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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243035/systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-ocular-involvement-an-overview
#1
REVIEW
Rosanna Dammacco
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease of undefined etiology and with remarkably heterogeneous clinical features. Virtually any organ system can be affected, including the eye. SLE-related eye involvement can be diagnosed in approximately one-third of the patients and is usually indicative of disease activity. An early diagnosis and the adoption of suitable therapeutic measures are necessary to prevent sight-threatening consequences, especially in patients with juvenile SLE. Periocular lesions, such as eyelid involvement and orbital inflammation, are relatively rare and, in case of orbital masses, may require a biopsy control...
December 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238513/color-constancy-in-two-dimensional-and-three-dimensional-scenes-effects-of-viewing-methods-and-surface-texture
#2
Takuma Morimoto, Yoko Mizokami, Hirohisa Yaguchi, Steven L Buck
There has been debate about how and why color constancy may be better in three-dimensional (3-D) scenes than in two-dimensional (2-D) scenes. Although some studies have shown better color constancy for 3-D conditions, the role of specific cues remains unclear. In this study, we compared color constancy for a 3-D miniature room (a real scene consisting of actual objects) and 2-D still images of that room presented on a monitor using three viewing methods: binocular viewing, monocular viewing, and head movement...
November 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237799/differential-associations-between-retinal-signs-and-cmbs-by-location-the-ages-reykjavik-study
#3
Chengxuan Qiu, Jie Ding, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Diana E Fisher, Qian Zhang, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Ronald Klein, Mark A van Buchem, Vilmundur Gudnason, Mary Frances Cotch, Lenore J Launer
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinal microvascular signs are differentially associated with lobar and deep cerebral microbleeds (CMBs). METHODS: CMBs in lobar regions indicate cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). β-Amyloid deposits are implicated in both CAA and AMD. Deep CMBs are associated with hypertension, a major risk factor for retinal microvascular damage. This population-based cohort study included 2,502 participants in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study who undertook binocular digital retinal photographs at baseline (2002-2006) to assess retinal microvascular signs and AMD and brain MRI scan at both baseline and follow-up (2007-2011) to assess CMBs...
December 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236037/calibration-of-binocular-vision-sensors-based-on-unknown-sized-elliptical-stripe-images
#4
Zhen Liu, Suining Wu, Yang Yin, Jinbo Wu
Most of the existing calibration methods for binocular stereo vision sensor (BSVS) depend on a high-accuracy target with feature points that are difficult and costly to manufacture and. In complex light conditions, optical filters are used for BSVS, but they affect imaging quality. Hence, the use of a high-accuracy target with certain-sized feature points for calibration is not feasible under such complex conditions. To solve these problems, a calibration method based on unknown-sized elliptical stripe images is proposed...
December 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232704/do-early-neural-correlates-of-visual-consciousness-show-the-oblique-effect-a-binocular-rivalry-and-event-related-potential-study
#5
Bradley N Jack, Urte Roeber, Robert P O'Shea
When dissimilar images are presented one to each eye, we do not see both images; rather, we see one at a time, alternating unpredictably. This is called binocular rivalry, and it has recently been used to study brain processes that correlate with visual consciousness, because perception changes without any change in the sensory input. Such studies have used various types of images, but the most popular have been gratings: sets of bright and dark lines of orthogonal orientations presented one to each eye. We studied whether using cardinal rival gratings (vertical, 0°, and horizontal, 90°) versus oblique rival gratings (left-oblique, -45°, and right-oblique, 45°) influences early neural correlates of visual consciousness, because of the oblique effect: the tendency for visual performance to be greater for cardinal gratings than for oblique gratings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231890/development-and-verification-of-a-novel-robot-integrated-fringe-projection-3d-scanning-system-for-large-scale-metrology
#6
Hui Du, Xiaobo Chen, Juntong Xi, Chengyi Yu, Bao Zhao
Large-scale surfaces are prevalent in advanced manufacturing industries, and 3D profilometry of these surfaces plays a pivotal role for quality control. This paper proposes a novel and flexible large-scale 3D scanning system assembled by combining a robot, a binocular structured light scanner and a laser tracker. The measurement principle and system construction of the integrated system are introduced. A mathematical model is established for the global data fusion. Subsequently, a robust method is introduced for the establishment of the end coordinate system...
December 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230369/microcos-magnifica-sparrmanniaceae-a-new-species-of-cloudforest-tree-from-cameroon
#7
Martin Cheek
Background: Although many new species to science have been discovered from thousands of specimens resulting from botanical inventories to support conservation management in Cameroon in recent years, additional species remain to be formally evaluated taxonomically and described. These include species from genera which have been taxonomically neglected for many decades in Africa, such as Microcos. Methods: This study is based mainly on herbarium specimens and field observations made in Cameroon during a series of botanical surveys...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228141/the-source-of-visual-size-adaptation
#8
Hang Zeng, Sylvia Kreutzer, Gereon R Fink, Ralph Weidner
Size adaptation describes the tendency of the visual system to adjust neural responsiveness of size representations after prolonged exposure to particular stimulations. A larger (or smaller) adaptor stimulus influences the perceived size of a similar test stimulus shown subsequently. Size adaptation may emerge on various processing levels. Functional representations of the adaptor to which the upcoming stimulus is adapted may be coded early in the visual system mainly reflecting retinal size. Alternatively, size adaptation may involve higher order processes that take into account additional information such as an object's estimated distance from the observer, hence reflecting perceived size...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227249/eye-opening-differentially-modulates-inhibitory-synaptic-transmission-in-the-developing-visual-cortex
#9
Wuqiang Guan, Jun-Wei Cao, Lin-Yun Liu, Zhi-Hao Zhao, Yinghui Fu, Yong-Chun Yu
Eye opening, a natural and timed event during animal development, influences cortical circuit assembly and maturation; yet, little is known about its precise effect on inhibitory synaptic connections. Here we show that coinciding with eye opening, the strength of unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (uIPSCs) from somatostatin-expressing interneurons (Sst-INs) to nearby excitatory neurons, but not interneurons, sharply decreases in layer 2/3 of the mouse visual cortex. In contrast, the strength of uIPSCs from fast-spiking interneurons (FS-INs) to excitatory neurons significantly increases during eye opening...
December 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226759/evaluation-and-interpretation-of-the-bucket-test-in-healthy-individuals
#10
Erika Celis-Aguilar, Angel Castro-Urquizo, Juan Mariscal-Castro
OBJECTIVE: To determine and interpret the range of normal deviation of the bucket test in healthy subjects Subjects and methods: Study design: Cross-sectional study in a secondary care center. INCLUSION CRITERIA: subjects ≥18 years old with no otologic or neurologic symptoms and normal complete neuro-otological examination. The subjective visual vertical was evaluated binocularly using the bucket test. Five measurements were made on the clockwise direction and five on the counterclockwise direction...
December 9, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225765/perspective-space-as-a-model-for-distance-and-size-perception
#11
Casper J Erkelens
In the literature, perspective space has been introduced as a model of visual space. Perspective space is grounded on the perspective nature of visual space during both binocular and monocular vision. A single parameter, that is, the distance of the vanishing point, transforms the geometry of physical space into that of perspective space. The perspective-space model predicts perceived angles, distances, and sizes. The model is compared with other models for distance and size perception. Perspective space predicts that perceived distance and size as a function of physical distance are described by hyperbolic functions...
November 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223234/corneal-remodeling-after-implantation-of-a-shape-changing-inlay-concurrent-with-myopic-or-hyperopic-laser-in%C3%A2-situ-keratomileusis
#12
Roger F Steinert, Douglas D Koch, Beatrice Cochener, Alan Lang, Enrique Barragán-Garza, Arturo Chayet, Luis G Vargas
PURPOSE: To compare the induced addition (add)-power profile and epithelial remodeling between patients receiving hyperopic and myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) concurrently with implantation of a corneal shape-changing inlay. SETTING: Specialty clinics in Monterrey and Tijuana, Mexico. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Preoperative hyperopic patients (mean spherical equivalent [SE] treatment +1...
November 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222719/longevity-of-visual-improvements-following-transcorneal-electrical-stimulation-and-efficacy-of-retreatment-in-three-individuals-with-retinitis-pigmentosa
#13
Ava K Bittner, Kenneth Seger
PURPOSE: A small-scale randomized controlled trial conducted by our group found that four of seven retinitis pigmentosa (RP) subjects who received six weekly Transcorneal Electrical Stimulation (TES) sessions developed significant improvements in visual acuity (VA), quick contrast sensitivity function (qCSF), and/or Goldmann visual fields (GVF). We longitudinally monitored three of these participants for declining visual function due to natural RP progression to determine the duration of their responses and administered retreatments...
December 8, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221099/design-of-a-uniform-illumination-binocular-waveguide-display-with-diffraction-gratings-and-freeform-optics
#14
Zeyang Liu, Yajun Pang, Cheng Pan, Zhanhua Huang
Uniform illuminance over the expanded exit pupil is an important requirement for waveguide display systems with a wide field of view (FOV). To address this issue, we develop a monochromatic binocular waveguide display in this paper. Two surface-relief diffraction gratings are designed as in-couplers and out-couplers. The parameters of the gratings are optimized to achieve uniform diffraction efficiency distributions over a broad angular range. The grating couplers enable the system to realize a diagonal FOV of 40°...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219898/orthokeratology-and-contact-lens-quality-of-life-questionnaire-ocl-qol
#15
Colm McAlinden, Michael Lipson
OBJECTIVES: To develop a quality of life (QoL) instrument for patients fitted with Orthokeratology (OrthoK) and other modalities of contact lenses. METHODS: A 45-item pilot questionnaire was developed from an extensive literature review, focus groups, and interviews. Subsequently, 234 participants fitted with contact lenses (OrthoK, soft lenses, and gas permeable lenses) or spectacles completed the pilot questionnaire. Rasch analysis was used to assess the psychometric properties in terms of person separation, item fit statistics, category threshold ordering, differential item functioning (DIF), and targeting...
December 5, 2017: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219263/-comparison-of-measurement-methods-of-exophthalmos-and-its-forensic-significance
#16
S L Tan, J M Chen, X Y Yu, M W Wang, P P Zhuo, S Zhou, W T Xia
OBJECTIVES: To compare the differences between Hertel exophthalmometry and CT on exophthalmos measurement, and explore its practical application value in forensic medicine. METHODS: Fifty-six normal individuals without eye injuries or diseases were selected as the control group. The absolute values of exophthalmos were measured in the standardized CT image workstation. The difference of binocular exophthalmos was compared in normal group. Forty-seven cases with unilateral orbital fracture were divided into injured eye group and normal eye group according to the presence of binocular orbital fractures...
August 2017: Fa Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217455/a-new-method-to-analyse-the-effect-of-multifocal-contact-lenses-on-visual-function
#17
I Sanchez, S Ortiz-Toquero, M Blanco, R Martin
PURPOSE: Presbyopic contact lens (CL) fittings produce simultaneous vision, providing different retinal images that reduce visual quality and wearers' satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method to isolate the multifocality effect of different CL options to manage presbyopia, analysing the impact on binocular visual acuity (VA), stereopsis and contrast sensitivity (CS) and determining the effect of the use of a yellow filter (YF) on visual function. METHODS: A prospective and double-masked randomized pilot study involving 20 healthy volunteers was conducted...
December 4, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212484/clinical-features-of-visual-disturbances-secondary-to-isolated-sphenoid-sinus-inflammatory-diseases
#18
Lanlan Chen, Libin Jiang, Bentao Yang, Prem S Subramanian
BACKGROUND: Visual disturbances associated with isolated sphenoid sinus inflammatory diseases (ISSIDs) are easily misdiagnosed due to the nonspecific symptoms and undetectable anatomical location. The main objective of this retrospective case series is to investigate the clinical features of visual disturbances secondary to ISSIDs. METHODS: Clinical data of 23 patients with unilateral or bilateral visual disturbances secondary to ISSIDs from 2004 to 2014 with new symptoms were collected...
December 6, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211742/fear-of-falling-and-postural-reactivity-in-patients-with-glaucoma
#19
Fábio B Daga, Alberto Diniz-Filho, Erwin R Boer, Carolina P B Gracitelli, Ricardo Y Abe, Felipe A Medeiros
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between postural metrics obtained by dynamic visual stimulation in a virtual reality environment and the presence of fear of falling in glaucoma patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 35 glaucoma patients and 26 controls that underwent evaluation of postural balance by a force platform during presentation of static and dynamic visual stimuli with head-mounted goggles (Oculus Rift). In dynamic condition, a peripheral translational stimulus was used to induce vection and assess postural reactivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207951/downstream-mediators-of-ten-m3-signalling-in-the-developing-visual-pathway
#20
Kelly A Glendining, Sam C Liu, Marvin Nguyen, Nuwan Dharmaratne, Rajini Nagarajah, Miguel A Iglesias, Atomu Sawatari, Catherine A Leamey
BACKGROUND: The formation of visuotopically-aligned projections in the brain is required for the generation of functional binocular circuits. The mechanisms which underlie this process are unknown. Ten-m3 is expressed in a broad high-ventral to low-dorsal gradient across the retina and in topographically-corresponding gradients in primary visual centres. Deletion of Ten-m3 causes profound disruption of binocular visual alignment and function. Surprisingly, one of the most apparent neuroanatomical changes-dramatic mismapping of ipsilateral, but not contralateral, retinal axons along the representation of the nasotemporal retinal axis-does not correlate well with Ten-m3's expression pattern, raising questions regarding mechanism...
December 6, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
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