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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938435/the-role-of-sequential-bmp-signaling-in-directing-human-embryonic-stem-cells-to-bipotential-gonadal-cells
#1
Kirsi Sepponen, Karolina Lundin, Katri Knuus, Pia Väyrynen, Taneli Raivio, Juha S Tapanainen, Timo Tuuri
Context: Human gonads arise as a pair of epithelial ridges on the surface of intermediate mesoderm (IM)-derived mesonephros. Toxic environmental factors and mutations in various genes are known to disturb normal gonadal development, but due to a lack of suitable in vitro models, detailed studies characterizing the molecular basis of the observed defects have not been performed. Objective: Our objective was to establish an in vitro method for studying differentiation of bipotential gonadal progenitors using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and to investigate the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in gonadal differentiation...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928909/transplanting-embryonic-stem-cells-onto-damaged-human-corneal-endothelium
#2
Charles Hanson, Arsaell Arnarsson, Thorir Hardarson, Ann Lindgård, Mandana Daneshvarnaeini, Catarina Ellerström, Anita Bruun, Ulf Stenevi
AIM: To investigate whether human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) could be made to attach, grow and differentiate on a human Descemet's membrane (DM). METHODS: Spontaneously differentiated hESCs were transferred onto a human corneal button with the endothelial layer removed using ocular sticks. The cells were cultured on a DM for up to 15 d. The genetically engineered hESC line expressed green fluorescent protein, which facilitated identification during the culture experiments, tissue preparation, and analysis...
August 26, 2017: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925362/generation-of-a-klf15-homozygous-knockout-human-embryonic-stem-cell-line-using-paired-crispr-cas9n-and-human-cardiomyocytes-derivation
#3
Claudia Noack, Luis Peter Haupt, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Katrin Streckfuss-Bömeke, Laura Cecilia Zelarayán
Krueppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) is abundantly expressed in liver, kidney, and muscle, including myocardium. In the adult heart KLF15 is important to maintain homeostasis and to repress hypertrophic remodeling. We generated a homozygous hESC KLF15 knockout (KO) line using paired CRISPR/Cas9n. KLF15-KO cells maintained full pluripotency and differentiation potential as well as genomic integrity. We demonstrated that KLF15-KO cells can be differentiated into morphologically normal cardiomyocytes turning them into a valuable tool for studying human KLF15-mediated mechanisms resulting in human cardiac dysfunction...
August 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920063/hesc-derived-photoreceptors-survive-and-integrate-better-in-immunodeficient-retina
#4
EDITORIAL
Magdalene J Seiler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919263/single-cell-gene-expression-analysis-of-a-human-esc-model-of-pancreatic-endocrine-development-reveals-different-paths-to-%C3%AE-cell-differentiation
#5
Maja Borup Kjær Petersen, Ajuna Azad, Camilla Ingvorsen, Katja Hess, Mattias Hansson, Anne Grapin-Botton, Christian Honoré
The production of insulin-producing β cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro represents a promising strategy for a cell-based therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. To explore the cellular heterogeneity and temporal progression of endocrine progenitors and their progeny, we performed single-cell qPCR on more than 500 cells across several stages of in vitro differentiation of hESCs and compared them with human islets. We reveal distinct subpopulations along the endocrine differentiation path and an early lineage bifurcation toward either polyhormonal cells or β-like cells...
September 8, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918520/derivation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-ipsc-lines-and-mechanism-of-pluripotency-historical-perspective-and-recent-advances
#6
REVIEW
Arvind Chhabra
Derivation of human embryonic stem cell (hES) lines in 1998 was not only a major technological breakthrough in the field of regenerative medicine; it also triggered a passionate debate about the ethical issues associated with the utilization of human embryos for derivation of hESC lines. Successful derivation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) lines from human somatic cells with defined reprogramming factors by Shinya Yamanaka`s group in 2007 was another breakthrough that generated enormous excitement and hope for the development of donor-specific personalized cell replacement therapies (CRT) without the ethical dilemma associated with it...
September 16, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914568/human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-decrease-the-development-of-severe-experimental-autoimmune-uveitis-in-b10-riii-mice
#7
Yu Qin, Ann M Chan, Yu-Ling Chang, Anna Matynia, Nicholas A Kouris, Erin A Kimbrel, Negin Ashki, Sachin Parikh, Michael B Gorin, Robert Lanza, Ralph D Levinson, Lynn K Gordon
PURPOSE: We investigated the effect of exogenously administered human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hESC-MSCs) in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) in B10.RIII mice, a murine model of severe uveitis. METHODS: B10.RIII mice were immunized with an uveitogenic peptide, and intraperitoneal injections of 5 million hESC-MSCs per animal were given on the same day. Behavioral light sensitivity assays, histological evaluation, cytokine production, and regulatory T cells were analyzed at the peak of the disease...
September 15, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911214/growth-regulation-by-estrogen-in-breast-cancer-1-greb1-is-a-novel-progesterone-responsive-gene-required-for-human-endometrial-stromal-decidualization
#8
Alison J Camden, Maria M Szwarc, Sangappa B Chadchan, Francesco J DeMayo, Bert W O'Malley, John P Lydon, Ramakrishna Kommagani
STUDY QUESTION: Is Growth Regulation by Estrogen in Breast Cancer 1 (GREB1) required for progesterone-driven endometrial stromal cell decidualization? SUMMARY ANSWER: GREB1 is a novel progesterone-responsive gene required for progesterone-driven human endometrial stromal cell (HESC) decidualization. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Successful establishment of pregnancy requires HESCs to transform from fibroblastic to epithelioid cells in a process called decidualization...
September 1, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889383/in-vitro-differentiation-and-propagation-of-urothelium-from-pluripotent-stem-cell-lines
#9
Stephanie L Osborn, Eric A Kurzrock
Bioengineering of bladder tissue, particularly for those patients who have advanced bladder disease, requires a source of urothelium that is healthy, capable of significant proliferation in vitro and immunologically tolerated upon transplant. As pluripotent stem cells have the potential to fulfill such criteria, they provide a critical cell source from which urothelium might be derived in vitro and used clinically. Herein, we describe the in vitro differentiation of urothelium from the H9 human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line through the definitive endoderm (DE) phase via selective culture techniques...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869683/runx1c-regulates-hematopoietic-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-possibly-in-cooperation-with-proinflammatory-signaling
#10
Oscar Navarro-Montero, Veronica Ayllon, Mar Lamolda, Lourdes López-Onieva, Rosa Montes, Clara Bueno, Elizabeth Ng, Xiomara Guerrero-Carreno, Tamara Romero, Damià Romero-Moya, Ed Stanley, Andrew Elefanty, Verónica Ramos-Mejia, Pablo Menendez, Pedro J Real
Runt-related transcription factor 1 (Runx1) is a master hematopoietic transcription factor essential for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) emergence. Runx1-deficient mice die during early embryogenesis due to the inability to establish definitive hematopoiesis. Here, we have used human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) as model to study the role of RUNX1 in human embryonic hematopoiesis. Although the three RUNX1 isoforms a, b, and c were induced in CD45+ hematopoietic cells, RUNX1c was the only isoform induced in hematoendothelial progenitors (HEPs)/hemogenic endothelium...
September 4, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869449/propofol-induced-neurotoxicity-in-hescs-involved-in-activation-of-mir-206-puma-signal-pathway
#11
Yu Li, Changxin Jia, Dianlong Zhang, Guangzhen Ni, Xia Miao, Ruirong Tu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Studies in developing animals have demonstrated that when anesthetic agents, such as propofol, are early administered in life, it can lead to neuronal cell death and learning disabilities. However, the mechanisms causing these effects remains unknown. A recent report found that propofol could significantly upregulat miR-206 expression in the human ASCs. miR-206 could also induce apoptosis in human malignant cancers. Therefore, in this study, we hypothesized that propofol induces neurotoxicity in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs)...
August 23, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865806/resveratrol-promotes-human-embryonic-stem-cells-self-renewal-by-targeting-sirt1-erk-signaling-pathway
#12
Zahra Safaeinejad, Mohammad Nabiuni, Maryam Peymani, Kamran Ghaedi, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Hossein Baharvand
Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenol component, has diverse biological properties. It has been shown that RSV regulated the self-renewal and differentiation of several types of stem cells, but the precise role of this compound on regulation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) self- renewal remained to be elucidated. Here we have shown that RSV promoted hESCs proliferation through cell cycle modulation and up-regulation of anti-apoptotic markers, without affecting pluripotency. Furthermore, inhibition of SIRT1 by EX-527 resulted in suppression of RSV-induced enhancement of hESCs self-renewal...
August 26, 2017: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864533/first-critical-repressive-h3k27me3-marks-in-embryonic-stem-cells-identified-using-designed-protein-inhibitor
#13
James D Moody, Shiri Levy, Julie Mathieu, Yalan Xing, Woojin Kim, Cheng Dong, Wolfram Tempel, Aaron M Robitaille, Luke T Dang, Amy Ferreccio, Damien Detraux, Sonia Sidhu, Licheng Zhu, Lauren Carter, Chao Xu, Cristina Valensisi, Yuliang Wang, R David Hawkins, Jinrong Min, Randall T Moon, Stuart H Orkin, David Baker, Hannele Ruohola-Baker
The polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) histone methyltransferase plays a central role in epigenetic regulation in development and in cancer, and hence to interrogate its role in a specific developmental transition, methods are needed for disrupting function of the complex with high temporal and spatial precision. The catalytic and substrate recognition functions of PRC2 are coupled by binding of the N-terminal helix of the Ezh2 methylase to an extended groove on the EED trimethyl lysine binding subunit. Disrupting PRC2 function can in principle be achieved by blocking this single interaction, but there are few approaches for blocking specific protein-protein interactions in living cells and organisms...
September 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853286/y-chromosome-missing-protein-tbl1y-may-play-an-important-role-in-cardiac-differentiation
#14
Anna Meyfour, Hassan Ansari, Sara Pahlavan, Shahab Mirshahvaladi, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani, Hamid Gourabi, Hossein Baharvand, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
Despite evidence for sex-specific cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology, the biological basis for this dimorphism remains to be explored. Apart from hormonal factors, gender related characteristics may reside in the function of sex chromosomes during cardiac development. In this study, we investigated the differential expression of the male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) genes and their X counterparts during cardiac differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). We observed alterations in mRNA and protein levels of TBL1Y, PCDH11Y, ZFY, KDM5D, USP9Y, RPS4Y1, DDX3Y, PRY, XKRY, BCORP1, RBMY, HSFY, and UTY which accompanied changes in intracellular localization...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844657/cytoplasmic-and-nuclear-taz-exert-distinct-functions-in-regulating-primed%C3%A2-pluripotency
#15
Xingliang Zhou, Jean Paul Chadarevian, Bryan Ruiz, Qi-Long Ying
Mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs) and human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are primed pluripotent stem cells whose self-renewal can be maintained through cytoplasmic stabilization and retention of β-catenin. The underlying mechanism, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we show that cytoplasmic β-catenin interacts with and retains TAZ, a Hippo pathway effector, in the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic retention of TAZ promotes mEpiSC self-renewal in the absence of nuclear β-catenin, whereas nuclear translocation of TAZ induces mEpiSC differentiation...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844482/impact-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-on-neural-crest-stem-cell-formation
#16
Cecilia Vichier-Guerre, Margaret Parker, Yael Pomerantz, Richard H Finnell, Robert M Cabrera
The use of antidepressants in pregnant women is rising, with rates up to 7.5% in the United States. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are currently the most common antidepressant prescribed to pregnant women. The teratogenic effects of SSRI exposure are debated because of discrepancies in epidemiological studies. As an alternative to epidemiological and animal studies, human embryonic stem cell research (hESC) provides a human-based experimental model to examine the risks of prenatal SSRI exposure...
August 24, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843810/variability-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-lines
#17
REVIEW
Daniel Ortmann, Ludovic Vallier
Human pluripotent stem cells derived from embryos (human Embryonic Stem Cells or hESCs) or generated by direct reprogramming of somatic cells (human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells or hiPSCs) can proliferate almost indefinitely in vitro while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into a broad diversity of cell types. These two properties (self-renewal and pluripotency) confers human pluripotent stem cells a unique interest for clinical applications since they could allow the production of infinite quantities of cells for disease modelling, drug screening and cell based therapy...
August 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843336/the-effect-of-trimetazidine-and-diazoxide-on-immunomodulatory-activity-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-secretome
#18
Saeed Jahandideh, Faezeh Maghsood, Nastaran Mohammadi Ghahhari, Majid Lotfinia, Mohammad Mohammadi, Behrooz Johari, Mehdi Kadivar
Comprehensive proteome profiling of the factors secreted by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), referred to as secretome, revealed that it consists of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, extracellular matrix proteins, and components of regeneration, vascularization, and hematopoiesis pathways. Harnessing this MSC secretome for therapeutic applications requires the optimization of production of secretary molecules. A variety of preconditioning methods have been introduced, which subject cells to stimulatory molecules to create the preferred response and stimulate persistent effects...
August 16, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836401/purinergic-receptor-expression-and-potential-association-with-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-development
#19
Shirin Kashfi, Maryam Peymani, Kamran Ghaedi, Hossein Baharvand, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Javan
OBJECTIVES: Due to recent progress in production of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (hESC-OPCs) for ameliorating myelin disease such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and the role of purinergic signaling in OPCs development, we avaluated the profile of purinergic receptors expression during development of OPCs from hESC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, we used reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to obtain more information about potential roles of purinergic receptors during in vitro production of hESC-OPCs...
October 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835165/an-efficient-method-for-generation-of-knock-out-human-embryonic-stem-cells-using-crispr-cas9-system
#20
Dasa Bohaciakova, Tereza Renzova, Veronika Fedorova, Martin Barak, Michaela Kunova Bosakova, Ales Hampl, Lukas Cajanek
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) represent promising tool to study functions of genes during development, to model diseases, and to even develop therapies when combined with gene editing techniques such as CRISPR/Cas9 system. However, the process of disruption of gene expression by generation of null alleles is often inefficient and tedious. To circumvent these limitations, we developed a simple and efficient protocol to permanently downregulate expression of gene of interest in hESCs using CRISPR/Cas9. We selected p53 for our proof of concept experiments...
August 23, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
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