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antibiotic residues

Laxmana Naik, Rajan Sharma, Bimlesh Mann, Kiran Lata, Y S Rajput, B Surendra Nath
A rapid, semi-quantitative lateral flow assay (LFA) was developed to screen the oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotics residues in milk samples. In this study a competitive immuno-assay format was established. Colloidal gold nano-particles (GNP) were prepared and used as labelling material in LFA. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against OTC molecule (anti-OTC), purified and the quality was assessed by enzyme linked immuno sorbet assay. For the first time membrane components required for LFA in milk system was optimized...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Tina L Mistry, Lena Truong, Arun K Ghosh, Michael E Johnson, Shahila Mehboob
The enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI) enzyme is a well validated target for anti-staphylococcal drug discovery and development. With the goal of finding alternate therapeutics for drug resistant strains of S. aureus, such as methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), our previously published series of benzimidazole-based inhibitors of the FabI enzyme from F. tularensis (FtFabI) have been evaluated against FabI from S. aureus (SaFabI). We report here the preliminary structure-activity relationship of this series and the prioritization of compounds toward lead optimization...
October 18, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Kusum Mehla, Jayashree Ramana
Travelers' diarrhea (TD) is one of the most important global health issues among international travelers, especially those traveling to developing countries. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most frequently isolated pathogen causing TD. Although TD is self-limiting, it is also severely incapacitating. Ciprofloxacin is one of the standard quinolone antibiotics used in patients with TD. However, the alarming levels of antibiotic resistance have necessitated the urgent need to identify new drugs...
October 18, 2016: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
Samuel Obimakinde, Olalekan Fatoki, Beatrice Opeolu, Olatunde Olatunji
Environmental studies have shown that pharmaceuticals can contaminate aqueous matrices, such as groundwater, surface water, sediment as well as aquatic flora and fauna. Effluents from sewage and wastewater treatment plants, pharmaceutical industries and hospitals have been implicated in such contamination. Recent studies have however revealed significant concentrations of pharmaceuticals in wastewater from animal facilities in proximal aquatic habitats. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have shown a consistent positive correlation between exposure to some drugs of veterinary importance and increased adverse effects in aquatic biota largely due to induction of endocrine disruption, antibiotic resistance, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xue Zhou, Min Qiao, Feng-Hua Wang, Yong-Guan Zhu
The application of manure-based commercial organic fertilizers (COFs) is becoming increasingly extensive because of the expanding market for organic food. The present study examined the effects of repeated applications of chicken or swine manure-based COFs on the fate of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil by conducting a soil microcosm experiment. Application of COFs significantly increased antibiotics residues, as well as the relative abundance of ARGs and the integrase gene of class 1 integrons (intΙ1) in soil...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Elisabeth Richter, Silvia Berkner, Ina Ebert, Bernhard Förster, Nadin Graf, Monika Herrchen, Ute Kühnen, Jörg Römbke, Markus Simon
BACKGROUND: Residues of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) enter the environment via application of manure onto agricultural areas where in particular antibiotics can cause phytotoxicity. Terrestrial plant tests according to OECD guideline 208 are part of the environmental risk assessment of VMPs. However, this standard approach might not be appropriate for VMPs which form non-extractable residues or transformation products in manure and manure-amended soil. Therefore, a new test design with a more realistic exposure scenario via manure application is needed...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Fadi Aldeek, Walter Hammack, Mark R Crosswhite, Matthew Standland, Daniele Canzani, Ghislain Gerard, Jo-Marie Cook
Florida citrus depends on a breakthrough in the fight against citrus greening disease. Of the antibiotics used to treat this disease, penicillin G has been one of the most effective. Because orange fruit grown in the state of Florida are mainly used to produce orange juice, we have validated an ultra-HPLC tandem MS method to screen for penicillin G and its metabolites (penillic and penilloic acids) at the chemical residue level after treatment. In this method, three spike levels (0.25, 1, and 20 ng/g) were tested in triplicate...
October 15, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Guillermo Blanco, Alexandra Junza, Dolores Barrón
Pharmaceuticals from veterinary treatments may enter terrestrial food webs when medicated livestock are available to wildlife in supplementary feeding stations aimed at the conservation of endangered scavengers. Here, we hypothesized that the exposure risk to livestock fluoroquinolones, as indicators of pharmaceutical burden in food, is related to the variable reliance of scavengers on domestic versus wild animal carcasses. Since the misuse of broad-spectrum antibiotics is a major predisposing factor for opportunistic mycoses, we evaluated disease signs potentially associated with diet-dependent drug exposure in nestlings of two threatened vultures...
October 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Kunal Zaveri, Kiranmayi Patnala
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of multi-drug resistance S. aureus is one most challenging task for treatment of nosocomial infections. Proteins and enzymes of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway are one among the well-studied targets, but many of the enzymes are unexplored as targets. MurE is one such enzyme featured to be a promising target. As MurE plays an important role in ligating the L-lys to stem peptide at third position that is crucial for peptidoglycan synthesis. OBJECTIVE: To screen the potential MurE inhibitor...
October 10, 2016: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
S Gibiino, A Trappoli, B Balzarro, A R Atti, D De Ronchi
A 71-year-old man developed coma with severe respiratory failure, hypotension, and tachycardia induced by the intentional ingestion of quetiapine fumarate extended release (XR) 20 g. At the time, he had been treated for bipolar depression with venlafaxine 75 mg/day, lamotrigine 100 mg/day, pregabalin 75 mg/day, and quetiapine XR 400 mg/day for approximately 1 year. Comorbidities were hypertension treated with metoprolol, diabetes mellitus type 2 treated with metformin, and benign prostatic hyperplasia treated with silodosin...
December 2015: Drug Saf Case Rep
Annick Renevey, Sereina Riniker
Polytheonamide B (pTB), a highly cytotoxic peptide produced by a symbiotic bacterium of the marine sponge Theonella swinhoei, forms a transmembrane pore consisting of 49 residues. More than half of its residues are posttranslationally modified. Epimerizations result in alternating L- and D-amino acids that allow the peptide to adopt a [Formula: see text]-helical conformation. Unusually, the wide [Formula: see text]-helix of pTB is stable in a polar environment, which is in contrast to gramicidin A, an antibiotic with similar function and structure...
October 15, 2016: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Linlin Yao, Yanxin Wang, Lei Tong, Yamin Deng, Yonggang Li, Yiqun Gan, Wei Guo, Chuangju Dong, Yanhua Duan, Ke Zhao
The occurrence of 14 antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides and sulfonamides) in groundwater and surface water at Jianghan Plain was investigated during three seasons. The total concentrations of target compounds in the water samples were higher in spring than those in summer and winter. Erythromycin was the predominant antibiotic in surface water samples with an average value of 1.60μg/L, 0.772μg/L and 0.546μg/L respectively in spring, summer and winter. In groundwater samples, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines accounted for the dominant proportion of total antibiotic residues...
October 13, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ana Claudia Sánchez-Ortiz, Carlos Angulo, Antonio Luna-González, Píndaro Álvarez-Ruiz, José Manuel Mazón-Suástegui, Ángel Isidro Campa-Córdova
The widespread overuse of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistance shrimp pathogens, the negative impact on shrimp gut microbiota, and the presence of antimicrobial residues in aquaculture products, with negative consequences on human health. Alternatively, probiotics have positive effects on immunological responses and productive performance of aquatic animals. In this study, three probiotic bacteria, (Bacillus licheniformis MAt32, B. subtilis MAt43 and B. subtilis subsp...
October 12, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Takuya Kaji, Motoki Murai, Hiroaki Itoh, Jyunichiro Yasukawa, Hiroshi Hamamoto, Kazuhisa Sekimizu, Masayuki Inoue
Lysocin E (1) is a structurally complex 37-membered depsipeptide comprising 12 amino-acid residues with an N-methylated amide and an ester linkage. Compound 1 binds to menaquinone (MK) in the bacterial membrane to exert its potent bactericidal activity. To decipher the biologically important functionalities within this unique antibiotic, we performed a comprehensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) study by systematically changing the side-chain structures of l-Thr-1, d-Arg-2, N-Me-d-Phe-5, d-Arg-7, l-Glu-8, and d-Trp-10...
October 14, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Isaac Olufemi Olatoye, Oluwayemisi Folashade Daniel, Sunday Ayobami Ishola
BACKGROUND AND AIM: There are global public health and economic concerns on chemical residues in food of animal origin. The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence of residues in dairy products. Penicillin residues as low as 1 ppb can lead to allergic reactions and shift of resistance patterns in microbial population as well as interfere with the processing of several dairy products. Antibiotic monitoring is an essential quality control measure in safe milk production...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Abdul Sajid, Natasha Kashif, Nasira Kifayat, Shabeer Ahmad
The antibiotic residues in poultry meat can pose certain hazards to human health among them are sensitivity to antibiotics, allergic reactions, mutation in cells, imbalance of intestinal micro biota and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. The purpose of the present paper was to detect antibiotic residue in poultry meat. During the present study a total of 80 poultry kidney and liver samples were collected and tested for detection of different antibiotic residues at different pH levels Eschericha coli at pH 6, 7 and Staphyloccocus aureus at pH 8 & 9...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Tien-Sheng Tseng, Shih-Han Wang, Ting-Wei Chang, Hung-Mu Wei, Yu-June Wang, Keng-Chang Tsai, You-Di Liao, Chinpan Chen
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbial strains has become a public health issue and there is an urgent need to develop new anti-infective molecules. Although natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can exert bactericidal activities, they have not shown clinical efficacy. The limitations of native peptides may be overcome with rational design and synthesis. Here, we provide evidence that the bactericidal activity of a synthetic peptide, GW-Q6, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is mediated through outer membrane protein OprI...
2016: PloS One
Barbara Biondi, Bruno Casciaro, Antonio Di Grazia, Floriana Cappiello, Vincenzo Luca, Marco Crisma, Maria Luisa Mangoni
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a key role in the defence mechanism of living organisms against microbial pathogens, displaying both bactericidal and immunomodulatory properties. They are considered as a promising alternative to the conventional antibiotics towards which bacteria are becoming highly resistant. Recently, a derivative of the frog skin AMP esculentin-1a, esculentin-1a(1-21)NH2 [Esc(1-21)], showed a strong and fast membranolytic activity against Gram-negative bacteria but with a lower efficacy against Gram-positive ones...
October 11, 2016: Amino Acids
V Ntuli, P M K Njage, E M Buys
The current study was undertaken to characterize Escherichia coli and other Enterobacteriaceae in raw and pasteurized producer-distributor bulk milk (PDBM). A total of 258 samples were collected from purchase points in 8 provinces in South Africa. The samples were tested for antibiotic residues, phosphatase, total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and E. coli counts. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for identification of isolates. Escherichia coli isolates were characterized for virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance, serotypes, and presumptive E...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Petr Tůma, Martin Jaček, Vladimíra Fejfarová, Jan Polák
An electrophoretic stacking method has been developed for monitoring the therapeutic level of the antibiotic ceftazidime in blood plasma and microdialysates taken from peripheral soft tissues of the lower limbs of patients with diabetic foot syndrome. The biological samples are treated by addition of acetonitrile in an amount of 75% v/v and injected into a capillary in a large volume; after turning on the separation voltage, the residual acetonitrile is forced out of the capillary by the application of hydrodynamic pressure...
October 26, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
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