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Duangporn Duangthip, Sherry Shiqian Gao, Edward Chin Man Lo, Chun Hung Chu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and experience of early childhood caries among 5- to 6-year-old children in Southeast Asia. METHODS: A literature search was conducted of three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science) to identify publications from the years 2006 to 2015. Additional hand searches of government reports and national studies were performed. Both primary and secondary data sources were included in the study...
October 18, 2016: International Dental Journal
M V Nair, G M Miskelly
Clandestine laboratories pose a serious health risk to first responders, investigators, decontamination companies, and the public who may be inadvertently exposed to methamphetamine and other chemicals used in its manufacture. Therefore there is an urgent need for reliable methods to detect and measure methamphetamine at such sites. The most common method for determining methamphetamine contamination at former clandestine laboratory sites is selected surface wipe sampling, followed by analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
October 3, 2016: Forensic Science International
Alma Fernanda Sanchez-Maldonado, Mueen Aslam, Cara Service, Claudia Narváez-Bravo, Brent P Avery, Roger Johnson, Tineke H Jones
This study investigated the frequency of Salmonella serovars on pig carcasses at various processing steps in two commercial pork processing plants in Alberta, Canada and characterized phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and PFGE patterns of the Salmonella isolates. Over a one year period, 1000 swab samples were collected from randomly selected pigs at two slaughter plants. Sampling points were: carcass swabs after bleeding (CSAB), carcass swabs after de-hairing (CSAD, plant A) or skinning (CSASk, plant B), carcass swabs after evisceration (CSAE), carcass swabs after pasteurization (CSAP, plant A) or washing (CSAW, plants B) and retail pork (RP)...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Frank Schwarz, Andrea Schmucker, Jürgen Becker
In patients with peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis, what is the efficacy of nonsurgical (i.e. referring to peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis) and surgical (i.e. referring to peri-implantitis) treatments with alternative or adjunctive measures on changing signs of inflammation compared with conventional nonsurgical (i.e. mechanical/ultrasonic debridement) and surgical (i.e. open flap debridement) treatments alone? After electronic database and hand search, a total of 40 publications (reporting on 32 studies) were finally considered for the qualitative and quantitative assessment...
December 2015: Int J Implant Dent
Ana Santana, Armindo Melo, Tânia Tavares, Isabel M P L V O Ferreira
The increase of hen egg consumption demands profitable applications for eggshells, including their membranes, in order to minimize environmental and public health problems that could result from their accumulation. This work presents an innovative application for eggshell membranes to obtain an added-value food ingredient that combines maximized ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Firstly, the use of acetic acid 5% (v/v); and 3-mercaptopropionic acid 1.25 M enabled 63% recovery of eggshell membrane proteins...
October 17, 2016: Food & Function
Kelly L Wyres, Kathryn E Holt
Antimicrobial-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) has emerged as a major global public health problem. While resistance can occur across a broad range of Kp clones, a small number have become globally distributed and commonly cause outbreaks in hospital settings. Here we describe recent comparative genomics investigations that have shed light on Kp population structure and the evolution of antimicrobial-resistant clones. These studies provide the basic framework within which genomic epidemiology and evolution can be understood, but have merely scratched the surface of what can and should be explored...
October 11, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Shu-Chi Wang, Ming-Yen Hsieh, Chung-Feng Huang, Ming-Lun Yeh, Jeng-Fu Yang, Ko Chang, Wei-Ru Lin, Chun-Yu Lin, Tun-Chieh Chen, Jee-Fu Huang, Chia-Yen Dai, Jih-Jin Tsai, Wan-Long Chuang, Ming-Lung Yu
In Taiwan, injecting drug use has been the main route of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission since 2005, with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) also having similar transmission routes. This has now become an important public health issue. The aim of this study is to explore the conditions of HDV infections between injecting drug users (IDUs) with and without HIV infection in Southern Taiwan. In this study, 87 IDUs were enrolled, including 27 anti-HDV seronegative IDUs and 60 anti-HDV seropositive IDUs, and the results of their liver function tests, CD4 cell counts, and anti-HIV and HIV RNA levels were analyzed...
October 2016: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
Monica A Konerman, Anna S Lok
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has a significant public health impact. There are currently 7 approved therapies for chronic HBV, including standard and pegylated interferon (IFN)-α, and 5 nucleos(t)ide analogs (NUCs). IFN offers benefits over NUCs, including a finite duration of therapy and a higher rate of clearance of hepatitis Be antigen and surface antigen. These benefits need to be weighed against the potential adverse effects of IFN therapy. Some patients should not receive IFN because of advanced liver disease or comorbidities...
November 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
Erin Jo Tiedeken, Alexandre Tahar, Brendan McHugh, Neil J Rowan
Pollution of European receiving waters with contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), such as with 17-beta-estradiol (a natural estrogenic hormone, E2), along with pharmaceutically-active compounds diclofenac (an anti-inflammatory drug, DCL) and 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol (a synthetic estrogenic hormone, EE2)) is a ubiquitous phenomenon. These three CECs were added to the EU watch list of emerging substances to be monitoring in 2013, which was updated in 2015 to comprise 10 substances/groups of substances in the field of water policy...
October 11, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Yu Shi, Wenchao Zhou, Lin Cheng, Cong Chen, Zhi Huang, Xiaoguang Fang, Qiulian Wu, Zhicheng He, Senlin Xu, Justin D Lathia, Yifang Ping, Jeremy N Rich, Xiu-Wu Bian, Shideng Bao
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant and lethal brain tumor harboring glioma stem cells (GSCs) that promote tumor propagation and therapeutic resistance. GSCs preferentially express several critical cell surface molecules that regulate the pro-survival signaling for maintaining the stem cell-like phenotype. Tetraspanin CD9 has recently been reported as a GSC biomarker that is relevant to the GSC maintenance. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of CD9 in maintaining GSC property remain elusive. Herein, we report that CD9 stabilizes the IL-6 receptor glycoprotein 130 (gp130) by preventing its ubiquitin-dependent lysosomal degradation to facilitate the STAT3 activation in GSCs...
October 14, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
M H Jazayeri, H Amani, A A Pourfatollah, A Avan, G A Ferns, H Pazoki-Toroudi
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is used to screen for prostate disease, although it has several limitations in its application as an organ-specific or cancer-specific marker. Furthermore, a highly specific/sensitive and/or label-free identification of PSA still remains a challenge in the diagnosis of prostate anomalies. We aimed to develop a gold nanoparticle (GNP)-conjugated anti-PSA antibody-based localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) as a novel approach to detect prostatic disease. A total of 25 nm colloidal gold particles were prepared followed by conjugation with anti-PSA pAb (GNPs-PSA pAb)...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Gene Therapy
Siu W Lam, Charlotte N Frederiks, Tahar van der Straaten, Aafke H Honkoop, Henk-Jan Guchelaar, Epie Boven
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding key metabolising enzymes or involved in pharmacodynamics for possible associations with paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. METHODS: The study population consists of 188 women from the multicenter, randomised, phase II ATX trial (BOOG2006-06; EudraCT number 2006-006058-83) that received paclitaxel and bevacizumab without or with capecitabine as first-line palliative therapy of HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Siddhartha Khandelwal, Nicholas Wickström
Numerous gait event detection (GED) algorithms have been developed using accelerometers as they allow the possibility of long-term gait analysis in everyday life. However, almost all such existing algorithms have been developed and assessed using data collected in controlled indoor experiments with pre-defined paths and walking speeds. On the contrary, human gait is quite dynamic in the real-world, often involving varying gait speeds, changing surfaces and varying surface inclinations. Though portable wearable systems can be used to conduct experiments directly in the real-world, there is a lack of publicly available gait datasets or studies evaluating the performance of existing GED algorithms in various real-world settings...
September 28, 2016: Gait & Posture
David Polcari, Philippe Dauphin-Ducharme, Janine Mauzeroll
Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is an electroanalytical scanning probe technique capable of imaging substrate topography and local reactivity with high resolution. Since its inception in 1989, it has expanded into a wide variety of research areas including biology, corrosion, energy, kinetics, instrumental development, and surface modification. In the past 25 years, over 1800 peer-reviewed publications have focused on SECM, including several topical reviews. However, these reviews often omit key details, forcing readers to search the literature...
October 13, 2016: Chemical Reviews
Nijiro Nohata, Yusuke Goto, J Silvio Gutkind
The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family is the largest family of cell-surface receptors involved in signal transduction. Aberrant expression of GPCRs and G proteins are frequently associated with prevalent human diseases, including cancer. In fact, GPCRs represent the therapeutic targets of more than a quarter of the clinical drugs currently on the market. MiRNAs (miRNAs) are also aberrantly expressed in many human cancers, and they have significant roles in the initiation, development and metastasis of human malignancies...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Human Genetics
M Iida, M Yamamoto, Y Ishiguro, M Yamazaki, N Ueda, H Honjo, K Kamiya
Left atrial (LA) phasic volumes consist of reservoir, conduit and booster pump volumes. Arterial stiffness is linked to lower systemic arterial compliance (SAC) contributing to cardiac afterload. Arterial stiffness may be a modulator of LA phasic volumes. Echocardiography was performed in 161 hypertensive patients and in 50 normotensive subjects in order to assess biplane LA volumes (maximum, before atrial contraction, minimum), early and late diastolic mitral annular velocity (e' and a'), and LV stroke volume...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Human Hypertension
S Kang, C Zhang, T Ohno, M Azuma
The PD-1/B7-H1 pathway regulates immune responses and maintains homeostasis. Here, we identified a unique expression of B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) on masticatory mucosae in the oral cavity. B7-H1 was physiologically expressed on the dorsal surface of the tongue, gingiva, and hard palate. Other squamous epithelia and other structures of the epithelia did not express B7-H1 in the steady state. Physiological B7-H1 expression on masticatory mucosae was limited on prickle cells, and its expression on basal keratinocytes (KCs) was strictly regulated...
October 12, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Hongye Jiang, Tingjin Chen, Hengchang Sun, Zeli Tang, Jinyun Yu, Zhipeng Lin, Pengli Ren, Xinyi Zhou, Yan Huang, Xuerong Li, Xinbing Yu
Clonorchiasis, caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish containing infective metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensisis (C.sinensis), remains a common public health problem. New effective prevention strategies are still urgent to control this food-borne infectious disease. The previous studies suggested Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) spores was an ideal vaccines delivery system, and the C.sinensis enolase (CsENO) was a potential vaccine candidate against clonorchiasis. In the current study, we detected CsENO-specific IgM levels by ELISA in sera, intestinal mucus and skin mucus in grass carps (Ctenopharyngodon idella) through oral administration with B...
October 8, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Tien-Sheng Tseng, Shih-Han Wang, Ting-Wei Chang, Hung-Mu Wei, Yu-June Wang, Keng-Chang Tsai, You-Di Liao, Chinpan Chen
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbial strains has become a public health issue and there is an urgent need to develop new anti-infective molecules. Although natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) can exert bactericidal activities, they have not shown clinical efficacy. The limitations of native peptides may be overcome with rational design and synthesis. Here, we provide evidence that the bactericidal activity of a synthetic peptide, GW-Q6, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is mediated through outer membrane protein OprI...
2016: PloS One
Maria J Gunnarsdottir, Sigurdur M Gardarsson, Gunnar St Jonsson, Jamie Bartram
Assuring sufficient quality of drinking water is of great importance for public wellbeing and prosperity. Nations have developed regulatory system with the aim of providing drinking water of sufficient quality and to minimize the risk of contamination of the water supply in the first place. In this study the chemical quality of Icelandic drinking water was evaluated by systematically analyzing results from audit monitoring where 53 parameters were assessed for 345 samples from 79 aquifers, serving 74 water supply systems...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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