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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027668/social-determinants-of-health-and-retention-in-hiv-care-in-a-clinical-cohort-in-ontario-canada
#1
Beth Rachlis, Ann N Burchell, Sandra Gardner, Lucia Light, Janet Raboud, Tony Antoniou, Jean Bacon, Anita Benoit, Curtis Cooper, Claire Kendall, Mona Loutfy, Wendy Wobeser, Frank McGee, Anita Rachlis, Sean B Rourke
: Continuous HIV care supports antiretroviral therapy initiation and adherence, and prolongs survival. We investigated the association of social determinants of health (SDH) and subsequent retention in HIV care in a clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada. The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study is a multi-site cohort of patients at 10 HIV clinics. Data were collected from medical charts, interviews, and via record linkage with the provincial public health laboratory for viral load tests...
December 27, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012339/rare-nodular-malignant-melanoma-of-the-heel-in-the-caribbean-a-case-report
#2
Wayne A Warner, Vandana Devika Sookdeo, Srikanth Umakanthan, Kevin Sarran, Lemuel Pran, Maurice Fortuné, Wesley Greaves, Sharda Narinesingh, Dave Harnanan, Ravi Maharaj
INTRODUCTION: Malignant melanoma of the heel is a rare melanoma subtype with incidence rates that reflect the complex relationship between sun exposure at certain geographic locations, individual melanin levels and overall melanoma risk. It is oftentimes characterized by poor prognosis because of delays in presentation resulting in longitudinal tumor invasion, lymph node involvement and metastasis. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 59-year-old woman was admitted to the Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex, Trinidad and Tobago with a 5mm pruritic lesion on her left heel...
November 27, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930606/a-framework-for-health-communication-across-the-hiv-treatment-continuum
#3
Stella Babalola, Lynn M Van Lith, Elizabeth C Mallalieu, Zoe R Packman, Emily Myers, Kim Seifert Ahanda, Emily Harris, Tilly Gurman, Maria-Elena Figueroa
BACKGROUND: As test and treat rolls out, effective interventions are needed to address the determinants of outcomes across the HIV treatment continuum and ensure that people infected with HIV are promptly tested, initiate treatment early, adhere to treatment, and are virally suppressed. Communication approaches offer viable options for promoting relevant behaviors across the continuum. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: This article introduces a conceptual framework, which can guide the development of effective health communication interventions and activities that aim to impact behaviors across the HIV treatment continuum in low- and medium-income countries...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923008/a-framework-for-health-communication-across-the-hiv-treatment-continuum
#4
Stella Babalola, Lynn M Van Lith, Elizabeth C Mallalieu, Zoe R Packman, Emily Myers, Kim Seifert Ahanda, Emily Harris, Tilly Gurman, Maria-Elena Figueroa
BACKGROUND: As test and treat rolls out, effective interventions are needed to address the determinants of outcomes across the HIV treatment continuum and ensure that people infected with HIV are promptly tested, initiate treatment early, adhere to treatment, and are virally suppressed. Communication approaches offer viable options for promoting relevant behaviors across the continuum. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK: This article introduces a conceptual framework, which can guide the development of effective health communication interventions and activities that aim to impact behaviors across the HIV treatment continuum in low- and medium-income countries...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894229/-self-reported-experience-in-patients-treated-with-hepatitis-c-direct-acting-antivirals
#5
Irene Cañamares Orbis, Javier Saez de la Fuente, Ismael Escobar Rodriguez, Concepción Esteban Alba, Ana Such Díaz, Ismael Escobar Rodríguez
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To learn about and analyze the self-reported treatment experience of HCV patients who started treatment with direct acting antivirals agents (DAA), at a real-time, proactive and integrated into the pharmaceutical care healthcare process, using a prospective questionnaire completed by patients as clinical tool. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational and cross-sectional study conducted between April (start of the National Strategic Plan) and December 2015 in the Outpatient Pharmacy Service...
November 1, 2016: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876197/vaccination-of-special-populations-protecting-the-vulnerable
#6
REVIEW
Mark Doherty, Ruprecht Schmidt-Ott, Jose Ignacio Santos, Lawrence R Stanberry, Annika M Hofstetter, Susan L Rosenthal, Anthony L Cunningham
One of the strategic objectives of the 2011-2020 Global Vaccine Action Plan is for the benefits of immunisation to be equitably extended to all people. This approach encompasses special groups at increased risk of vaccine-preventable diseases, such as preterm infants and pregnant women, as well as those with chronic and immune-compromising medical conditions or at increased risk of disease due to immunosenescence. Despite demonstrations of effectiveness and safety, vaccine uptake in these special groups is frequently lower than expected, even in developed countries with vaccination strategies in place...
December 20, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816565/expressing-and-negotiating-face-in-community-pharmacist-patient-interactions
#7
Muna S Murad, Judith A Spiers, Lisa M Guirguis
BACKGROUND: A collaborative patient-pharmacist interaction is fundamental to greater patient satisfaction with pharmacy care and improved medication adherence. Effective pharmacist-patient communication occurs when both pharmacist and patient are able to successfully attend to not only the typical tasks and goals of the interaction but also basic face needs that underlie all social interaction; autonomy, competence or esteem, and fellowship. Addressing face needs occurs through conventional and strategic communication strategies that respond to the emerging needs throughout an interaction...
October 27, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789558/recommended-dietary-pattern-to-achieve-adherence-to-the-american-heart-association-american-college-of-cardiology-aha-acc-guidelines-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#8
Linda Van Horn, Jo Ann S Carson, Lawrence J Appel, Lora E Burke, Christina Economos, Wahida Karmally, Kristie Lancaster, Alice H Lichtenstein, Rachel K Johnson, Randal J Thomas, Miriam Vos, Judith Wylie-Rosett, Penny Kris-Etherton
In 2013, the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology published the "Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk," which was based on a systematic review originally initiated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The guideline supports the American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction by providing more specific details for adopting evidence-based diet and lifestyle behaviors to achieve those goals...
November 29, 2016: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782964/the-per-protocol-effect-of-immediate-versus-deferred-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation
#9
Sara Lodi, Shweta Sharma, Jens D Lundgren, Andrew N Phillips, Stephen R Cole, Roger Logan, Brian K Agan, Abdel Babiker, Hartwig Klinker, Haitao Chu, Matthew Law, James D Neaton, Miguel A Hernán
OBJECTIVE: The Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial found a lower risk of a composite clinical outcome in HIV-positive individuals assigned to immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared with those assigned to deferred initiation. However, 30% of those assigned to deferred initiation started ART earlier than the protocol specified. To supplement the published intention-to-treat (ITT) effect estimates, here we estimate the per-protocol effect of immediate versus deferred ART initiation in START...
November 13, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760687/towards-a-fair-consideration-of-prep-as-part-of-combination-hiv-prevention-in-latin-america
#10
Giovanni Ravasi, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Ricardo Baruch, Juan Vicente Guanira, Ricardo Luque, Carlos F Cáceres, Massimo Ghidinelli
INTRODUCTION: Despite progress in scaling up antiretroviral treatment, HIV prevention strategies have not been successful in significantly curbing HIV incidence in Latin America. HIV prevention interventions need to be expanded to target the most affected key populations with a combination approach, including new high impact technologies. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as additional prevention choice for individuals at higher risk of infection and could become a cost-effective prevention tool...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760685/implementation-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-progress-and-emerging-issues-in-research-and-policy
#11
Carlos F Cáceres, Annick Borquez, Jeffrey D Klausner, Rachel Baggaley, Chris Beyrer
BACKGROUND: In this article, we present recent evidence from studies focused on the implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection; discuss PrEP scale-up to date, including the observed levels of access and policy development; and elaborate on key emerging policy and research issues to consider for further scale-up, with a special focus on lower-middle income countries. DISCUSSION: The 2015 WHO Early Release Guidelines for HIV Treatment and Prevention reflect both scientific evidence and new policy perspectives...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739924/broadly-neutralizing-antibodies-an-approach-to-control-hiv-1-infection
#12
Mahmoud Mohammad Yaseen, Mohammad Mahmoud Yaseen, Mohammad Ali Alqudah
Although available antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection to a non-fatal chronic disease, the economic burden of lifelong therapy, severe adverse ART effects, daily ART adherence, and emergence of ART-resistant HIV-1 mutants require prospecting for alternative therapeutic modalities. Indeed, a growing body of evidence suggests that broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies (BNAbs) may offer one such feasible alternative. To evaluate their therapeutic potential in established HIV-1 infection, we sought to address recent advances in pre-clinical and clinical investigations in this area of HIV-1 research...
October 14, 2016: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737641/dispatch-guideline-adherence-and-response-interval-a-study-of-emergency-medical-calls-in-norway
#13
Eirin N Ellensen, Torben Wisborg, Steinar Hunskaar, Erik Zakariassen
BACKGROUND: The Emergency Medical Communication Centre (EMCC) operators in Norway report using the Norwegian Index for Medical Emergency Assistance (Index), a criteria-based dispatch guideline, in about 75 % of medical emergency calls. The main purpose of a dispatch guideline is to assist the operator in securing a correct response as quickly as possible. The effect of using the guideline on EMCC response interval is as yet unknown. We wanted to ascertain an objective measure of guideline adherence, and explore a possible effect on emergency medical dispatch (EMD) response interval...
October 13, 2016: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643847/mechanisms-linking-intimate-partner-violence-and-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-a-qualitative-study-in-south-africa
#14
A M Hatcher, H Stöckl, N Christofides, N Woollett, C C Pallitto, C Garcia-Moreno, J M Turan
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) can virtually eliminate HIV infection among infants, yet up to one-third of women miss PMTCT steps. Little is known about how partner dynamics such as intimate partner violence (IPV) influence pregnant and postpartum women's adherence to PMTCT. We conducted 32 qualitative interviews with HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women in Johannesburg who experienced IPV. Trained researchers conducted in-depth interviews over the period of May 2014-Nov 2015 using narrative and social constructionist approaches...
November 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603292/the-per-protocol-effect-of-immediate-vs-deferred-art-initiation-in-the-start-randomized-trial
#15
Sara Lodi, Shweta Sharma, Jens D Lundgren, Andrew N Phillips, Stephen R Cole, Roger Logan, Brian K Agan, Abdel Babiker, Hartwig Klinker, Haitao Chu, Matthew Law, James D Neaton, Miguel A Hernán
OBJECTIVE: The START trial found a lower risk of a composite clinical outcome in HIV-positive individuals assigned to immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared with those assigned to deferred initiation. However, 30% of those assigned to deferred initiation started ART earlier than the protocol specified. To supplement the published intention-to-treat effect estimates, here we estimate the per-protocol effect of immediate versus deferred ART initiation in START. DESIGN: The START trial randomized 4685 HIV-positive participants with CD4 counts > 500 /mm to start ART immediately after randomization (immediate initiation group) or to wait until the CD4 count dropped below 350 cells/mm or an AIDS diagnosis (deferred initiation group)...
September 6, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27500423/selective-harvesting-of-marginating-hepatic-leukocytes
#16
Liat Sorski, Lee Shaashua, Rivka Melamed, Pini Matzner, Shamgar Ben-Eliyahu
Marginating-hepatic (MH) leukocytes (leukocytes adhering to the sinusoids of the liver), were shown to exhibit unique composition and characteristics compared to leukocytes of other immune compartments. Specifically, evidence suggests a distinct pro- and anti-inflammatory profile of the MH-leukocyte population and higher cytotoxicity of liver-specific NK cells (namely, pit cells) compared to circulating or splenic immunocytes in both mice and rats. The method presented herein enables selective harvesting of MH leukocytes by forced perfusion of the liver in mice and rats...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493010/virulence-determinants-in-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-from-north-india-and-their-interaction-in-in-vitro-organ-culture-system
#17
Deepika Gupta, Monica Sharma, Subendu Sarkar, B R Thapa, Anuradha Chakraborti
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important diarrhoeal pathogen causing diseases in multiple epidemiological and clinical settings. In developing countries like India, diarrhoeal diseases are one of the major killers among paediatric population and oddly, few studies are available from Indian paediatric population on the variability of EAEC virulence genes. In this study, we examined the distribution of plasmid and chromosomal-encoded virulence determinants in EAEC isolates, and analysed cytokines response generated against EAEC with specific aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF) type in duodenal biopsies using in vitro organ culture (IVOC) mimicking in vivo conditions...
September 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27462145/a-renewed-medication-adherence-alliance-call-to-action-harnessing-momentum-to-address-medication-nonadherence-in-the-united-states
#18
Leah L Zullig, Bradi B Granger, Hayden B Bosworth
THE PROBLEM: Nonadherence to prescription medications is a common and costly problem with multiple contributing factors, spanning the dimensions of individual behavior change, psychology, medicine, and health policy, among others. Addressing the problem of medication nonadherence requires strategic input from key experts in a number of fields. MEETING OF EXPERTS: The Medication Adherence Alliance is a group of key experts, predominately from the US, in the field of medication nonadherence...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381349/diabetes-related-knowledge-self-care-behaviours-and-adherence-to-medications-among-diabetic-patients-in-southwest-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-survey
#19
Tefera Kassahun, Hailay Gesesew, Lillian Mwanri, Tesfahun Eshetie
BACKGROUND: The provision of health education involving self-care and good adherence to medications has been acknowledged to be a cost effective strategy for improving quality of life of diabetes patients. We assessed levels of knowledge about type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), self-care behaviours and adherence to medication among DM patients. METHODS: A facility based cross-sectional survey of 325 adults with T2DM patients attending Jimma University Teaching Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia was conducted...
May 31, 2016: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27354828/implementation-of-interval-walking-training-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-denmark-rationale-design-and-baseline-characteristics
#20
Mathias Ried-Larsen, Reimar W Thomsen, Klara Berencsi, Cecilie F Brinkløv, Charlotte Brøns, Laura S Valentiner, Kristian Karstoft, Henning Langberg, Allan A Vaag, Bente K Pedersen, Jens S Nielsen
Promoting physical activity is a first-line choice of treatment for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, there is a need for more effective tools and technologies to facilitate structured lifestyle interventions and to ensure a better compliance, sustainability, and health benefits of exercise training in patients with T2D. The InterWalk initiative and its innovative application (app) for smartphones described in this study were developed by the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in T2D aiming at implementing, testing, and validating interval walking in patients with T2D in Denmark...
2016: Clinical Epidemiology
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