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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636961/myeloid-cells-in-the-central-nervous-system
#1
REVIEW
Jasmin Herz, Anthony J Filiano, Ashtyn Smith, Nir Yogev, Jonathan Kipnis
The central nervous system (CNS) and its meningeal coverings accommodate a diverse myeloid compartment that includes parenchymal microglia and perivascular macrophages, as well as choroid plexus and meningeal macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes. These myeloid populations enjoy an intimate relationship with the CNS, where they play an essential role in both health and disease. Although the importance of these cells is clearly recognized, their exact function in the CNS continues to be explored. Here, we review the subsets of myeloid cells that inhabit the parenchyma, meninges, and choroid plexus and discuss their roles in CNS homeostasis...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633546/identification-of-specific-antibodies-against-the-ag85c-mpt51-hspx-fusion-protein-cmx-for-serological-screening-of-tuberculosis-in-endemic-area
#2
Adrielle Zagmignan, Adeliane Castro da Costa, José Lima Viana, Lídio Gonçalves Lima Neto, Cristina de Andrade Monteiro, Ariosvaldo Guimarães Gaioso Neto, Ana Paula Junqueira Kipnis, Eduardo M de Sousa
OBJECTIVES: Development of new tools for rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is considered a strategy for controlling the disease. The recombinant CMX fusion protein is composed of immunodominant epitopes of the Ag85C (Rv0129c), MPT51 (Rv3803c) and the entire HspX (Rv2031c) proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb). The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of a test using the CMX protein in individuals suspected of TB. METHODS: Indirect ELISA was used to measure serum anti-CMX IgM and IgG in individuals with pulmonary TB...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622503/damed-in-trem-2-steps
#3
Sandro Da Mesquita, Jonathan Kipnis
The role of microglia in neurodegenerative diseases has been controversial. In this issue, Keren-Shaul et al. identify a unique population of disease-associated microglia (DAM) that develop in two steps and may help to restrict damage in Alzheimer and related diseases.
June 15, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608641/risk-factors-for-pneumocystis-pneumonia-after-the-first-6-months-following-renal-transplantation
#4
Emmanuel Faure, Arnaud Lionet, Eric Kipnis, Christian Noël, Marc Hazzan
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) incidence was decreased in renal transplant thanks to prophylaxis, recommended during the first months after transplantation. However, many late PCP cases are observed after the first 6 months and recommendations to maintain or reintroduce prophylaxis are lacking. The objective of the study was to identify risk factors to guide the individual prescription of prophylaxis, 6 months after transplantation. Thirty-three late PCP cases were identified between 1995 and 2012 in Lille Hospital, France, and were compared to 72 randomized controls transplant recipients...
June 13, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576586/-the-lung-microbiota-review
#5
M-C Ploton, S Abakka, E Amouyal, C Besnard, L Dufour, S El Harrif, C Kipnis, B Prim, J Vignot, V Houdouin
In the last 20years, culture-independent DNA-based techniques ("shotgun sequencing") demonstrated that complex microbial communities reside on most epithelial surfaces, including the lower airways. Until the amniotic sac ruptures, a fetus is considered to be essentially sterile. Many factors affect the composition of the lung microbiota: inheritance, mode of delivery, diet, and age-related changes in adults. It interacts with the digestive and oropharyngeal microbiotas. Animal models show that these interactions play a role in innate pulmonary immunity and modulation of the inflammatory response...
May 30, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522873/recombinant-bcg-expressing-ltak63-adjuvant-induces-superior-protection-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#6
Ivan P Nascimento, Dunia Rodriguez, Carina C Santos, Eduardo P Amaral, Henrique K Rofatto, Ana P Junqueira-Kipnis, Eduardo D C Gonçalves, Maria R D'Império-Lima, Mario H Hirata, Celio L Silva, Nathalie Winter, Brigitte Gicquel, Kingston H G Mills, Mariagrazia Pizza, Rino Rappuoli, Luciana C C Leite
In order to develop an improved BCG vaccine against tuberculosis we have taken advantage of the adjuvant properties of a non-toxic derivative of Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT), LTAK63. We have constructed rBCG strains expressing LTAK63 at different expression levels. Mice immunized with BCG expressing low levels of LTAK63 (rBCG-LTAK63lo) showed higher Th1 cytokines and IL-17 in the lungs, and when challenged intratracheally with Mycobacterium tuberculosis displayed a 2.0-3.0 log reduction in CFU as compared to wild type BCG...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492816/enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-program-implementation-in-2-surgical-populations-in-an-integrated-health-care-delivery-system
#7
Vincent X Liu, Efren Rosas, Judith Hwang, Eric Cain, Anne Foss-Durant, Molly Clopp, Mengfei Huang, Derrick C Lee, Alex Mustille, Patricia Kipnis, Stephen Parodi
Importance: Novel approaches to perioperative surgical care focus on optimizing nutrition, mobility, and pain management to minimize adverse events after surgical procedures. Objective: To evaluate the outcomes of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program among 2 target populations: patients undergoing elective colorectal resection and patients undergoing emergency hip fracture repair. Design, Setting, and Participants: A pre-post difference-in-differences study before and after ERAS implementation in the target populations compared with contemporaneous surgical comparator groups (patients undergoing elective gastrointestinal surgery and emergency orthopedic surgery)...
May 10, 2017: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475585/acinetobacter-baumannii-strains-isolated-from-patients-in-intensive-care-units-in-goi%C3%A3-nia-brazil-molecular-and-drug-susceptibility-profiles
#8
Suellen Rocha Araújo Castilho, Cássia Silva de Miranda Godoy, Adriana Oliveira Guilarde, Juliana Lamaro Cardoso, Maria Cláudia Porfirio André, Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis, André Kipnis
Resistance to antimicrobial agents is increasing worldwide and imposes significant life-threatening risks to several different populations, especially those in intensive care units (ICUs). Bacteria can quickly develop or acquire resistance to antimicrobial drugs, and combined with their intrinsic potential to cause disease in humans, these bacteria can become deadly. Among Gram-negative bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii is notorious as a frequent opportunistic pathogen associated with critically ill patients, and understanding the genetic basis of A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472471/successful-immunosuppressant-free-heterotopic-transplantation-of-tracheal-allografts-in-the-pig
#9
Julien De Wolf, Mathias Brieu, Christophe Zawadzki, Alexandre Ung, Eric Kipnis, Ramadan Jashari, Thomas Hubert, Pierre Fayoux, Christophe Mariette, Marie-Christine Copin, Alain Wurtz
OBJECTIVES: It has been demonstrated that both heterotopic and orthotopic transplants of epithelium-denuded cryopreserved tracheal allografts are feasible in immunosuppressant-free rabbits. Validation of these results in large animals is required before considering clinical applications. We evaluated the viability, immune tolerance and strain properties of such tracheal allografts heterotopically transplanted in a pig model. METHODS: Ten tracheal segments, 5 short (5 rings) and 5 long (10 rings), were obtained from male Landrace pigs...
May 2, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463436/ethical-considerations-for-involving-latina-adolescents-in-mental-health-research
#10
Allison L McCord
TOPIC: US Latina adolescents experience significant mental health disparities, such as depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation and, therefore, should be involved in research studies focused on minimizing these health disparities. However, researchers must consider the specific ways this population is vulnerable and provide adequate protections to reduce risks related to these vulnerabilities. PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to describe the different ways that Latina adolescents with mental health problems can be vulnerable research participants, identify strategies to protect this population during a research study, and describe steps taken to apply these strategies in an ongoing qualitative study examining depression in Latina adolescents...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446902/modulation-of-macrophage-responses-by-cmx-a-fusion-protein-composed-of-ag85c-mpt51-and-hspx-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Adeliane C da Costa, Danilo P de Resende, Bruno de P O Santos, Karina F Zoccal, Lúcia H Faccioli, André Kipnis, Ana P Junqueira-Kipnis
Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a vaccine used to prevent tuberculosis (TB). Due to the poor protection conferred by BCG in adults, new, more effective formulations have been developed. A recombinant BCG vaccine expressing the CMX fusion protein Ag85c_MPT51_HspX (rBCG-CMX) induced Th1 and Th17 responses and provided better protection than BCG. It has been shown that Mycobacterium smegmatis expressing CMX also induces better protection than BCG and is a strong macrophage activator. The aim of the present study was to evaluate macrophage activation by the recombinant CMX fusion protein and by rBCG-CMX and to evaluate their ability to generate vaccine-specific immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446786/how-and-why-do-t-cells-and-their-derived-cytokines-affect-the-injured-and-healthy-brain
#12
REVIEW
Anthony J Filiano, Sachin P Gadani, Jonathan Kipnis
The evolution of adaptive immunity provides enhanced defence against specific pathogens, as well as homeostatic immune surveillance of all tissues. Despite being 'immune privileged', the CNS uses the assistance of the immune system in physiological and pathological states. In this Opinion article, we discuss the influence of adaptive immunity on recovery after CNS injury and on cognitive and social brain function. We further extend a hypothesis that the pro-social effects of interferon-regulated genes were initially exploited by pathogens to increase host-host transmission, and that these genes were later recycled by the host to form part of an immune defence programme...
June 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415355/numerical-study-of-continuous-and-discontinuous-dynamical-phase-transitions-for-boundary-driven-systems
#13
Ohad Shpielberg, Yaroslav Don, Eric Akkermans
The existence and search for thermodynamic phase transitions is of unfading interest. In this paper, we present numerical evidence of dynamical phase transitions occurring in boundary-driven systems with a constrained integrated current. It is shown that certain models exhibit a discontinuous transition between two different density profiles and a continuous transition between a time-independent and a time-dependent profile. We also verified that the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti model exhibits no phase transitions in a range much larger than previously explored...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402488/evaluation-of-the-24-hour-recall-as-a-reference-instrument-for-calibrating-other-self-report-instruments-in-nutritional-cohort-studies-evidence-from-the-validation-studies-pooling-project
#14
Laurence S Freedman, John M Commins, Walter Willett, Lesley F Tinker, Donna Spiegelman, Donna Rhodes, Nancy Potischman, Marian L Neuhouser, Alanna J Moshfegh, Victor Kipnis, David J Baer, Lenore Arab, Ross L Prentice, Amy F Subar
Calibrating dietary self-report instruments is recommended as a way to adjust for measurement error when estimating diet-disease associations. Because biomarkers available for calibration are limited, most investigators use self-reports (e.g., 24-hour recalls (24HRs)) as the reference instrument. We evaluated the performance of 24HRs as reference instruments for calibrating food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), using data from the Validation Studies Pooling Project, comprising 5 large validation studies using recovery biomarkers...
April 10, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396657/the-activity-of-a-hexameric-m17-metallo-aminopeptidase-is-associated-with-survival-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Andre F Correa, Izabela M D Bastos, David Neves, Andre Kipnis, Ana P Junqueira-Kipnis, Jaime M de Santana
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent human pathogens causing millions of deaths in the last years. Moreover, tuberculosis (TB) treatment has become increasingly challenging owing to the emergence of multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis strains. Thus, there is an immediate need for the development of new anti-TB drugs. Proteases appear to be a promising approach and may lead to shortened and effective treatments for drug-resistant TB. Although the M. tuberculosis genome predicts more than 100 genes encoding proteases, only a few of them have been studied...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337198/role-of-metallic-nanoparticles-in-vaccinology-implications-for-infectious-disease-vaccine-development
#16
REVIEW
Lázaro Moreira Marques Neto, André Kipnis, Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis
Subunit vaccines are safer but less immunogenic than live-attenuated vaccines or whole cell inactivated vaccines. Adjuvants are used to enhance and modulate antigen (Ag) immunogenicity, aiming to induce a protective and long-lasting immune response. Several molecules and formulations have been studied for their adjuvanticity, but only seven have been approved to formulate human vaccines. Metallic nanoparticles (MeNPs), particularly those containing gold and iron oxides, are widely used in medicine for diagnosis and therapy and have been used as carriers for drugs and vaccines...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275372/non-disulfide-bridge-peptide-5-5-from-the-scorpion-hadrurus-gertschi-inhibits-the-growth-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-subsp-massiliense
#17
Monalisa M Trentini, Rogério C das Neves, Bruno de Paula Oliveira Santos, Roosevelt A DaSilva, Adolfo C Barros de Souza, Márcia R Mortari, Elisabeth F Schwartz, André Kipnis, Ana P Junqueira-Kipnis
Multi-drug resistant microorganisms have been a growing concern during the last decades due to their contribution in mortality rates worldwide. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are broad spectrum antimicrobial agents that display potent microbicidal activity against a wide range of microorganisms. AMPs generally have a rapid mode of action that reduces the risk of resistance developing among pathogens. In this study, an AMP derived from scorpion venom, NDBP-5.5, was evaluated against Mycobacterium abscessus subsp...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266612/microbiota-alteration-is-associated-with-the-development-of-stress-induced-despair-behavior
#18
Ioana A Marin, Jennifer E Goertz, Tiantian Ren, Stephen S Rich, Suna Onengut-Gumuscu, Emily Farber, Martin Wu, Christopher C Overall, Jonathan Kipnis, Alban Gaultier
Depressive disorders often run in families, which, in addition to the genetic component, may point to the microbiome as a causative agent. Here, we employed a combination of behavioral, molecular and computational techniques to test the role of the microbiota in mediating despair behavior. In chronically stressed mice displaying despair behavior, we found that the microbiota composition and the metabolic signature dramatically change. Specifically, we observed reduced Lactobacillus and increased circulating kynurenine levels as the most prominent changes in stressed mice...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241253/a-quantitative-risk-based-approach-to-the-management-of-neonatal-early-onset-sepsis
#19
Michael W Kuzniewicz, Karen M Puopolo, Allen Fischer, Eileen M Walsh, Sherian Li, Thomas B Newman, Patricia Kipnis, Gabriel J Escobar
Importance: Current algorithms for management of neonatal early-onset sepsis (EOS) result in medical intervention for large numbers of uninfected infants. We developed multivariable prediction models for estimating the risk of EOS among late preterm and term infants based on objective data available at birth and the newborn's clinical status. Objectives: To examine the effect of neonatal EOS risk prediction models on sepsis evaluations and antibiotic use and assess their safety in a large integrated health care system...
April 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138553/influenza-a-induces-dysfunctional-immunity-and-death-in-mecp2-overexpressing-mice
#20
James C Cronk, Jasmin Herz, Taeg S Kim, Antoine Louveau, Emily K Moser, Ashish K Sharma, Igor Smirnov, Kenneth S Tung, Thomas J Braciale, Jonathan Kipnis
Loss of function or overexpression of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) results in the severe neurodevelopmental disorders Rett syndrome and MeCP2 duplication syndrome, respectively. MeCP2 plays a critical role in neuronal function and the function of cells throughout the body. It has been previously demonstrated that MeCP2 regulates T cell function and macrophage response to multiple stimuli, and that immune-mediated rescue imparts significant benefit in Mecp2-null mice. Unlike Rett syndrome, MeCP2 duplication syndrome results in chronic, severe respiratory infections, which represent a significant cause of patient morbidity and mortality...
January 26, 2017: JCI Insight
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