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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210246/prospects-of-in-vivo-incorporation-of-non-canonical-amino-acids-for-the-chemical-diversification-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#1
Tobias Baumann, Jessica H Nickling, Maike Bartholomae, Andrius Buivydas, Oscar P Kuipers, Nediljko Budisa
The incorporation of non-canonical amino acids (ncAA) is an elegant way for the chemical diversification of recombinantly produced antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Residue- and site-specific installation methods in several bacterial production hosts hold great promise for the generation of new-to-nature AMPs, and can contribute to tackle the ongoing emergence of antibiotic resistance in pathogens. Especially from a pharmacological point of view, desirable improvements span pH and protease resistance, solubility, oral availability and circulation half-life...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209973/structural-basis-for-fragmenting-the-exopolysaccharide-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-by-bacteriophage-%C3%AE-ab6-tailspike-protein
#2
I-Ming Lee, I-Fan Tu, Feng-Ling Yang, Tzu-Ping Ko, Jiahn-Haur Liao, Nien-Tsung Lin, Chung-Yi Wu, Chien-Tai Ren, Andrew H-J Wang, Ching-Ming Chang, Kai-Fa Huang, Shih-Hsiung Wu
With an increase in antibiotic-resistant strains, the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii has become a serious threat to global health. Glycoconjugate vaccines containing fragments of bacterial exopolysaccharide (EPS) are an emerging therapeutic to combat bacterial infection. Herein, we characterize the bacteriophage ΦAB6 tailspike protein (TSP), which specifically hydrolyzed the EPS of A. baumannii strain 54149 (Ab-54149). Ab-54149 EPS exhibited the same chemical structure as two antibiotic-resistant A...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208877/evaluation-of-antibiotic-residues-in-pasteurized-and-raw-milk-distributed-in-the-south-of-khorasan-e-razavi-province-iran
#3
Mortez Mohammadzadeh Moghadam, Mostafa Amiri, Hamed Ramezani Awal Riabi, Hamid Ramezani Awal Riabi
INTRODUCTION: The presence of antibiotic residues in milk and other products livestock is a health problem which can endanger public health. Antibiotics are used widely in animal husbandry to treat diseases related to bacterial infections. Antimicrobial drugs have been in use for decades in industry. They are commonly used in livestock facilities to treat mastitis. AIM: This study aimed to investigate antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk distributed in schools, in milk collection centers, and in milk production factories in Gonabad city...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208296/ultrasensitive-self-powered-aptasensor-based-on-enzyme-biofuel-cell-and-dna-bioconjugate-a-facile-and-powerful-tool-for-antibiotic-residue-detection
#4
Panpan Gai, Chengcheng Gu, Ting Hou, Feng Li
Herein, we reported a novel ultrasensitive one-compartment enzyme biofuel cells (EBFCs)-based self-powered aptasensing platform for antibiotic residue detection. By taking full advantage of the unique features of both EBFCs-based self-powered sensors and aptamers, the as-proposed aptasensing platform has the merits of simple instrumentation, anti-interference ability, high selectivity, and low cost. In this study, DNA bioconjugate, i.e., SiO2@gold nanoparticles-complementary strand of aptamer (SiO2@AuNPs-csDNA), was elaborately designed and played a key role in blocking the mass transport of glucose to the bioanode...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207825/discovery-of-a-new-family-of-relaxases-in-firmicutes-bacteria
#5
Gayetri Ramachandran, Andrés Miguel-Arribas, David Abia, Praveen K Singh, Isidro Crespo, César Gago-Córdoba, Jian An Hao, Juan Roman Luque-Ortega, Carlos Alfonso, Ling J Wu, D Roeland Boer, Wilfried J J Meijer
Antibiotic resistance is a serious global problem. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), which are widespread in environmental bacteria, can be transferred to pathogenic bacteria via horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Gut microbiomes are especially apt for the emergence and dissemination of ARG. Conjugation is the HGT route that is predominantly responsible for the spread of ARG. Little is known about conjugative elements of Gram-positive bacteria, including those of the phylum Firmicutes, which are abundantly present in gut microbiomes...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198616/comparison-of-metals-and-tetracycline-as-selective-agents-for-development-of-tetracycline-resistant-bacterial-communities-in-agricultural-soil
#6
Jianxiao Song, Christopher Rensing, Peter E Holm, Marko P J Virta, Kristian Koefoed Brandt
Environmental selection of antibiotic resistance may be caused by either antibiotic residues or by co-selecting agents such as toxic metals. Using a strictly controlled experimental design we compared the ability of metals (Cu or Zn) and tetracycline to (co)select for tetracycline resistance at thein bacterial community communitieslevel. Soil microcosms were established by amending agricultural soil with known levels of Cu, Zn or tetracycline known to represent commonly used metals and antibiotics for pig farming...
February 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194143/novel-immunity-proteins-associated-with-colicin-m-like-bacteriocins-exhibit-promiscuous-protection-in-pseudomonas
#7
Maarten G K Ghequire, Lieselore Kemland, René De Mot
Bacteriocins related to colicin M, acting via cleavage of the cell wall precursor lipid II, have been characterized in γ- and β-proteobacteria. Depending on the species, immunity is provided by either an inner membrane-anchored periplasmic protein or by an integral membrane protein. In Pseudomonas however, the immunity partner of colicin M-like bacteriocins remains unknown. Based on an in silico analysis in pseudomonad genomes, we here identify a gene encoding a putative immunity partner that represents a novel type of integral membrane protein (PmiA, Pseudomonas colicin M-like immunity type A)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193899/structure-of-a-lipid-a-phosphoethanolamine-transferase-suggests-how-conformational-changes-govern-substrate-binding
#8
Anandhi Anandan, Genevieve L Evans, Karmen Condic-Jurkic, Megan L O'Mara, Constance M John, Nancy J Phillips, Gary A Jarvis, Siobhan S Wills, Keith A Stubbs, Isabel Moraes, Charlene M Kahler, Alice Vrielink
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria have increased the prevalence of fatal sepsis in modern times. Colistin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) antibiotic that permeabilizes the bacterial outer membrane (OM) and has been used to treat these infections. The OM outer leaflet is comprised of endotoxin containing lipid A, which can be modified to increase resistance to CAMPs and prevent clearance by the innate immune response. One type of lipid A modification involves the addition of phosphoethanolamine to the 1 and 4' headgroup positions by phosphoethanolamine transferases...
February 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192735/risk-factors-for-postoperative-urinary-tract-infection-following-midurethral-sling-procedures
#9
Melike Doganay, Sabri Cavkaytar, Mahmut Kuntay Kokanali, Irfan Ozer, Orhan Seyfi Aksakal, Salim Erkaya
OBJECTIVE: To identify the potential risk factors for urinary tract infections following midurethral sling procedures. STUDY DESIGN: 556 women who underwent midurethral sling procedure due to stress urinary incontinence over a four-year period were reviewed in this retrospective study. Of the study population, 280 women underwent TVT procedures and 276 women underwent TOT procedures. Patients were evaluated at 4-8 weeks postoperatively and were investigated for the occurrence of a urinary tract infection...
February 6, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187498/structural-modeling-and-functional-analysis-of-the-essential-ribosomal-processing-protease-prp-from-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Erin A Wall, Adam L Johnson, Darrell L Peterson, Gail E Christie
In Firmicutes and related bacteria, ribosomal large subunit protein L27 is encoded with a conserved N-terminal extension that is removed to expose residues critical for ribosome function. Bacteria encoding L27 with this N-terminal extension also encode a sequence-specific cysteine protease, Prp, which carries out this cleavage. In this work we demonstrate that L27 variants with an un-cleavable N-terminal extension, or lacking the extension ("pre-cleaved"), are unable to complement an L27 deletion in Staphylococcus aureus...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187378/development-of-an-analytical-method-for-detecting-nitrofurans-in-bee-pollen-by-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#11
Mi Sun Park, Kyung Tae Kim, Jong Seong Kang
Bee pollen collected by honeybees, which is in powdered form, is a good nutritional supplement. Nitrofuran antibiotics are assumed not to be present in bee pollen, which is important as the level of antibiotics in bee pollen is strongly regulated in many countries. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to detect nitrofurans in honey has been developed, but this method is not suitable for bee pollen because of it being in powdered form. During preparation of bee pollen samples, the dispersal of powder particles in an aqueous solution often makes them susceptible to forming an emulsion with solvent components such as hexane and ethyl acetate...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177414/fate-and-effect-of-antibiotics-in-beef-and-dairy-manure-during-static-and-turned-composting
#12
Partha Ray, Chaoqi Chen, Katharine F Knowlton, Amy Pruden, Kang Xia
Manure composting has general benefits for production of soil amendment, but the effects of composting on antibiotic persistence and effects of antibiotics on the composting process are not well-characterized, especially for antibiotics commonly used in dairy cattle. This study provides a comprehensive, head-to-head, replicated comparison of the effect of static and turned composting on typical antibiotics used in beef and dairy cattle in their actual excreted form and corresponding influence on composting efficacy...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177407/transformation-of-sulfonamides-and-tetracyclines-during-anaerobic-fermentation-of-liquid-manure
#13
Astrid Spielmeyer, Franziska Stahl, Madeleine S Petri, Walter Zerr, Hubertus Brunn, Gerd Hamscher
Liquid manure is frequently used as soil fertilizer due to its high nutrient content. It can also contain residues of pharmaceuticals, such as antibiotics, if farm animals are medicated. The anaerobic fermentation process in biogas plants is discussed as one way to reduce the input of antibiotics into the environment. Therefore, 10 worldwide-applied sulfonamides (sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadiazine, sulfadimethoxine, sulfaguanidine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfapyridine, and sulfathiazole) and four frequently used tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline) were investigated concerning their elimination pattern during anaerobic fermentation...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177320/a-natural-single-residue-substitution-yields-a-less-active-peptaibiotic-the-structure-of-bergofungin-a-at-atomic-resolution
#14
Renate Gessmann, Danny Axford, Hans Brückner, Albrecht Berg, Kyriacos Petratos
Bergofungin is a peptide antibiotic that is produced by the ascomycetous fungus Emericellopsis donezkii HKI 0059 and belongs to peptaibol subfamily 2. The crystal structure of bergofungin A has been determined and refined to 0.84 Å resolution. This is the second crystal structure of a natural 15-residue peptaibol, after that of samarosporin I. The amino-terminal phenylalanine residue in samarosporin I is exchanged to a valine residue in bergofungin A. According to agar diffusion tests, this results in a nearly inactive antibiotic peptide compared with the moderately active samarosporin I...
February 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175945/-neuroborreliosis-diagnostics-treatment-and-course
#15
R Dersch, S Rauer
Lyme neuroborreliosis is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by the spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Clinical manifestations are classified as early and late Lyme neuroborreliosis. Early manifestations are much more common than late manifestations. Serological testing should only be performed when typical neurological symptoms are present because false positive results are common due to a high seroprevalence in the population. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis should be performed if Lyme neuroborreliosis is suspected...
February 7, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168081/tetracyclines-in-food-and-feedingstuffs-from-regulation-to-analytical-methods-bacterial-resistance-and-environmental-and-health-implications
#16
REVIEW
Fabio Granados-Chinchilla, César Rodríguez
Antibiotics are widely used as growth promoters in animal husbandry; among them, the tetracyclines are a chemical group of relevance, due to their wide use in agriculture, surpassing in quantities applied almost every other antibiotic family. Seeing the considerable amounts of tetracyclines used worldwide, monitoring of these antibiotics is paramount. Advances must be made in the analysis of antibiotics to assess correct usage and dosage of tetracyclines in food and feedstuffs and possible residues in pertinent environmental samples...
2017: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165516/the-degradation-mechanism-of-sulfamethoxazole-under-ozonation-a-dft-study
#17
Hang Yu, Pu Ge, Jingwen Chen, Hongbin Xie, Yi Luo
Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a kind of antibiotic, remains in the environment and threatens public health. Ozone as a strong and green oxidant was widely used for selective oxidation degradation of residual SMX. However, it is hard to elucidate the detailed oxidation mechanism through current experimental approaches. A theoretical study has been carried out herein for exploring possible ozonation pathways of SMX. Two reaction mechanisms, viz., direct addition (DA) and H atom transfer (HAT), are considered. The results show that the primary oxidation of aromatic rings (benzene or isoxazole rings) of SMX follows the DA mechanism, featuring an electrophilic addition...
February 6, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165020/a-potent-synthetic-inorganic-antibiotic-with-activity-against-drug-resistant-pathogens
#18
Shelby Hubick, Arumugam Jayaraman, Alexander McKeen, Shelby Reid, Jane Alcorn, John Stavrinides, Brian T Sterenberg
The acronymously named "ESKAPE" pathogens represent a group of bacteria that continue to pose a serious threat to human health, not only due to their propensity for repeated emergence, but also due to their ability to "eskape" antibiotic treatment. The evolution of multi-drug resistance in these pathogens alone has greatly outpaced the development of new therapeutics, necessitating an alternative strategy for antibiotic development that considers the evolutionary mechanisms driving antibiotic resistance. In this study, we synthesize a novel inorganic antibiotic, phosphopyricin, which has antibiotic activity against the Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE)...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161291/ll-37-derived-membrane-active-fk-13-analogs-possessing-cell-selectivity-anti-biofilm-activity-and-synergy-with-chloramphenicol-and-anti-inflammatory-activity
#19
Ganesan Rajasekaran, Eun Young Kim, Song Yub Shin
Although the human-derived antimicrobial peptide (AMP) LL-37 has potent antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, its therapeutic application is limited by its low cell selectivity and high production cost due to its large size. To overcome these problems, we tried to develop novel LL-37-derived short α-helical AMPs with improved cell selectivity and without a significant loss of anti-inflammatory activity relative to that of parental LL-37. Using amino acid substitution, we designed and synthesized a series of FK13 analogs based on the sequence of the 13-meric short FK13 peptide (residues 17-29 of LL-37) that has been identified as the region responsible for the antimicrobial activity of LL-37...
February 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159265/rapid-analysis-of-tetracycline-hydrochloride-solution-by-attenuated-total-reflection-terahertz-time-domain-spectroscopy
#20
Jianyuan Qin, Lijuan Xie, Yibin Ying
Despite numerous methods for the detection of antibiotic residues, they are usually destructive and require tedious pre-treatment. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is an emerging technology that has advantages for analyzing chemical and biological compounds since THz waves are very sensitive to the molecular vibrational modes. Here we incorporated attenuated total reflection technique into the THz-TDS and demonstrated that this technology (ATR THz-TDS) allowed to determine the complex refractive indices of tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) solutions with high accuracy and could be used to predict their concentrations...
June 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
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