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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921322/the-heterophoria-of-3-5-year-old-children-as-a-function-of-viewing-distance-and-target-type
#1
Mary E Troyer, Vidhyapriya Sreenivasan, T J Peper, T Rowan Candy
PURPOSE: Heterophoria is the misalignment of the eyes in monocular viewing and represents the accuracy of vergence driven by all classical cues except disparity. It is challenging to assess restless children using clinical cover tests, and phoria in early childhood is poorly understood. Here we used eye tracking to assess phoria as a function of viewing distance and target in adults and young children, with comparison to clinical cover tests. METHODS: Purkinje image tracking (MCS PowerRefractor) was used to record eye alignment in adults (19-28 years, N = 24) and typically developing children (3-5 years, N = 24)...
December 5, 2016: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919763/feasibility-of-telementoring-for-micro-neurosurgical-procedures-utilizing-a-microscope-a-proof-of-concept-study
#2
Bryan Ladd, Ryan D Tackla, Akshay Gupte, David Darrow, Jeffery Sorenson, Mario Zuccarello, Andrew W Grande
BACKGROUND: Our pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of our telementoring-telescripting model to facilitate seamless communication between surgeons while the operating surgeon is under microscope. METHODS: As a first proof of concept, 4 students identified 20 anatomical landmarks on a dry human skull with or without telementoring guidance. To assess the ability to communicate operative information, a senior neurosurgery resident evaluated the student's ability and timing to complete a stepwise craniotomy on a cadaveric head, with and without telementoring guidance; a second portion included exposure of the anterior circulation...
December 2, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919678/individual-differences-in-high-level-biological-motion-tasks-correlate-with-autistic-traits
#3
Jeroen J A van Boxtel, Yujia Peng, Junzhu Su, Hongjing Lu
Human actions are rich in social cues and play an essential role in interacting with the social environment. Hence, the perception of biological motion (i.e., movement elicited by humans and other animals) is considered to be an important gauge of a person's social cognition capacities. It has been well-documented that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with difficulties in social interactions. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in biological motion perception relate to the degree of autistic traits among people in the typically-developing population...
December 2, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919503/binocular-low-contrast-letter-acuity-and-the-symbol-digit-modalities-test-improve-the-ability-of-the-multiple-sclerosis-functional-composite-to-predict-disease-in-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Amy T Waldman, Salim Chahin, Amy M Lavery, Geraldine Liu, Brenda L Banwell, Grant T Liu, Laura J Balcer
BACKGROUND: Outcome measures to capture disability, such as the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC), were developed to enhance outcome measurements for clinical trials in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). The MSFC initially included three components: a timed 25-foot walk [T25FW], 9-hole peg test [9HPT], and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task [PASAT]. Modifications to the original MSFC, such as adding binocular low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA) or substituting the symbol digit modalities test (SDMT) for the PASAT, improved the capacity to capture neurologic impairment in adults...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919101/the-risk-of-pedestrian-collisions-with-peripheral-visual-field-loss
#5
Eli Peli, Henry Apfelbaum, Eliot L Berson, Robert B Goldstein
Patients with peripheral field loss complain of colliding with other pedestrians in open-space environments such as shopping malls. Field expansion devices (e.g., prisms) can create artificial peripheral islands of vision. We investigated the visual angle at which these islands can be most effective for avoiding pedestrian collisions, by modeling the collision risk density as a function of bearing angle of pedestrians relative to the patient. Pedestrians at all possible locations were assumed to be moving in all directions with equal probability within a reasonable range of walking speeds...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915310/retinopathy-of-prematurity-profile-and-trend-over-the-years-experience-from-a-two-tier-city-in-eastern-india
#6
Tapas Ranjan Padhi, Lubhani Jain, Umesh Chandra Behera, Lingaraj Pradhan
The Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) epidemic is no more confined to metro cities and has spread to interior states including Eastern India. There is hardly any published data available on the subject, including the incidence and profile of babies with ROP, screening experience with binocular indirect ophthalmoscope and wide-field digital retinal imaging, as well as the difficulties faced with each model. In our cohort, 33.2% had ROP and 25.3% of babies with ROP required treatment. Mean (SD) gestational age and birth weight were 30...
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911114/changes-of-tangential-traction-after-macular-peeling-correlation-between-en-face-analysis-and-macular-sensitivity
#7
Mario R Romano, Gilda Cennamo, Ida Cesarano, Domenico Cardone, Giuseppe Nicoletti, Rodolfo Mastropasqua, Giovanni Cennamo
PURPOSE: To assess the epi- and intra-retinal morphology changes of the tangential tractions following vitreoretinal surgery for epiretinal membranes and to investigate the correlation between the depth of retinal changes and functional macular sensitivity (MS). METHODS: This is a prospective cross-sectional interventional study, in which 73 eyes of 73 patients with diagnosis of idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) were evaluated. All patients received complete ophthalmic evaluation, including axial and en-face scanning spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) analysis and microperimetry...
December 2, 2016: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907266/retinal-axon-guidance-at-the-midline-chiasmatic-misrouting-and-consequences
#8
REVIEW
Delphine S Prieur, Alexandra Rebsam
The visual representation of the outside world relies on the appropriate connectivity between the eyes and the brain. Retinal ganglion cells are the sole neurons that send an axon from the retina to the brain, and thus the guidance decisions of retinal axons en route to their targets in the brain shape the neural circuitry that forms the basis of vision. Here, we focus on the choice made by retinal axons to cross or avoid the midline at the optic chiasm. This decision allows each brain hemisphere to receive inputs from both eyes corresponding to the same visual hemifield, and is thus crucial for binocular vision...
December 1, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902732/predictors-of-current-and-longer-term-patterns-of-abundance-of-american-pikas-ochotona-princeps-across-a-leading-edge-protected-area
#9
Lucas Moyer-Horner, Erik A Beever, Douglas H Johnson, Mark Biel, Jami Belt
American pikas (Ochotona princeps) have been heralded as indicators of montane-mammal response to contemporary climate change. Pikas no longer occupy the driest and lowest-elevation sites in numerous parts of their geographic range. Conversely, pikas have exhibited higher rates of occupancy and persistence in Rocky Mountain and Sierra Nevada montane 'mainlands'. Research and monitoring efforts on pikas across the western USA have collectively shown the nuance and complexity with which climate will often act on species in diverse topographic and climatic contexts...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900725/binocularity-and-visual-search-revisited
#10
Bochao Zou, Igor S Utochkin, Yue Liu, Jeremy M Wolfe
Binocular rivalry is a phenomenon of visual competition in which perception alternates between two monocular images. When two eye's images only differ in luminance, observers may perceive shininess, a form of rivalry called binocular luster. Does dichoptic information guide attention in visual search? Wolfe and Franzel (Perception & Psychophysics, 44(1), 81-93, 1988) reported that rivalry could guide attention only weakly, but that luster (shininess) "popped out," producing very shallow Reaction Time (RT) × Set Size functions...
November 29, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898724/risk-factors-for-motor-vehicle-collisions-in-patients-with-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#11
Kenya Yuki, Sachiko Awano-Tanabe, Takeshi Ono, Daisuke Shiba, Hiroshi Murata, Ryo Asaoka, Kazuo Tsubota
PURPOSE: To identify the incidence rate of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) in patients with no ocular pathology other than primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and determine the putative risk factors for MVCs in this group of patients. METHODS: We designed a prospective cohort study across three centers utilizing a consecutive sampling method to identify all patients with POAG between the ages of 40 and 80 years old. Patients with glaucoma were consecutively screened for eligibility...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893095/functional-reading-independence-fri-index-a-new-patient-reported-outcome-measure-for-patients-with-geographic-atrophy
#12
Miriam Kimel, Nancy Kline Leidy, Elizabeth Tschosik, Chantal Dolan, Eric H Souied, Rohit Varma, Neil M Bressler
Purpose: To develop and validate the Functional Reading Independence (FRI) Index, a new patient-reported outcome measure assessing reading activities in individuals with geographic atrophy (GA) due to age-related macular degeneration. Methods: The Index was developed through expert consultation and qualitative patient interviews. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness were tested with data from the Mahalo study (NCT01229215) of lampalizumab in patients with GA...
November 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890189/diplopia-what-to-double-check-in-radiographic-imaging-of-double-vision
#13
REVIEW
Claudia F E Kirsch, Karen Black
When patients see double with both eyes open, known as "binocular diplopia," this may be a harbinger of underlying life-threatening causes. This article presents pertinent anatomy, critical abnormality, and radiographic features that should be double checked for in diplopia. Key areas requiring a double check using the acronym VISION include Vascular, Infectious and Inflammatory, the Scalp for giant cell arteritis, Sphenoid and Skull base in trauma, Increased intracranial pressure (pseudotumor cerebri), Onset of new headaches or psychosis, and Neoplasm...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882486/vep-analysis-methods-in-children-with-optic-nerve-hypoplasia-relationship-to-visual-acuity-and-optic-disc-diameter
#14
John P Kelly, James O Phillips, Avery H Weiss
PURPOSE: Assessing vision in young children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) is challenging due to multi-directional infantile nystagmus, the range of optic nerve loss, and cognitive delay. This study examined visual evoked potential (VEP) responses and averaging techniques in children with ONH. The assumption is that EEG epochs with inconsistent temporal phase would be associated with nystagmus, signal reduction due to axon loss, and visual inattention. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on 44 children (average age 2...
November 23, 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873014/binocular-function-changes-produced-in-response-to-overnight-orthokeratology
#15
Gema Felipe-Marquez, María Nombela-Palomo, Catalina Palomo-Álvarez, Isabel Cacho, Amelia Nieto-Bona
PURPOSE: To analyze the binocular function changes produced on subjects undergoing overnight orthokeratology (OK) treatment over short-term (3 months) and long-term (3 years) wear. METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal study on young adult subjects with low to moderate myopia was carried out. Binocular function was assessed by the following sequence of tests: Distance and near horizontal phoria (Von Graefe technique), distance and near horizontal vergence ranges (Risley rotary prisms), accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio (gradient method) and the near point of convergence (standard push-up technique)...
November 21, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871885/vestibular-signals-of-self-motion-modulate-global-motion-perception
#16
Hinze Hogendoorn, Frans A J Verstraten, Hamish MacDougall, David Alais
Certain visual stimuli can have two possible interpretations. These perceptual interpretations may alternate stochastically, a phenomenon known as bistability. Some classes of bistable stimuli, including binocular rivalry, are sensitive to bias from input through other modalities, such as sound and touch. Here, we address the question whether bistable visual motion stimuli, known as plaids, are affected by vestibular input that is caused by self-motion. In Experiment 1, we show that a vestibular self-motion signal biases the interpretation of the bistable plaid, increasing or decreasing the likelihood of the plaid being perceived as globally coherent or transparently sliding depending on the relationship between self-motion and global visual motion directions...
November 25, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871763/diplopia-in-medically-and-surgically-treated-patients-with-glaucoma
#17
Philip Y Sun, David A Leske, Jonathan M Holmes, Cheryl L Khanna
PURPOSE: To report the prevalence, type, and cause of diplopia in medically and surgically treated patients with glaucoma. DESIGN: Cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 195 adult patients with glaucoma treated in a glaucoma referral practice. METHODS: A total of 195 adult patients with glaucoma who had undergone surgical or medical management were prospectively enrolled. Forty-seven patients had undergone glaucoma drainage device (GDD) surgery (Baerveldt 350, Baerveldt 250 [Abbott Medical Optics, Abbott Park, IL], or Ahmed FP7 [New World Medical Inc, Rancho Cucamonga, CA]), 61 patients had undergone trabeculectomy, and 87 patients were medically treated...
November 18, 2016: Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867729/binocular-summation-and-visual-function-with-induced-anisocoria-and-monovision
#18
José J Castro, Margarita Soler, Carolina Ortiz, José R Jiménez, Rosario G Anera
The advances in new techniques for correcting presbyopia, such as a small aperture combined with monovision, require an in-depth study of binocular aspects. In this work, we have studied binocular visual performance of 12 subjects after inducing different degrees of anisocoria combined with two different add powers in the non-dominant eye. We have analysed visual performance in terms of the visual-discrimination capacity (a function to evaluate the strength of bothersome halos) and the contrast-sensitivity...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859646/prevalence-of-non-strabismic-anomalies-of-binocular-vision-in-tamil-nadu-report-2-of-band-study
#19
Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen, Archayeeta Rakshit, Neeraj Kumar Singh, Ronnie George, Meenakshi Swaminathan, Suman Kapur, Mitchell Scheiman, Krishna Kumar Ramani
BACKGROUND: Population-based studies on the prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision in ethnic Indians are more than two decades old. Based on indigenous normative data, the BAND (Binocular Vision Anomalies and Normative Data) study aims to report the prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision among school children in rural and urban Tamil Nadu. METHODS: This population-based, cross-sectional study was designed to estimate the prevalence of non-strabismic anomalies of binocular vision in the rural and urban population of Tamil Nadu...
November 18, 2016: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857032/eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-presenting-with-skin-rashes-eosinophilic-cholecystitis-and-retinal-vasculitis
#20
Mingbing Zeng, Xialin Liu, Yizhi Liu
BACKGROUND Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA), also known as Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS), is a rare vasculitis of unknown etiology. Most of the patients have a long history of asthma and then develop autoimmune inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels, with consequent reduction of blood flow to various organs and tissues. EGPA can cause disorders in multiple systems; the most seriously affected organs are the retina, kidney, brain, cardiovascular system, and skin. CASE REPORT The patient was hospitalized for high fever and skin rashes and then developed right upper abdominal pain, decreased visual acuity, coma, and convulsions...
November 18, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
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