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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678123/binge-drinking-among-young-adults-in-israel-application-of-the-theory-of-planned-behavior
#1
Maayan Lawental, Anna Kipnis, Khary Rigg
Binge drinking is common among young people, and is an area of concern in many countries worldwide. Israel has seen a steady increase in binge drinking behaviors in recent years among youth and young adults. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a guiding theoretical framework, this study examines whether attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and intention to engage in binge drinking are correlated with individual participation in binge drinking among young adults aged 18-35 in Israel...
April 20, 2018: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643186/peripherally-derived-macrophages-can-engraft-the-brain-independent-of-irradiation-and-maintain-an-identity-distinct-from-microglia
#2
James C Cronk, Anthony J Filiano, Antoine Louveau, Ioana Marin, Rachel Marsh, Emily Ji, Dylan H Goldman, Igor Smirnov, Nicholas Geraci, Scott Acton, Christopher C Overall, Jonathan Kipnis
Peripherally derived macrophages infiltrate the brain after bone marrow transplantation and during central nervous system (CNS) inflammation. It was initially suggested that these engrafting cells were newly derived microglia and that irradiation was essential for engraftment to occur. However, it remains unclear whether brain-engrafting macrophages (beMφs) acquire a unique phenotype in the brain, whether long-term engraftment may occur without irradiation, and whether brain function is affected by the engrafted cells...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562204/high-dimensional-single-cell-mapping-of-central-nervous-system-immune-cells-reveals-distinct-myeloid-subsets-in-health-aging-and-disease
#3
Dunja Mrdjen, Anto Pavlovic, Felix J Hartmann, Bettina Schreiner, Sebastian G Utz, Brian P Leung, Iva Lelios, Frank L Heppner, Jonathan Kipnis, Doron Merkler, Melanie Greter, Burkhard Becher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491183/fast-direct-neuronal-signaling-via-the-il-4-receptor-as-therapeutic-target-in-neuroinflammation
#4
Christina F Vogelaar, Shibajee Mandal, Steffen Lerch, Katharina Birkner, Jerome Birkenstock, Ulrike Bühler, Andrea Schnatz, Cedric S Raine, Stefan Bittner, Johannes Vogt, Jonathan Kipnis, Robert Nitsch, Frauke Zipp
Ongoing axonal degeneration is thought to underlie disability in chronic neuroinflammation, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), especially during its progressive phase. Upon inflammatory attack, axons undergo pathological swelling, which can be reversible. Because we had evidence for beneficial effects of T helper 2 lymphocytes in experimental neurotrauma and discovered interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) expressed on axons in MS lesions, we aimed at unraveling the effects of IL-4 on neuroinflammatory axon injury. We demonstrate that intrathecal IL-4 treatment during the chronic phase of several experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models reversed disease progression without affecting inflammation...
February 28, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426702/high-dimensional-single-cell-mapping-of-central-nervous-system-immune-cells-reveals-distinct-myeloid-subsets-in-health-aging-and-disease
#5
Dunja Mrdjen, Anto Pavlovic, Felix J Hartmann, Bettina Schreiner, Sebastian G Utz, Brian P Leung, Iva Lelios, Frank L Heppner, Jonathan Kipnis, Doron Merkler, Melanie Greter, Burkhard Becher
Individual reports suggest that the central nervous system (CNS) contains multiple immune cell types with diverse roles in tissue homeostasis, immune defense, and neurological diseases. It has been challenging to map leukocytes across the entire brain, and in particular in pathology, where phenotypic changes and influx of blood-derived cells prevent a clear distinction between reactive leukocyte populations. Here, we applied high-dimensional single-cell mass and fluorescence cytometry, in parallel with genetic fate mapping systems, to identify, locate, and characterize multiple distinct immune populations within the mammalian CNS...
February 20, 2018: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401417/sex-gut-and-microglia
#6
Antoine Louveau, Jonathan Kipnis
Microglia are brain-resident macrophages whose function affects a myriad of physiological processes and can in turn be affected by peripheral factors. In a recent issue of Cell, Garel, Ginhoux and colleagues describe how gender, developmental stage, and microbiome contribute to the transcriptome of microglia (Thion et al., 2018).
January 22, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381789/comparison-of-self-reported-dietary-intakes-from-the-automated-self-administered-24-h-recall-4-d-food-records-and-food-frequency-questionnaires-against-recovery-biomarkers
#7
Yikyung Park, Kevin W Dodd, Victor Kipnis, Frances E Thompson, Nancy Potischman, Dale A Schoeller, David J Baer, Douglas Midthune, Richard P Troiano, Heather Bowles, Amy F Subar
Background: A limited number of studies have evaluated self-reported dietary intakes against objective recovery biomarkers. Objective: The aim was to compare dietary intakes of multiple Automated Self-Administered 24-h recalls (ASA24s), 4-d food records (4DFRs), and food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) against recovery biomarkers and to estimate the prevalence of under- and overreporting. Design: Over 12 mo, 530 men and 545 women, aged 50-74 y, were asked to complete 6 ASA24s (2011 version), 2 unweighed 4DFRs, 2 FFQs, two 24-h urine collections (biomarkers for protein, potassium, and sodium intakes), and 1 administration of doubly labeled water (biomarker for energy intake)...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339443/immune-system-the-seventh-sense
#8
REVIEW
Jonathan Kipnis
The brain is our computing machine that integrates stimuli from the environment and orchestrates responses to these stimuli. Here, I propose that the defining role of the immune system is to sense microorganisms and to inform the brain about them.
February 5, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279610/neuroimmunology-in-2017-the-central-nervous-system-privileged-by-immune-connections
#9
Jonathan Kipnis, Anthony J Filiano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274254/french-lyophilized-plasma-versus-fresh-frozen-plasma-for-the-initial-management-of-trauma-induced-coagulopathy-a-randomized-open-label-trial
#10
D Garrigue, A Godier, A Glacet, J Labreuche, E Kipnis, C Paris, A Duhamel, E Resch, A Bauters, F Machuron, P Renom, P Goldstein, B Tavernier, A Sailliol, S Susen
Essentials An immediate supply of plasma in case of trauma-induced coagulopathy is required. The Traucc trial compared French Lyophilised Plasma (FLyP) and Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP). FLyP achieved higher fibrinogen concentrations compared with FFP. FLyP led to a more rapid coagulopathy improvement than FFP. SUMMARY: Background Guidelines recommend beginning hemostatic resuscitation immediately in trauma patients. We aimed to investigate if French lyophilized plasma (FLyP) was more effective than fresh frozen plasma (FFP) for the initial management of trauma-induced coagulopathy...
March 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240656/hospital-acquired-pressure-injury-risk-adjusted-comparisons-in-an-integrated-healthcare-delivery-system
#11
June Rondinelli, Stephen Zuniga, Patricia Kipnis, Lina Najib Kawar, Vincent Liu, Gabriel J Escobar
BACKGROUND: Although healthcare organizations have decreased hospital-acquired pressure injury (HAPI) rates, HAPIs are not eliminated, driving further examination in both nursing and health services research. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to describe HAPI incidence, risk factors, and risk-adjusted hospital variation within a California integrated healthcare system. METHODS: Inpatient episodes were included in this retrospective cohort if patients were hospitalized between January 1, 2013, and June 30, 2015...
January 2018: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191391/biphasic-lung-injury-during-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection-in-a-murine-model
#12
A Prevotat, C Rouyer, P Gosset, E Kipnis, K Faure, B Guery
OBJECTIVES: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia. We aimed to analyze the epithelial response to S. pneumoniae-induced lung injury. METHODS: Using an in vitro model with 16HBE cells and experimental in vivo murine model of acute lung injury, we analyzed the epithelial response to S. pneumoniae. Lung epithelial cell monolayers were exposed to S. pneumoniae and permeability was assessed by transepithelial resistance (TER) measurement and organization and expression of junction proteins...
March 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165489/perylenediimide-based-glycoclusters-as-high-affinity-ligands-of-bacterial-lectins-synthesis-binding-studies-and-anti-adhesive-properties
#13
Marion Donnier-Maréchal, Nicolas Galanos, Teddy Grandjean, Yoann Pascal, Ding-Kun Ji, Lei Dong, Emilie Gillon, Xiao-Peng He, Anne Imberty, Eric Kipnis, Rodrigue Dessein, Sébastien Vidal
The synthesis of eight perylenediimide-based glycoclusters was readily performed from hexa- and tetra-propargylated cores through azide-alkyne "click" conjugation. Variations in the carbohydrate epitope (Glc, Gal, Man, Fuc) and the linker arm provided molecular diversity. Interactions with LecA and LecB, two proteins involved in the adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to host tissues, were evaluated by microcalorimetry (ITC). In both cases high affinities were obtained with Kd values in the nanomolar range...
December 6, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155054/hospital-acquired-pneumonia-in-icu
#14
Marc Leone, Lila Bouadma, Bélaïd Bouhemad, Olivier Brissaud, Stéphane Dauger, Sébastien Gibot, Sami Hraiech, Boris Jung, Eric Kipnis, Yoann Launey, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Dimitri Margetis, Fabrice Michel, Djamel Mokart, Philippe Montravers, Antoine Monsel, Saad Nseir, Jérôme Pugin, Antoine Roquilly, Lionel Velly, Jean-Ralph Zahar, Rémi Bruyère, Gérald Chanques
The French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and the French Society of Intensive Care edited guidelines focused on hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in intensive care unit (ICU). The goal of 16 French-speaking experts was to produce a framework enabling an easier decision-making process for intensivists. The guidelines were related to 3 specific areas related to HAP (prevention, diagnosis and treatment) in 4 identified patient populations (COPD, neutropenia, postoperative and pediatric). The literature analysis and the formulation of the guidelines were conducted according to the Grade of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology...
February 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141694/the-icu-diary-study-prospective-multicenter-comparative-study-of-the-impact-of-an-icu-diary-on-the-wellbeing-of-patients-and-families-in-french-icus
#15
Maïté Garrouste-Orgeas, Cécile Flahault, Léonor Fasse, Stéphane Ruckly, Nora Amdjar-Badidi, Laurent Argaud, Julio Badie, Amélie Bazire, Naike Bige, Eric Boulet, Lila Bouadma, Cédric Bretonnière, Bernard Floccard, Alain Gaffinel, Xavier de Forceville, Hubert Grand, Rebecca Halidfar, Olfa Hamzaoui, Mercé Jourdain, Paul-Henri Jost, Eric Kipnis, Audrey Large, Alexandre Lautrette, Olivier Lesieur, Virginie Maxime, Emmanuelle Mercier, Jean Paul Mira, Yannick Monseau, Erika Parmentier-Decrucq, Jean-Philippe Rigaud, Antoine Rouget, François Santoli, Georges Simon, Fabienne Tamion, Nathalie Thieulot-Rolin, Marina Thirion, Sandrine Valade, Isabelle Vinatier, Christel Vioulac, Sebastien Bailly, Jean-François Timsit
BACKGROUND: Post-intensive care syndrome includes the multiple consequences of an intensive care unit (ICU) stay for patients and families. It has become a new challenge for intensivists. Prevention programs have been disappointing, except for ICU diaries, which report the patient's story in the ICU. However, the effectiveness of ICU diaries for patients and families is still controversial, as the interpretation of the results of previous studies was open to criticism hampering an expanded use of the diary...
November 15, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035176/comparing-hospital-processes-and-outcomes-in-california-medicare-beneficiaries-simulation-prompts-reconsideration
#16
Gabriel J Escobar, Jennifer M Baker, Benjamin J Turk, David Draper, Vincent Liu, Patricia Kipnis
INTRODUCTION: This article is not a traditional research report. It describes how conducting a specific set of benchmarking analyses led us to broader reflections on hospital benchmarking. We reexamined an issue that has received far less attention from researchers than in the past: How variations in the hospital admission threshold might affect hospital rankings. Considering this threshold made us reconsider what benchmarking is and what future benchmarking studies might be like. Although we recognize that some of our assertions are speculative, they are based on our reading of the literature and previous and ongoing data analyses being conducted in our research unit...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018177/a-challenge-to-unqualified-medical-confidentiality
#17
Alexander Bozzo
Medical personnel sometimes face a seeming conflict between a duty to respect patient confidentiality and a duty to warn or protect endangered third parties. The conventional answer to dilemmas of this sort is that, in certain circumstances, medical professionals have an obligation to breach confidentiality. Kenneth Kipnis has argued, however, that the conventional wisdom on the nature of medical confidentiality is mistaken. Kipnis argues that the obligation to respect patient confidentiality is unqualified or absolute, since unqualified policies can save more lives in the long run...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992059/the-human-naip-nlrc4-inflammasome-senses-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-t3ss-inner-rod-protein
#18
Grandjean Teddy, Boucher Anne, Thepaut Marion, Monlezun Laura, Guery Benoit, Faudry Eric, Kipnis Eric, Dessein Rodrigue
While NLRC4-dependent sensing of intracellular Gram-negative pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium is a beneficial host response, NLRC4-dependent sensing of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type 3 secretion system (T3SS) has been shown to be involved in pathogenicity. In mice, different pathogen-associated microbial patterns are sensed by the combination of the NLRC4-inflammasome with different members of neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIPs). NAIP2 is involved in sensing PscI, an inner-rod protein of the P...
August 28, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971799/human-and-nonhuman-primate-meninges-harbor-lymphatic-vessels-that-can-be-visualized-noninvasively-by-mri
#19
Martina Absinta, Seung-Kwon Ha, Govind Nair, Pascal Sati, Nicholas J Luciano, Maryknoll Palisoc, Antoine Louveau, Kareem A Zaghloul, Stefania Pittaluga, Jonathan Kipnis, Daniel S Reich
Here, we report the existence of meningeal lymphatic vessels in human and nonhuman primates (common marmoset monkeys) and the feasibility of noninvasively imaging and mapping them in vivo with high-resolution, clinical MRI. On T2-FLAIR and T1-weighted black-blood imaging, lymphatic vessels enhance with gadobutrol, a gadolinium-based contrast agent with high propensity to extravasate across a permeable capillary endothelial barrier, but not with gadofosveset, a blood-pool contrast agent. The topography of these vessels, running alongside dural venous sinuses, recapitulates the meningeal lymphatic system of rodents...
October 3, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937879/advax4-delta-inulin-combination-adjuvant-together-with-ecmx-a-fusion-construct-of-four-protective-mtb-antigens-induces-a-potent-th1-immune-response-and-protects-mice-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#20
Bruno de Paula Oliveira Santos, Monalisa Martins Trentini, Renato Beilner Machado, Mara Rúbia Nunes Celes, André Kipnis, Nikolai Petrovsky, Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a main public health concern and 10.4 million new cases occurred in 2015 around the world. BCG is the only approved vaccine against TB, but has variable efficacy and new vaccines are needed. We developed two new mTB vaccine candidates based on the recombinant fusion proteins, rCMX and rECMX formulated with Advax4, a new combination adjuvant combining delta inulin, CpG oligonucleotide and murabutide. BALB/c mice were immunized three times intramuscularly with these vaccine formulations...
December 2, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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