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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079653/comparison-of-impact-of-monocular-and-integrated-binocular-visual-fields-on-vision-related-quality-of-life
#1
Yeoun Sook Chun, Dong Ik Lee, Jaein Kwon, In Ki Park
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between vision-related quality of life (VRQOL) and mean deviation (MD) of the monocular visual field and integrated binocular visual field (IBVF). METHODS: One hundred eighty VFs (90 pairs) obtained from 90 patients with normal tension glaucoma were included. VRQOL was evaluated using the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). IBVF was calculated using maximal sensitivity and binocular summation and IBVF MD was calculated...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074347/pattern-and-motion-related-visual-evoked-potentials-in-hiv-infected-adults
#2
Jana Szanyi, Jan Kremlacek, Zuzana Kubova, Miroslav Kuba, Pavel Gebousky, Jaroslav Kapla, Juraj Szanyi, Frantisek Vit, Jana Langrova
PURPOSE: The goal of the current study was to explore visual function in virally suppressed HIV patients undergoing combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) by using pattern-reversal and motion-onset visual evoked potentials (VEPs). METHODS: The pattern-reversal and motion-onset VEPs were recorded in 20 adult HIV+ patients with a mean age of 38 years and CD4 cell counts ≥230 × 10(6) cells/L of blood. RESULTS: Nine out of 20 patients displayed VEP abnormalities...
January 10, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073303/stereoscopic-depth-contrast-in-a-3d-m%C3%A3-ller-lyer-configuration-evidence-for-local-normalization
#3
Shinya Harada, Hiroyuki Mitsudo
Depth contrast is a stereoscopic visual phenomenon in which the slant of an element is affected by that of adjacent elements. Normalization has been proposed to be a possible cause of depth contrast, but it is still unclear how depth contrast involves normalization. To address this issue, we devised stereograms consisting of a vertical test line accompanied by several inducer lines, like a three-dimensional variation of the well-known Müller-Lyer configuration. The inducer lines had horizontal binocular disparities that defined a stereoscopic slant about a horizontal axis with respect to the endpoints of the test line...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071728/determining-the-relative-contribution-of-retinal-disparity-and-blur-cues-to-ocular-accommodation-in-down-syndrome
#4
Lesley Doyle, Kathryn J Saunders, Julie-Anne Little
Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) often exhibit hypoaccommodation alongside accurate vergence. This study investigates the sensitivity of the two systems to retinal disparity and blur cues, establishing the relationship between the two in terms of accommodative-convergence to accommodation (AC/A) and convergence-accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratios. An objective photorefraction system measured accommodation and vergence under binocular conditions and when retinal disparity and blur cues were removed...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071682/ocular-dominance-plasticity-inhibitory-interactions-and-contrast-equivalence
#5
Daniel P Spiegel, Alex S Baldwin, Robert F Hess
Brief monocular occlusion results in a transient change in ocular dominance, such that the previously patched eye makes a stronger contribution to the binocular percept after occlusion. The previously unpatched eye therefore makes a correspondingly weaker contribution to the binocular sum. To shed light on the mechanism underlying this change we investigate how the relationship between the perception of fusion, suppression, and diplopia changes after short-term monocular deprivation. Results show that fusible stimuli seen by the unpatched eye are actively suppressed as a result of patching and that this can be reversed by an interocular contrast imbalance...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068445/presbyopic-correction-using-monocular-bi-aspheric-ablation-profile-presbymax-in-hyperopic-eyes-1-year-outcomes
#6
Tommy C Y Chan, Peter S K Kwok, Vishal Jhanji, Victor C P Woo, Alex L K Ng
PURPOSE: To present the 1-year outcomes of combining monocular bi-aspheric ablation profile and contralateral monofocal LASIK in hyperopic patients with presbyopia. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, 36 consecutive patients (72 eyes) who underwent simultaneous bi-aspheric ablation (PresbyMAX: SCHWIND Eye-Tech-Solutions GmbH and Co KG, Kleinostheim, Germany) in the non-dominant eye and monofocal regular LASIK in the dominant eye for correction of hyperopia and presbyopia were reviewed for 1 year...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059290/self-calibration-single-lens-3d-video-extensometer-for-high-accuracy-and-real-time-strain-measurement
#7
Xinxing Shao, Mohammed Mokhtar Eisa, Zhenning Chen, Shuai Dong, Xiaoyuan He
The accuracy of strain measurement using a common optical extensometer with two-dimensional (2D) digital image correlation (DIC) is not sufficient for experimental applications due to the effect of out-of-plane motion. Although three-dimensional (3D) DIC can measure all three components of displacement without introducing in-plane displacement errors, 3D-DIC requires the stringent synchronization between two digital cameras and requires complicated system calibration of binocular stereovision, which makes the measurement rather inconvenient...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057580/monocular-and-binocular-smooth-pursuit-in-central-field-loss
#8
Natela Shanidze, Stephen Heinen, Preeti Verghese
Macular degeneration results in heterogeneous central field loss (CFL) and often has asymmetrical effects in the two eyes. As such, it is not clear to what degree the movements of the two eyes are coordinated. To address this issue, we examined smooth pursuit quantitatively in CFL participants during binocular viewing and compared it to the monocular viewing case. We also examined coordination of the two eyes during smooth pursuit and how this coordination was affected by interocular ratios of acuity and contrast, as well as CFL-specific interocular differences, such as scotoma sizes and degree of binocular overlap...
January 9, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057455/comparison-of-botulinum-toxin-with-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-acute-onset-comitant-esotropia-in-children
#9
Michael J Wan, Iason S Mantagos, Ankoor S Shah, Melanie Kazlas, David G Hunter
PURPOSE: To determine whether botulinum toxin is as effective as strabismus surgery in the treatment of acute-onset, comitant esotropia in children. DESIGN: Retrospective, non-randomized, comparative clinical study. METHODS: Setting: Tertiary care pediatric hospital. STUDY POPULATION: 49 children with acute-onset, comitant esotropia. INTERVENTION: Treatment with either botulinum toxin ("chemodenervation group") or standard incisional strabismus surgery ("surgery group")...
January 2, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057449/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improves-visual-acuity-in-amblyopic-long-evans-rats
#10
S Castaño-Castaño, A G Moll, M Morales, E Fernadez, F Sanchez-Santed, F Nieto-Escamez
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has proved to increase brain cortex plasticity and different models of brain damage. In this work, we have analyzed the effects of tDCS in an experimental model of amblyopia using Long-Evans rats. Animals were monocularly deprived between 12 and 75 postnatal days and visual cortex contralateral to the deprived eye was stimulated using anodal tDCS during 8 days (20 min/day). The effects of tDCS treatment on the visual function were evaluated by using the optomotor reflex of the animals as a measure of visual acuity...
January 2, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056651/proximal-stimulus-for-brewster-s-phenomenon-is-equivalent-to-that-of-wheatstone-s-stereogram
#11
Hiroshi Ono, Linda Lillakas
We examined Brewster's perceptual phenomenon that is produced by the same binocularly equivalent proximal stimulus as Wheatstone's stereogram. We then constructed and observed the perceptual effect created by another distal stimulus that also created an equivalent binocular proximal stimulus. All three stimulus situations produced the appearance of a tilted line in the median plane which is consistent with Hering's rule that the average of the two local signs and binocular eye position determine visual direction...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056136/visual-suppression-at-the-offset-of-binocular-rivalry
#12
Tom Alexander de Graaf, Raymond van Ee, Dennis Croonenberg, Peter Christiaan Klink, Alexander Thomas Sack
Various paradigms can make visual stimuli disappear from awareness, but they often involve stimuli that are either relatively weak, competing with other salient inputs, and/or presented for a prolonged period of time. Here we explore a phenomenon that involves controlled perceptual disappearance of a peripheral visual stimulus without these limitations. It occurs when one eye's stimulus is abruptly removed during a binocular rivalry situation. This manipulation renders the remaining stimulus, which is still being presented to the other eye, invisible for up to several seconds...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051986/wavefront-guided-versus-wavefront-optimized-photorefractive-keratectomy-visual-and-military-task-performance
#13
Denise S Ryan, Rose K Sia, Richard D Stutzman, Joseph F Pasternak, Robin S Howard, Christopher L Howell, Tana Maurer, Mark F Torres, Kraig S Bower
PURPOSE: To compare visual performance, marksmanship performance, and threshold target identification following wavefront-guided (WFG) versus wavefront-optimized (WFO) photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). METHODS: In this prospective, randomized clinical trial, active duty U.S. military Soldiers, age 21 or over, electing to undergo PRK were randomized to undergo WFG (n = 27) or WFO (n = 27) PRK for myopia or myopic astigmatism. Binocular visual performance was assessed preoperatively and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively: Super Vision Test high contrast, Super Vision Test contrast sensitivity (CS), and 25% contrast acuity with night vision goggle filter...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050460/profile-of-amblyopia-in-school-going-5-15-years-children-at-state-level-referral-hospital-in-uttarakhand
#14
Manisha Gupta, Sudhir Kumar Rana, Sanjiv Kumar Mittal, R N P Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Amblyopia is one of the common causes of childhood visual impairment. The prevalence of amblyopia usually varies according to the age group of the studied population and the factors prevailing in that region. The upper limit of the critical time when amblyopia can develop is around eight years of age and it can be permanent if corrective measures are not taken in time. AIM: The purpose of study was to know the profile and pattern of amblyopia in children aged 5-15 years with refractive error in Uttarakhand and to compare it with national and regional (South Asian) studies...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045850/construct-and-face-validity-of-the-eyesi-indirect-ophthalmoscope-simulator
#15
Jonathan Chou, Tova Kosowsky, Abhishek R Payal, Luis A Gonzalez Gonzalez, Mary K Daly
PURPOSE: To evaluate construct and face validity of the Eyesi Binocular Indirect Ophthalmoscope Simulator. METHODS: The performance of 25 medical students (Group A) was compared with that of 17 ophthalmology and optometry trainees (Group B) on the Eyesi Binocular Indirect Ophthalmoscope Simulator. During the course of a single session, each participant viewed an orientation module followed by an instruction session and a demonstration case, and performed 6 cases of progressively increasing difficulty (4 levels) and a 10-question face validity questionnaire...
December 29, 2016: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045374/the-role-of-internal-limiting-membrane-peeling-in-epiretinal-membrane-surgery-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Paris Tranos, Stavrenia Koukoula, Davic G Charteris, Georgia Perganda, Athanasios Vakalis, Solon Asteriadis, Ilias Georgalas, Petros Petrou
PURPOSE: To compare the anatomical and functional outcomes after primary idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling with or without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. DESIGN: A two-centre randomised, controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow-up. METHODS: One hundred and two eyes of 102 patients were included in the analysis and were randomised into two groups (ILM peeling (P) and non-ILM peeling (NP) group). Inclusion criteria were: Idiopathic ERM confirmed on optical coherence tomography, age ≥18 years, binocular distortion, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≤90 ETDRS letters, intraocular pressure ≤23 mm Hg and informed consent...
October 7, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033433/covert-spatial-attention-is-functionally-intact-in-amblyopic-human-adults
#17
Mariel Roberts, Rachel Cymerman, R Theodore Smith, Lynne Kiorpes, Marisa Carrasco
Certain abnormalities in behavioral performance and neural signaling have been attributed to a deficit of visual attention in amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a diverse array of visual deficits following abnormal binocular childhood experience. Critically, most have inferred attention's role in their task without explicitly manipulating and measuring its effects against a baseline condition. Here, we directly investigate whether human amblyopic adults benefit from covert spatial attention-the selective processing of visual information in the absence of eye movements-to the same degree as neurotypical observers...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033094/binocular-matching-of-thalamocortical-and-intracortical-circuits-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex
#18
Yu Gu, Jianhua Cang
Visual cortical neurons are tuned to similar orientations through the two eyes. The binocularly-matched orientation preference is established during a critical period in early life, but the underlying circuit mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we optogenetically isolated the thalamocortical and intracortical excitatory inputs to individual layer 4 neurons and studied their binocular matching. In adult mice, the thalamic and cortical inputs representing the same eyes are similarly tuned and both are matched binocularly...
December 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031397/electrical-stimulation-of-superior-colliculus-affects-strabismus-angle-in-monkey-models-for-strabismus
#19
Suraj Upadhyaya, Hui Meng, Vallabh E Das
Disruption of binocular vision during the critical period for development leads to eye misalignment in humans and in monkey models. We have previously suggested that disruption within a vergence circuit could be the neural basis for strabismus. Electrical stimulation in the rostral superior colliculus (rSC) leads to vergence eye movements in normal monkeys. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SC stimulation on eye misalignment in strabismic monkeys. Electrical stimulation was delivered to 51 sites in the intermediate and deep layers of the SC (400Hz, 0...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027382/training-eye-movements-for-visual-search-in-individuals-with-macular-degeneration
#20
Christian P Janssen, Preeti Verghese
We report a method to train individuals with central field loss due to macular degeneration to improve the efficiency of visual search. Our method requires participants to make a same/different judgment on two simple silhouettes. One silhouette is presented in an area that falls within the binocular scotoma while they are fixating the center of the screen with their preferred retinal locus (PRL); the other silhouette is presented diametrically opposite within the intact visual field. Over the course of 480 trials (approximately 6 hr), we gradually reduced the amount of time that participants have to make a saccade and judge the similarity of stimuli...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
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