-collaboration-among-nurses-as-correlates-of-violent-assaults-by-patients-in-psychiatric-care
#12
Virve Maaret Pekurinen, Maritta Välimäki, Marianna Virtanen, Paula Salo, Mika Kivimäki, Jussi Vahtera
OBJECTIVES: This study tested the hypothesis that poor organizational justice and collaboration among nurses are associated with increased stress among nurses, which, in turn, increases the likelihood of violent assaults by patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of nurses in 90 psychiatric inpatient wards in five hospital districts and one regional hospital in Finland. A total of 758 nurses (registered nurses or enrolled/mental health nurses) responded to the survey...
May 1, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132705/the-juvenile-justice-behavioral-health-services-cascade-a-new-framework-for-measuring-unmet-substance-use-treatment-services-needs-among-adolescent-offenders
#13
Steven Belenko, Danica Knight, Gail A Wasserman, Michael L Dennis, Tisha Wiley, Faye S Taxman, Carrie Oser, Richard Dembo, Angela A Robertson, Jessica Sales
OVERVIEW: Substance use and substance use disorders are highly prevalent among youth under juvenile justice (JJ) supervision, and related to delinquency, psychopathology, social problems, risky sex and sexually transmitted infections, and health problems. However, numerous gaps exist in the identification of behavioral health (BH) problems and in the subsequent referral, initiation and retention in treatment for youth in community justice settings. This reflects both organizational and systems factors, including coordination between justice and BH agencies...
March 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125457/insights-into-nurses-work-exploring-relationships-among-work-attitudes-and-work-related-behaviors
#14
Tyrone Perreira, Whitney Berta, Liane Ginsburg, Jan Barnsley, Monique Herbert
BACKGROUND: Work attitudes have been associated with work productivity. In health care, poor work attitudes have been linked to poor performance, decreased patient safety, and quality care. Hence, the importance, ascribed in the literature, of work that clearly identifies the relationships between and among work attitudes and work behaviors linked to performance. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to better understand the relationships between work attitudes-perceived organizational justice, perceived organizational support (POS), affective commitment-consistently associated with a key type of performance outcome among nurses' organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs)...
January 25, 2017: Health Care Management Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125256/organizational-climate-and-culture-reflections-on-the-history-of-the-constructs-in-the-journal-of-applied-psychology
#15
Benjamin Schneider, Vicente González-Romá, Cheri Ostroff, Michael A West
We review the literature on organizational climate and culture paying specific attention to articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP) since its first volume in 1917. The article traces the history of the 2 constructs though JAP has been far more important for climate than culture research. We distinguish 4 main periods: the pre-1971 era, with pioneering work on exploring conceptualization and operationalizations of the climate construct; the 1971-1985 era, with foundational work on aggregation issues, outcome-focused climates (on safety and service) and early writings on culture; the 1986-1999 era, characterized by solidification of a focused climate approach to understanding organizational processes (justice, discrimination) and outcomes (safety, service) and the beginnings of survey approaches to culture; and the 2000-2014 era, characterized by multilevel work on climate, climate strength, demonstrated validity for a climate approach to outcomes and processes, and the relationship between leadership and climate and culture...
March 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080122/continuing-our-organizational-mission-a-new-name-for-a-new-time
#16
Deborah Klein Walker, Ryan P Kilmer, Mary I Armstrong
This editorial explains the need for a new name for the American Orthopsychiatric Association (ORTHO). As ORTHO continues their work into the 21st century, they want to better reflect their global membership and focus, increasing the number of partnerships with individuals and organizations, and commitment to a just society. Therefore, ORTHO is changing their name to the Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice. It is crucial to underscore that, although the organizations name is changing, the values and principles that inform their work will remain the same...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065888/change-in-organizational-justice-as-a-predictor-of-insomnia-symptoms-longitudinal-study-analysing-observational-data-as-a-non-randomized-pseudo-trial
#17
Tea Lallukka, Jaana I Halonen, Børge Sivertsen, Jaana Pentti, Sari Stenholm, Marianna Virtanen, Paula Salo, Tuula Oksanen, Marko Elovainio, Jussi Vahtera, Mika Kivimäki
BACKGROUND: Despite injustice at the workplace being a potential source of sleep problems, longitudinal evidence remains scarce. We examined whether changes in perceived organizational justice predicted changes in insomnia symptoms. METHODS: Data on 24 287 Finnish public sector employees (82% women), from three consecutive survey waves between 2000 and 2012, were treated as 'pseudo-trials'. Thus, the analysis of unfavourable changes in organizational justice included participants without insomnia symptoms in Waves 1 and 2, with high organizational justice in Wave 1 and high or low justice in Wave 2 (N = 6307)...
January 8, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964809/a-feminist-framework-for-nurses-on-boards
#18
Lisa J Sundean, E Carol Polifroni
Nurses' knowledge, skills, and expertise uniquely situate them to contribute to health care transformation as equal partners in organizational board governance. The Institute of Medicine, the 10,000 Nurses on Boards Coalition, and a growing number of nurse and health care scholars advocate nurse board leadership; however, nurses are rarely appointed as voting board members. When no room is made for nurses to take a seat at the table, the opportunity is lost to harness the power of nursing knowledge for health care transformation and social justice...
November 2016: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925219/job-insecurity-and-discretionary-behaviors-social-exchange-perspective-versus-group-value-model
#19
Beatrice Piccoli, Hans De Witte, William D Reisel
This study examines the relationship between job insecurity and discretionary behaviors, that is, organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) and counterproductive work behaviors (CWB), with the purpose to extend knowledge on the theoretical explanations for these outcomes. Considering the employment relationship with the organization, two different perspectives are suggested and compared in a multiple mediator model, in order to understand the reasons for discretionary behaviors. We draw upon social exchange theory as the basis of psychological contract perceptions and we rely on the group value model to explain organizational justice evaluations...
February 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893254/dynamic-interplay-between-merger-process-justice-and-cognitive-trust-in-top-management-a-longitudinal-study
#20
Janne Kaltiainen, Jukka Lipponen, Brian C Holtz
This study examines two fundamental concerns in the context of organizational change: employees' perceptions of merger process justice and cognitive trust in the top management team. Our main purpose is to better understand the nature of reciprocal relations between these important constructs through a significant change event. Previous research, building mainly on social exchange theory, has framed trust as a consequence of justice perceptions. More recently, scholars have suggested that this view may be overly simplistic and that trust-related cognitions may also represent an important antecedent of justice perceptions...
April 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
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