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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723781/assessment-of-optic-disc-and-ganglion-cell-layer-in-diabetes-mellitus-type-2
#1
Evre Pekel, Gökhan Tufaner, Hüseyin Kaya, Alper Kaşıkçı, Gökhan Deda, Gökhan Pekel
The purpose of this study was to compare the optic disc parameters, retinal nerve fiber (RNFL), and macular ganglion cell layers between patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 and healthy controls.In this cross-sectional study, 69 eyes of 69 diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy and 47 eyes of 47 healthy controls were included. Optic disc parameters (i.e., rim area, disc area, cup to disc ratio, cup volume), RNFL, and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layers (GCL + IPL) thickness were measured by means of spectral domain optical coherence tomography...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721935/prevalence-of-eye-disease-and-visual-impairment-in-%C3%A3-le-de-la-gonave-ha%C3%A3-ti
#2
B Tousignant, J Brûlé
Epidemiological data describing the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in Haiti are sparse. The Haitian National Committee for the Prevention of Blindness (CNPC) estimates the prevalence of blindness at 1 %. Other regional data estimate moderate and severe visual impairment at 5% and 22%, respectively. IRIS Mundial (IM) is a non-governmental organization collaborating with the CNPC to develop eye care infrastructure in Haiti. To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment on the Haitian island of Gonâve, to assist in planning of relevant eye care infrastructure...
July 19, 2017: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720313/binocular-diplopia-in-a-tertiary-hospital-aetiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
P Merino, D Fuentes, P Gómez de Liaño, M A Ordóñez
OBJECTIVE: To study the causes, diagnosis and treatment in a case series of binocular diplopia. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients seen in the Diplopia Unit of a tertiary centre during a one-year period. Diplopia was classified as: acute≤1 month since onset; subacute (1-6 months); and chronic (>6 months). Resolution of diplopia was classified as: spontaneous if it disappeared without treatment, partial if the course was intermittent, and non-spontaneous if treatment was required...
July 15, 2017: Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714802/binocular-vision-disorders-and-visual-attention-associations-with-balance-and-mobility-in-older-adults
#4
Mohammed M Althomali, Susan J Leat
Understanding which aspects of vision are related to falls is important. We examine the associations between tests of balance, mobility, fear of falling (FES-1) and aspects of vision in 72 adults aged 70+. Balance and mobility were examined using the One Legged Stance test (OLST), the Sit to Stand test (STST) and the 5 Meter Walking test (5MWT). Visual measures included visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity, stereoacuity, binocular vision (BV) measurements, Useful field of View (UFV) and Attended Field of View (AFOV)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714555/evidence-that-eye-movement-profiles-do-not-explain-slow-binocular-rivalry-rate-in-bipolar-disorder-support-for-a-perceptual-endophenotype
#5
Phillip Cf Law, Caroline T Gurvich, Trung T Ngo, Steven M Miller
OBJECTIVES: Presenting conflicting images simultaneously, one to each eye, produces perceptual alternations known as binocular rivalry (BR). Slow BR rate has been proposed as an endophenotype for bipolar disorder (BD) for use in large-scale genome-wide association studies. However, the trait could conceivably reflect eye movement (EM) dysfunction in BD rather than anomalous perceptual processing per se. To address this question, we examined the relationship between EM profiles and BR rate for various stimulus types in BD and healthy subjects...
July 17, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712567/perceived-object-trajectory-is-influenced-by-others-tracking-movements
#6
Colin J Palmer, Colin W G Clifford
In social interactions, it is highly salient to us where other people are looking. The ability to recover this information is critical to typical social development, helping us to coordinate our attention and behavior with others and understand their intentions and mental states [1-3]. The depth and direction in which another individual is fixating are specified jointly by their head position, eye deviation, and binocular vergence [4, 5]. It is hereto unknown, however, whether this dynamic visual information about others' focus of attention affects how we ourselves see the world...
July 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707239/microplastic-pollution-in-deposited-urban-dust-tehran-metropolis-iran
#7
Sharareh Dehghani, Farid Moore, Razegheh Akhbarizadeh
Environmental pollutants such as microplastics have become a major concern over the last few decades. We investigated the presence, characteristics, and potential health risks of microplastic dust ingestion. The plastic load of 88 to 605 microplastics per 30 g dry dust with a dominance of black and yellow granule microplastics ranging in size from 250 to 500 μm was determined in 10 street dust samples using a binocular microscope. Fluorescence microscopy was found to be ineffective for detecting and counting plastic debris...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698242/abnormal-fixational-eye-movements-in-strabismus
#8
Fatema F Ghasia, Jorge Otero-Millan, Aasef G Shaikh
INTRODUCTION: Fixational saccades are miniature eye movements that constantly change the gaze during attempted visual fixation. Visually guided saccades and fixational saccades represent an oculomotor continuum and are produced by common neural machinery. Patients with strabismus have disconjugate binocular horizontal saccades. We examined the stability and variability of eye position during fixation in patients with strabismus and correlated the severity of fixational instability with strabismus angle and binocular vision...
July 11, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696323/attention-model-of-binocular-rivalry
#9
Hsin-Hung Li, James Rankin, John Rinzel, Marisa Carrasco, David J Heeger
When the corresponding retinal locations in the two eyes are presented with incompatible images, a stable percept gives way to perceptual alternations in which the two images compete for perceptual dominance. As perceptual experience evolves dynamically under constant external inputs, binocular rivalry has been used for studying intrinsic cortical computations and for understanding how the brain regulates competing inputs. Converging behavioral and EEG results have shown that binocular rivalry and attention are intertwined: binocular rivalry ceases when attention is diverted away from the rivalry stimuli...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695758/differential-vergence-movements-in-reading-chinese-and-english-greater-fixation-initial-binocular-disparity-is-advantageous-in-reading-the-denser-orthography
#10
Yi-Ting Hsiao, Richard Shillcock, Mateo Obregón, Hamutal Kreiner, Matthew A J Roberts, Scott McDonald
We explore two aspects of exovergence: we test whether smaller binocular fixation disparities accompany the shorter saccades and longer fixations observed in reading Chinese; we test whether potentially advantageous psychophysical effects of exovergence (cf. Arnold & Schindel, 2010; Kersten & Murray, 2010) transfer to text reading. We report differential exovergence in reading Chinese and English: Chinese readers begin fixations with more binocular disparity, but end fixations with a disparity closely similar to that of the English readers...
July 11, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694464/monocular-deprivation-induces-dendritic-spine-elimination-in-the-developing-mouse-visual-cortex
#11
Yanmei Zhou, Baoling Lai, Wen-Biao Gan
It is well established that visual deprivation has a profound impact on the responsiveness of neurons in the developing visual cortex. The effect of visual deprivation on synaptic connectivity remains unclear. Using transcranial two-photon microscopy, we examined the effect of visual deprivation and subsequent recovery on dendritic spine remodeling of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the mouse primary visual cortex. We found that monocular deprivation (MD), but not binocular deprivation (BD), increased dendritic spine elimination over 3 days in the binocular region of 4-week-old adolescent mice...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690585/saccadic-impairments-in-patients-with-the-norrbottnian-form-of-gaucher-s-disease-type-3
#12
Josefine Blume, Stanislav Beniaminov, Cecilia Kämpe Björkvall, Maciej Machaczka, Per Svenningsson
BACKGROUND: Chronic neuronopathic Gaucher's disease type 3 (GD3) is relatively frequent in northern Sweden. Besides multiple other neurological symptoms, horizontal gaze palsy or oculomotor apraxia is common in GD3. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the saccades in patients with Norrbottnian GD3 with respect to their neurological and cognitive status using a computer-based eye-tracking technique. METHODS: Horizontal and vertical reflexive saccades as well as antisaccades of nine GD3 patients [4M/5F; 41...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687845/wayfinding-and-glaucoma-a-virtual-reality-experiment
#13
Fábio B Daga, Eduardo Macagno, Cory Stevenson, Ahmed Elhosseiny, Alberto Diniz-Filho, Erwin R Boer, Jürgen Schulze, Felipe A Medeiros
Purpose: Wayfinding, the process of determining and following a route between an origin and a destination, is an integral part of everyday tasks. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of glaucomatous visual field loss on wayfinding behavior using an immersive virtual reality (VR) environment. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 31 glaucomatous patients and 20 healthy subjects without evidence of overall cognitive impairment. Wayfinding experiments were modeled after the Morris water maze navigation task and conducted in an immersive VR environment...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683455/binocular-fixation-reduces-fixational-eye-movements-in-the-worst-eye-of-patients-with-center-involving-diabetic-macular-edema
#14
Nanna Stæhr Jakobsen, Dorte Ancher Larsen, Toke Bek
PURPOSE: Treatment of diabetic maculopathy with vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors is in some patients ineffective, and, therefore, parameters predicting visual outcome after treatment should be identified. It has been shown that fixational saccades are increased in patients with reduced visual acuity secondary to diabetic maculopathy, but it is unknown to what extent these saccades in an eye affected by diabetic maculopathy are influenced by the other eye during binocular fixation...
July 7, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678305/clinical-features-and-surgical-outcome-of-triad-exotropia
#15
Suk-Gyu Ha, Young-Woo Suh, Seung-Hyun Kim
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical features and surgical outcome of A-pattern exotropia combined with dissociated vertical deviation and superior oblique overaction. METHODS: The medical records of patients with A-pattern exotropia combined with dissociated vertical deviation and superior oblique overaction who underwent horizontal muscle surgery alone or in combination with superior oblique muscle weakening surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups according to their surgery: the horizontal muscle surgery alone group and the horizontal muscle surgery with bilateral superior oblique weakening surgery (combined surgery) group...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674958/monovision-versus-multifocality-for-presbyopia-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
REVIEW
Lidija Kelava, Hrvoje Barić, Mladen Bušić, Ivan Čima, Vladimir Trkulja
INTRODUCTION: Refractive surgery in presbyopia tends to achieve spectacle independence with minimal optical disturbances. We compared monovision to multifocality procedures regarding these outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of published (till November 21, 2016) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any monovision to any multifocality method or comparing different monovision/multifocality methods to each other that enabled direct or indirect comparisons between particular monovision and particular multifocality procedures in presbyopic patients undergoing cataract-related or unrelated surgery in respect to spectacle independence, unaided binocular visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS), and adverse events...
July 3, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671322/factors-related-to-retinal-haemorrhage-in-infants-born-at-high-risk
#17
Qinglan Pu, Ping Li, Huiqin Jiang, Hong Wang, Qiaoyun Zhou, Jia Liu, Wenhua Zhong, Huafei Huang
PURPOSE: This study aims to determine risk factors for retinal haemorrhage (RH) in high-risk infants. METHODS: A total of 3123 cases with high-risk pregnancy and/or neonatal asphyxia 72 hr after delivery were enrolled into this study. Fundus examinations were performed on newborns utilizing a wide-angle imaging system (RetCam III). Retinal haemorrhage (RH) was classified into three grades. Maternal, obstetric and neonatal parameters from high-risk infants with RH were compared with parameters from infants without RH...
July 3, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666553/binocular-rivalry-after-right-hemisphere-stroke-effects-of-attention-impairment-on-perceptual-dominance-patterns
#18
Kjersti Mæhlum Walle, Hillary Lynn Kyler, Jan Egil Nordvik, Frank Becker, Bruno Laeng
Binocular rivalry is when perception fluctuates while the stimuli, consisting of different images presented to each eye, remain unchanged. The fluctuation rate and predominance ratio of these images are regarded as information source for understanding properties of consciousness and perception. We administered a binocular rivalry task to 26 right-hemisphere stroke patients and 26 healthy control participants, using stimuli such as simple Gabor anaglyphs. Each single Gabor image was of unequal spatial frequency compared to its counterpart, allowing assessment of the effect of relative spatial frequency on rivalry predominance...
June 27, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662245/reduction-of-rod-and-cone-function-in-6-5-year-old-children-born-extremely-preterm
#19
Anna E C Molnar, Sten O Andréasson, Eva K B Larsson, Hanna M Åkerblom, Gerd E Holmström
Importance: The function of rods and cones in children born extremely preterm has not yet been fully investigated. Objective: To compare retinal function via full-field electroretinographic (ffERG) recordings in 6.5-year-old children born extremely preterm with children born at term. Design, Setting, and Participants: A subcohort study was conducted from July 1, 2010, to January 15, 2014, of the national Extremely Preterm Infants in Sweden Study, including preterm children (<27 weeks' gestational age) and children born at term, at 6...
June 29, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659388/incidence-risk-factors-and-management-of-intractable-diplopia
#20
David Newsham, Anna R O'Connor, Richard A Harrad
AIMS: There is a paucity of literature concerning intractable diplopia. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of intractable diplopia in the UK, identify the causes and any associated risk factors, establish how cases are managed and if the treatment is successful and tolerated. METHODS: A 1-year prospective observational study was undertaken via the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit (BOSU). This involved implementation of a reporting mechanism, which then triggered distribution of an incident questionnaire to explore clinical details concerning each case and a follow-up questionnaire 6 months later to explore how the case had been managed...
June 28, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
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