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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725655/cell-replacement-therapy-is-the-remedial-solution-for-treating-parkinson-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
Venkatesan Dhivya, Vellingiri Balachandar
The selective degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) has made an idol target for cell replacement therapies and other emerging surgical treatments. Certainly, by transplantation method, the therapeutic regimens such as human fetal ventral midbrain (hfVM) cells, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), human neural stem/precursor/ progenitor cells (hNSCs/hNPCs), human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), human induced neural stem cells (hiNSCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been used into DA deficient striatum...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713161/functional-expression-of-the-ca-2-signaling-machinery-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#2
Ji-Jun Huang, Yi-Jie Wang, Min Zhang, Peng Zhang, He Liang, Hua-Jun Bai, Xiu-Jian Yu, Huang-Tian Yang
Emerging evidence suggests that Ca(2+) signals are important for the self-renewal and differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). However, little is known about the physiological and pharmacological properties of the Ca(2+)-handling machinery in hESCs. In this study we used RT-PCR and Western blotting to analyze the expression profiles of genes encoding Ca(2+)-handling proteins; we also used confocal Ca(2+) imaging and pharmacological approaches to determine the contribution of the Ca(2+)-handling machinery to the regulation of Ca(2+) signaling in hESCs...
July 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711494/development-of-membrane-ion-channels-during-neural-differentiation-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#3
Sara Mirsadeghi, Ebrahim Shahbazi, Katayoun Hemmesi, Shiva Nemati, Hossein Baharvand, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Sahar Kiani
OBJECTIVE: For human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to differentiate into neurons, enormous changes has to occur leading to trigger action potential and neurotransmitter release. We attempt to determine the changes in expression of voltage gated channels (VGCs) and their electrophysiological properties during neural differentiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relative expressions of α-subunit of voltage gated potassium, sodium and calcium channels were characterized by qRT-PCR technique...
July 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706279/elimination-of-undifferentiated-human-embryonic-stem-cells-by-cardiac-glycosides
#4
Yu-Tsen Lin, Cheng-Kai Wang, Shang-Chih Yang, Shu-Ching Hsu, Hsuan Lin, Fang-Pei Chang, Tzu-Chien Kuo, Chia-Ning Shen, Po-Ming Chiang, Michael Hsiao, Frank Leigh Lu, Jean Lu
An important safety concern in the use of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) is tumorigenic risk, because these cells can form teratomas after an in vivo injection at ectopic sites. Several thousands of undifferentiated hPSCs are sufficient to induce teratomas in a mouse model. Thus, it is critical to remove all residue-undifferentiated hPSCs that have teratoma potential before the clinical application of hPSC-derived cells. In this study, our data demonstrated the cytotoxic effects of cardiac glycosides, such as digoxin, lanatoside C, bufalin, and proscillaridin A, in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706272/modeling-atrial-fibrillation-using-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-atrial-tissue
#5
Zachary Laksman, Marianne Wauchop, Eric Lin, Stephanie Protze, Jeehoon Lee, Wallace Yang, Farzad Izaddoustdar, Sanam Shafaattalab, Lior Gepstein, Glen F Tibbits, Gordon Keller, Peter H Backx
Since current experimental models of Atrial Fibrillation (AF) have significant limitations, we used human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to generate an atrial-specific tissue model of AF for pharmacologic testing. We generated atrial-like cardiomyocytes (CMs) from hESCs which preferentially expressed atrial-specific genes, and had shorter action potential (AP) durations compared to ventricular-like CMs. We then generated confluent atrial-like CM sheets and interrogated them using optical mapping techniques. Atrial-like CM sheets (~1 cm in diameter) showed uniform AP propagation, and rapid re-entrant rotor patterns, as seen in AF could be induced...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702321/a-high-content-small-molecule-screen-identifies-novel-inducers-of-definitive-endoderm
#6
Alexander Korostylev, Pallavi U Mahaddalkar, Oliver Keminer, Kamyar Hadian, Kenji Schorpp, Philip Gribbon, Heiko Lickert
OBJECTIVES: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) can generate any given cell type in the human body. One challenge for cell-replacement therapy is the efficient differentiation and expansion of large quantities of progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells produced under good manufacturing practice (GMP). FOXA2 and SOX17 double positive definitive endoderm (DE) progenitor cells can give rise to all endoderm-derived cell types in the thymus, thyroid, lung, pancreas, liver, and gastrointestinal tract...
July 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702118/comparison-of-nutech-functional-score-with-european-stroke-scale-for-patients-with-cerebrovascular-accident-treated-with-human-embryonic-stem-cells-nfs-for-cva-patients-treated-with-hescs
#7
Geeta Shroff
PURPOSE: Stem cell therapy is a promising modality for treatment of patients with chronic cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in whom treatment other than physiotherapy or occupational therapy does not address the repair or recovery of the lost function. In this study, the author aimed at evaluating CVA patients treated with human embryonic stem cell (hESC) therapy and comparing their study outcomes with globally accepted European Stroke Scale (ESS) to that with novel scoring system, Nutech functional score (NFS), a 21-point positional and directional scoring system for assessing patients with CVA...
June 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698527/engineering-of-a-potent-recombinant-lectin-toxin-fusion-protein-to-eliminate-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Hiroaki Tateno, Sayoko Saito
The use of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) in regenerative medicine is hindered by their tumorigenic potential. Previously, we developed a recombinant lectin-toxin fusion protein of the hPSC-specific lectin rBC2LCN, which has a 23 kDa catalytic domain (domain III) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (rBC2LCN-PE23). This fusion protein could selectively eliminate hPSCs following its addition to the cell culture medium...
July 10, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694502/g-protein-coupled-receptor-64-is-required-for-decidualization-of-endometrial-stromal-cells
#9
Jung-Yoon Yoo, Jong Il Ahn, Tae Hoon Kim, Sungryul Yu, Ji Yeon Ahn, Jeong Mook Lim, Jae-Wook Jeong
Although GPR64 has an important role for male fertility, its physiological roles in the female reproductive system are still unknown. In the present study, immunohistochemical analysis reveals a spatiotemporal expression of GPR64 in the uterus during early pregnancy. Observation of remarkable induction of GPR64 expression in uterine decidual cells points to its potential physiological significance on decidualization. The decidualization of uterine stromal cells is a key event in implantation. Progesterone (P4) signaling is crucial for the decidualization of the endometrial stromal cells for successful pregnancy...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693365/behavior-of-xeno-transplanted-undifferentiated-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-is-impacted-by-microenvironment-without-evidence-of-tumors
#10
Veronica Martinez-Cerdeno, Bonnie Barrilleaux, Ashley McDonough, Jeanelle Ariza, Benjamin Yuen, Priyanka Somanath, Catherine Le, Craig Steward, Kayla Horton, Paul Knoepfler
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have great clinical potential via the use of their differentiated progeny, a population in which there is some concern over risks of tumorigenicity or other unwanted cellular behavior due to residual hPSC. Preclinical studies using human stem cells are most often performed within a xenotransplant context. Here, we sought to measure how undifferentiated hPSC behave following xenotransplant. We directly transplanted undifferentiated human induced pluripotent and embryonic stem cells (hIPSC; hESC) into the adult mouse brain ventricle and analyzed their fates...
July 10, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689995/sirt1-enhances-the-survival-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-by-promoting-dna-repair
#11
Jiho Jang, Yong Jun Huh, Hyun-Ju Cho, Boram Lee, Jaepil Park, Dong-Youn Hwang, Dong-Wook Kim
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold great promise for the treatment of many incurable diseases. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a class III histone deacetylase, is abundantly expressed in hESCs and is known to regulate early differentiation and telomere elongation. Here, we show that downregulation of SIRT1 promotes cell death in hESCs, but not in differentiated cells, and the SIRT1-inhibition-mediated cell death is preceded by increased DNA damage. This increased DNA damage is at least partially due to decreased levels of DNA repair enzymes such as MSH2, MSH6, and APEX1...
July 5, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689770/vip-induces-the-decidualization-program-and-conditions-the-immunoregulation-of-the-implantation-process
#12
Esteban Grasso, Soledad Gori, Daniel Paparini, Elizabeth Soczewski, Laura Fernández, Lucila Gallino, Gabriela Salamone, Gustavo Martinez, Marcela Irigoyen, Claudio Ruhlmann, Claudia Pérez Leirós, Rosanna Ramhorst
The decidualization process involves phenotype and functional changes on endometrial cells and the modulation of mediators with immunoregulatory properties as the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). We investigate VIP contribution to the decidualization program and to immunoregulation throughout the human embryo implantation process. The decidualization of Human endometrial stromal cell line (HESC) with Medroxyprogesterone-dibutyryl-cAMP increased VIP/VPAC-receptors system. In fact, VIP could induce decidualization increasing differentiation markers (IGFBP1, PRL, KLF13/KLF9 ratio, CXCL12, CXCL8 and CCL2) and allowing Blastocyst-like spheroids (BLS) invasion in an in vitro model of embryo implantation...
July 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676096/global-gene-expression-profiling-and-senescence-biomarker-analysis-of-hesc-exposed-to-h2o2-induced-non-cytotoxic-oxidative-stress
#13
Maria Barandalla, Hui Shi, Hui Xiao, Silvia Colleoni, Cesare Galli, Pietro Lio, Matthew Trotter, Giovanna Lazzari
BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) potentially offer new routes to study, on the basis of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept, how the maternal environment during pregnancy influences the offspring's health and can predispose to chronic disease in later life. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant defences and cellular redox status play a key function in gene expression regulation and are involved in diabetes and metabolic syndromes as in ageing...
July 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675072/embryonic-stem-cells-and-the-next-generation-of-developmental-toxicity-testing
#14
Josephine Kugler, Bettina Huhse, Tewes Tralau, Andreas Luch
The advent of stem cell technology has seen the establishment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as molecular model systems and screening tools. Although ESCs are nowadays widely used in research, regulatory implementation for developmental toxicity testing is pending. Areas Covered: This review evaluates the performance of current ESC, including human (h)ESC testing systems, trying to elucidate their potential for developmental toxicity testing. It shall discuss defining parameters and mechanisms, their relevance and contemplate what can realistically be expected...
July 4, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672157/the-p2x7-receptor-is-an-upstream-regulator-of-dynamic-blebbing-and-a-pluripotency-marker-in-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#15
Nikki Jo-Hao Weng, Prue Talbot
New methods are needed to reduce dynamic blebbing which inhibits cell attachment and survival during passaging of pluripotent stem cells. We tested the hypothesis that activation of the P2X7 receptor by extracellular ATP during passaging initiates dynamic blebbing. The P2X7 receptor was present in human embryonic stem cells (hESC), but not in differentiating cells. Extracellular ATP concentrations were 14× higher in medium during passaging. Addition of ATP to culture medium prolonged dynamic blebbing and inhibited attachment...
June 16, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672008/nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-the-guidance-of-stem-cell-derived-neurons-for-auditory-nerve-regeneration
#16
Sandra Hackelberg, Samuel J Tuck, Long He, Arjun Rastogi, Christina White, Liqian Liu, Diane M Prieskorn, Ryan J Miller, Che Chan, Benjamin R Loomis, Joseph M Corey, Josef M Miller, R Keith Duncan
Impairment of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) of the auditory nerve is a major cause for hearing loss occurring independently or in addition to sensory hair cell damage. Unfortunately, mammalian SGNs lack the potential for autonomous regeneration. Stem cell based therapy is a promising approach for auditory nerve regeneration, but proper integration of exogenous cells into the auditory circuit remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we present novel nanofibrous scaffolds designed to guide the integration of human stem cell-derived neurons in the internal auditory meatus (IAM), the foramen allowing passage of the spiral ganglion to the auditory brainstem...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665279/modified-methods-for-efficiently-differentiating-human-embryonic-stem-cells-into-chondrocyte-like-cells
#17
Wiktoria Maria Suchorska, Ewelina Augustyniak, Magdalena Richter, Magdalena Łukjanow, Violetta Filas, Jacek Kaczmarczyk, Tomasz Trzeciak
INTRODUCTION: Human articular cartilage has a poor regenerative capacity. This often results in the serious joint disease- osteoarthritis (OA) that is characterized by cartilage degradation. An inability to self-repair provided extensive studies on AC regeneration. The cell-based cartilage tissue engineering is a promising approach for cartilage regeneration. So far, numerous cell types have been reported to show chondrogenic potential, among others human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)...
June 19, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664172/data-for-whole-and-mitochondrial-proteome-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#18
Faezeh Shekari, Hossein Nezari, Yu-Ju Chen, Hossein Baharvand, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
The data presented here pertain to the research article entitled "Proteome Analysis of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Organelles" (Shekariet al., 2017 [1]). In the present article we endeavour to locate new proteins and pathways in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) by mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis. We have analyzed total and mitochondrial proteins extracted from three biological replicates of the hESC H9 cell line according to mass spectrometry proteomics and bioinformatics investigations.
August 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663367/genome-wide-temporal-profiling-of-transcriptome-and-open-chromatin-of-early-cardiomyocyte-differentiation-derived-from-hipscs-and-hescs
#19
Qing Liu, Chao Jiang, Jin Xu, Mingtao Zhao, Kevin Van Bortle, Xun Cheng, Guangwen Wang, Howard Y Chang, Joseph C Wu, Michael P Snyder
Rationale: Recent advances have improved our ability to generate cardiomyocytes from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). However, our understanding of the transcriptional regulatory networks underlying early stages (i.e. from mesoderm to cardiac mesoderm) of cardiomyocyte differentiation remains limited. Objective: To characterize transcriptome and chromatin accessibility during early cardiomyocyte differentiation from hiPSCs and hESCs. Methods and Results: We profiled the temporal changes in transcriptome and chromatin accessibility at genome-wide levels during cardiomyocyte differentiation derived from two hiPSC lines and two hESC lines at four stages: pluripotent stem cells, mesoderm, cardiac mesoderm, and differentiated cardiomyocytes...
June 29, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656290/mir-367-promotes-tumor-growth-by-inhibiting-fbxw7-in-nsclc
#20
Guodong Xiao, Xiao Gao, Xin Sun, Chengcheng Yang, Boxiang Zhang, Ruiying Sun, Guanghong Huang, Xiang Li, Jian Liu, Ning Du, Dapeng Liu, Rui Liang, Hong Ren, Sida Qin
miR-367 is one of the most abundant miRNAs in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and is mainly involved in maintaining the pluripotency of stem cells. However, its role in cancer development remains poorly understood. In the present study, we explored the function and mechanism of the endogenous miR-367 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the present study, we demonstrated that the level of miR-367 in NSCLC was significantly higher than that in adjacent normal tissues, and its upregulation was positively correlated with tumor size, tumor differentiation and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage...
June 27, 2017: Oncology Reports
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