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antibiotic residues

Meriem El Ghachi, Nicole Howe, Chia-Ying Huang, Vincent Olieric, Rangana Warshamanage, Thierry Touzé, Dietmar Weichert, Phillip J Stansfeld, Meitian Wang, Fred Kerff, Martin Caffrey
As a protective envelope surrounding the bacterial cell, the peptidoglycan sacculus is a site of vulnerability and an antibiotic target. Peptidoglycan components, assembled in the cytoplasm, are shuttled across the membrane in a cycle that uses undecaprenyl-phosphate. A product of peptidoglycan synthesis, undecaprenyl-pyrophosphate, is converted to undecaprenyl-phosphate for reuse in the cycle by the membrane integral pyrophosphatase, BacA. To understand how BacA functions, we determine its crystal structure at 2...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Thomas Germe, Judit Vörös, Frederic Jeannot, Thomas Taillier, Robert A Stavenger, Eric Bacqué, Anthony Maxwell, Benjamin D Bax
Imidazopyrazinones (IPYs) are a new class of compounds that target bacterial topoisomerases as a basis for their antibacterial activity. We have characterized the mechanism of these compounds through structural/mechanistic studies showing they bind and stabilize a cleavage complex between DNA gyrase and DNA ('poisoning') in an analogous fashion to fluoroquinolones, but without the requirement for the water-metal-ion bridge. Biochemical experiments and structural studies of cleavage complexes of IPYs compared with an uncleaved gyrase-DNA complex, reveal conformational transitions coupled to DNA cleavage at the DNA gate...
March 10, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Khurram Muaz, Muhammad Riaz, Saeed Akhtar, Sungkwon Park, Amir Ismail
Poultry production is among the most rapidly growing industries around the globe, and poultry is one of the major sources of meat. Poultry farmers use disease preventive and growth promoter antibiotics for faster growth of chickens in the shortest possible time to increase the rate of feed assimilation and to lower the incidence of mortality caused by a pathogen attack. Antibiotics may result in dysfunctionality of beneficial gut microbiota and increase resistance among microbial pathogens in poultry. Residues of these antibiotics in poultry meat have been determined in many of the studies globally and are considered one of the possible causes of antibacterial resistance in human pathogens...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Walter Busch
OBJECTIVE: Peroxyethane acid (POA) is capable of disrupting the ring of bacterial catalase and has a broad microbiocidal spectrum. Following application, POA degrades to acetic acid and peroxide. There are no residues and no resistance development. Because POA administration for bladder and wound lavage in human medicine produced positive results, the substance was tested for the treatment of cows with endometritis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After successful preliminary trials under clinical conditions, a comparative analysis using standard uterine treatments, focusing particularly on antibiotics, followed...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Ines Greco, Bernard D Hummel, Jaspreet Vasir, Jeffrey L Watts, Jason Koch, Johannes E Hansen, Hanne Mørck Nielsen, Peter Damborg, Paul R Hansen
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) hold promise as the next generation of antimicrobial agents, but often suffer from rapid degradation in vivo. Modifying AMPs with non-proteinogenic residues such as peptoids (oligomers of N -alkylglycines) provides the potential to improve stability. We have identified two novel peptoid-based compounds, B1 and D2 , which are effective against the canine skin pathogen Staphylococcus pseudintermedius , the main cause of antibiotic use in companion animals. We report on their potential to treat infections topically by characterizing their release from formulation and in vitro ADME properties...
March 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Luca Maria Chiesa, Sara Panseri, Maria Nobile, Federica Ceriani, Francesco Arioli
Demand for honey is increasing, especially if it is organic and if its nutritional properties are linked to untreated environments in order to guarantee quality for health. Sources of contamination of honey can be divided into environmental and apicultural Therefore, the distribution of POPs (persistent organic pollutants), pesticides and antibiotic residues from geographical areas with different contamination sources (high anthropic impact, intensive farming, husbandry and low anthropic impact) was investigated in order to confirm the potential transfer of xenobiotics into the supply chain and to give beekeepers tools for the selection of areas dedicated to organic production...
March 13, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Xueqing Shi, Tsuey Shan Yeap, Shujuan Huang, Jianqiu Chen, How Yong Ng
A green microalga Chlorella sp. isolated from marine environment was investigated for its potential to pretreat saline antibiotic wastewater containing amoxicillin (AMX). Through Biolog EcoPlate assay, the Chlorella sp. showed its unique carbon source metabolic patterns under autotrophic condition. In addition, the microalga could effectively remove AMX (>99%) under initial AMX concentrations ranging from 10 to 150 mg/L through a treatability test. In the continuous AMX treatment using a lab-scale membrane photobioreactor (MPBR), a stable AMX removal efficiency of 85...
February 24, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Woo Cheol Lee, Min-Cheol Jeong, Yeongjoon Lee, Chulhee Kwak, Jee-Young Lee, Yangmee Kim
Originally annotated as the initiator of fatty acid synthesis (FAS), β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (KAS III) is a unique component of the bacterial FAS system. Novel variants of KAS III have been identified that promote the de novo use of additional extracellular fatty acids by FAS. These KAS III variants prefer longer acyl-groups, notably octanoyl-CoA. Acinetobacter baumannii, a clinically important nosocomial pathogen, contains such a multifunctional KAS III (AbKAS III). To characterize the structural basis of its substrate specificity, we determined the crystal structures of AbKAS III in the presence of different substrates...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Faiza H Waghu, Shaini Joseph, Sanket Ghawali, Elvis A Martis, Taruna Madan, Kareenhalli V Venkatesh, Susan Idicula-Thomas
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are gaining attention as substitutes for antibiotics in order to combat the risk posed by multi-drug resistant pathogens. Several research groups are engaged in design of potent anti-infective agents using natural AMPs as templates. In this study, a library of peptides with high sequence similarity to Myeloid Antimicrobial Peptide (MAP) family were screened using popular online prediction algorithms. These peptide variants were designed in a manner to retain the conserved residues within the MAP family...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Marianne Smith Edge, Mary Elizabeth Kunkel, Jennifer Schmidt, Constantina Papoutsakis
In the late 20th century, plant breeders began using molecular biology techniques such as recombinant DNA, also known as genetic engineering, along with traditional cross-breeding. Ten plant and one animal food have been approved for commercialization in the United States. Today, foods and ingredients from genetically engineered (GE) crops are present throughout the food supply, which has led to varying levels of acceptance. Much discussion exists among consumers and health professionals about the believability of statements made regarding benefits or risks of GE foods...
March 8, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Xiaohui Liu, Yao Lv, Kun Xu, Xinxin Xiao, Beidou Xi, Shaoyong Lu
The presence of antibiotic residues in vegetables has been highlighted as a risk to human health; antibiotics not only cause toxic effects to plants but can also induce antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) expression. Using a soil-free approach, this study aimed to explore the response of ginger growth to tetracycline (TC) pollution and to assess the levels of antibiotic residues in different plant organs and the presence of ARGs in the rhizome. Ginger growth in a highly TC-contaminated environment was remarkably inhibited...
March 1, 2018: Chemosphere
Shane W Rogers, Carrie E Shaffer, Tom A Langen, Michael Jahne, Rick Welsh
The purpose of this study was to investigate genetic biomarkers of zoonotic enteric pathogens and antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) in the feces of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as related to proximity of deer to land that receives livestock manure or human waste biosolid fertilizers. Deer feces were collected in the St. Lawrence River Valley and Adirondack State Park of New York. Campylobacter spp. 16S rDNA was detected in 12 of 232 fecal samples (8 of 33 sites). Salmonellae were cultivated from 2 of 182 fecal samples (2 of 29 sites)...
March 9, 2018: EcoHealth
Kuppan Gokulan, Sangeeta Khare, Carl E Cerniglia, Steven L Foley, Kottayil I Varughese
The final step of peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis in all bacteria is the formation of cross-linkage between PG-stems. The cross-linking between amino acids in different PG chains gives the peptidoglycan cell wall a 3-dimensional structure and adds strength and rigidity to it. There are two distinct types of cross-linkages in bacterial cell walls. D,D-transpeptidase (D,D-TPs) generate the classical 4➔3 cross-linkages and the L,D-transpeptidase (L,D-TPs) generate the 3➔3 non-classical peptide cross-linkages...
March 9, 2018: AAPS Journal
Alexander Pschibul, Wibke G Janzarik, Peter Franck, Markus Hufnagel, Christopher Beck, Rudolf Korinthenberg
Despite the availability of modern antibiotics, pneumococcal meningitis in both children and adults remains a severe disease-one known to frequently cause grave complications and residual disability. Although the appearance of arterial vasospasms in bacterial meningitis systematically has been investigated and reported on for adult patients, such research is lacking when it comes to infants. We report on a 4-week-old infant who, 6 days after onset of pneumococcal meningitis, suffered severe neurological deterioration with treatment-resistant seizures and coma...
March 9, 2018: Neuropediatrics
J Janata, Z Kamenik, R Gazak, S Kadlcik, L Najmanova
Covering: up to 2017This review covers the biosynthetic and evolutionary aspects of lincosamide antibiotics, antitumour pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) and the quorum-sensing molecule hormaomycin. These structurally and functionally diverse groups of complex natural products all incorporate rarely occurring 4-alkyl-l-proline derivatives (APDs) biosynthesized from l-tyrosine through an unusual specialized pathway catalysed by a common set of six proteins named Apd1-Apd6. We give an overview of APD formation, which involves unusual enzyme activities, and its incorporation, which is based either on nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PBDs, hormaomycin) or a unique hybrid ergothioneine-dependent condensation system followed by mycothiol-dependent sulphur atom incorporation (lincosamides)...
March 8, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Ying Wu, Erping Cui, Yiru Zuo, Weixiao Cheng, Hong Chen
The prevalence and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is of growing interest, and residual sludge is among the main sources for the release of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Moreover, heavy metals concentrated in dense microbial communities of sludge could potentially favor co-selection of ARGs and metal resistance genes (MRGs). Residual sludge treatment is needed to limit the spread of resistance from WWTPs into the environment. This study aimed to explore the fate of ARGs and MRGs during thermophilic two-phase (acidogenic/methanogenic phase) anaerobic digestion by metagenomic analysis...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Weihua Wang, Wanfeng Zhang, Hong Liang, Dawen Gao
A method was established for coupled solid phase extraction-ultra performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, to simultaneously detect 12 common antibiotics belonging to 4 types (sulfonamides, macrolides, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins) in surface water environments. The characteristic distribution and seasonal variation in antibiotic content was investigated in the Harbin section of the Songhua River basin, Northeastern China. The results showed that the 12 antibiotics monitored were all detected to varying degrees, with 100% detection rates for sulfamethoxazole (SMX), cefazolin (CFZ), ofloxacin (OFL), flumequine (FLU), azithromycin (AZI) and roxithromycin (ROX) in all sampling sites...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Technology
Haiyan Lei, Jianbo Guo, Zhuo Lv, Xiaohong Zhu, Xiaofeng Xue, Liming Wu, Wei Cao
This study reports an analytical method for the determination of nitroimidazole and quinolones in honey using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A modified QuEChERS methodology was used to extract the analytes and determine veterinary drugs in honey by LC-MS/MS. The linear regression was excellent at the concentration levels of 1-100 ng/mL in the solution standard curve and the matrix standard curve. The recovery rates of nitroimidazole and quinolones were 4.4% to 59.1% and 9.8% to 46...
2018: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
Minxun Lu, Yongjiang Li, Yi Luo, Wenli Zhang, Yong Zhou, Chongqi Tu
BACKGROUND: Currently, it is challenging to treat massive bone defects of proximal tibia. Although numerous methods are available for reconstruction with epiphysis preservation, limitations in knee function and complications are noted with these methods. Our paper describes our attempt to reconstruct a marked defect in the proximal tibia with an uncemented three-dimensional (3D)-printed prosthesis and to evaluate the prosthesis design and short-term outcomes. CASE PRESENTATION: A 15-year-old boy with metaphyseal osteosarcoma of the tibia underwent intercalary allograft reconstruction following wide tumour resection with epiphysis preservation...
March 6, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Vasilios Kalas, Michael E Hibbing, Amarendar Reddy Maddirala, Ryan Chugani, Jerome S Pinkner, Laurel K Mydock-McGrane, Matt S Conover, James W Janetka, Scott J Hultgren
Treatment of bacterial infections is becoming a serious clinical challenge due to the global dissemination of multidrug antibiotic resistance, necessitating the search for alternative treatments to disarm the virulence mechanisms underlying these infections. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) employs multiple chaperone-usher pathway pili tipped with adhesins with diverse receptor specificities to colonize various host tissues and habitats. For example, UPEC F9 pili specifically bind galactose or N -acetylgalactosamine epitopes on the kidney and inflamed bladder...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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