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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325326/-investigation-of-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-in-gut-bacteria-from-patients-with-acute-diarrheal
#1
Y Li, W J Yan, S Q Liu
Objective: To investigate the presence of colistin resistance gene mcr in gut bacteria from patients with acute diarrhea. Methods: Fresh stool samples were collected from 150 outpatients with acute diarrhea in the intestinal clinic of Henan Provincial People's Hospital, and were directly detected for the presence of mcr by PCR after enrichment in the broth.The mcr-producing bacteria were further isolated and identified by MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Biotyper). Antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates was conducted by micro-broth dilution method...
December 19, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319341/emerging-mechanisms-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-bacteria-and-fungi-advances-in-the-era-of-genomics
#2
John Osei Sekyere, Jonathan Asante
Bacteria and fungi continue to develop new ways to adapt and survive the lethal or biostatic effects of antimicrobials through myriad mechanisms. Novel antibiotic resistance genes such as lsa(C), erm(44), VCC-1, mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3, mcr-4, bla KLUC-3 and bla KLUC-4 were discovered through comparative genomics and further functional studies. As well, mutations in genes that hitherto were unknown to confer resistance to antimicrobials, such as trm, PP2C, rpsJ, HSC82, FKS2 and Rv2887, were shown by genomics and transcomplementation assays to mediate antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida glabrata and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, respectively...
January 10, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311062/detection-of-mcr-1-gene-among-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-farmed-fish-and-characterization-of-mcr-1-bearing-incp-plasmids
#3
Luchao Lv, Yuping Cao, Peixin Yu, Raorao Huang, Jing Wang, Qiaoling Wen, Chanping Zhi, Qianhui Zhang, Jian-Hua Liu
The presence of mcr-1 gene in Escherichia coli isolated from retailed freshwater fish was investigated. Seven (3.65%) clonal unrelated grass carp original E. coli isolates were positive for mcr-1. mcr-1 genes were encoded by either chromosomes (n = 2) or conjugative plasmids (2 IncI2, 2 IncP, 1 IncX4). The IncP plasmids were similar to other mcr-1-harboring IncP plasmids from China, though the insertion sites varied. Our report warrants further surveillance of resistance genes in aquaculture.
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311058/an-incx3-epidemic-plasmid-carrying-blandm-5-in-escherichia-coli-from-swine-in-multiple-geographic-areas-in-china
#4
Pak-Leung Ho, Ya Wang, Melissa Chun-Jiao Liu, Eileen Ling-Yi Lai, Pierra Ying-Tung Law, Huiluo Cao, Kin-Hung Chow
Six imported pigs originating from Guangdong, Henan, and Hunan provinces in China during October 2015-February 2017 were culture positive for meropenem-resistant Escherichia coli The samples yielded 9 E. coli isolates of diverse sequence types carrying blaNDM-5 on IncX3 (8 isolates from 5 farms) or IncFII (1 isolate from 1 farm) plasmids. The mcr-1 gene was co-harboured by four isolates. The IncX3 plasmids (∼46 kb) carrying blaNDM-5 were identical or nearly identical to each other.
January 8, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305957/isolation-of-an-incp-1-plasmid-with-mcr-1-from-a-chicken-isolate-of-citrobacter-braakii-in-china
#5
Jinxin Liu, Yanxian Yang, Yunxia Li, Dan Liu, Hongmei Tuo, Hongning Wang, Douglas R Call, Margaret Davis, Anyun Zhang
The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been found worldwide, but the diversity of organisms harboring this gene is unknown. In this study, twelve colistin-resistant Citrobacter spp. isolates were obtained from diseased or dead chickens in China, and PCR analysis indicated that five were positive for mcr-1. One Citrobacter braakii strain (SCC4) with a multidrug resistance phenotype was chosen for further analysis. SCC4 was resistant to ten tested antibiotics and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to colistin was >4 µg/mL...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296190/expression-characteristics-of-the-plasmid-borne-mcr-1-colistin-resistance-gene
#6
Haifang Zhang, Minhui Miao, Jieting Yan, Min Wang, Yi-Wei Tang, Barry N Kreiswirth, Xia Zhang, Liang Chen, Hong Du
The plasmid-encoded colistin resistance gene (mcr-1) has recently been reported in various Gram-negative species. However, the expression profile of mcr-1 remains unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of mcr-1 in various plasmids and bacteria. The mcr-1 expression levels in pMCR1_IncX4 varied from 1.81 × 10-5 to 1.05 × 10-4 (pmol per μg total RNA) in the two K. pneumoniae strains SZ03 and SZ04 (ST25) and the two E. coli strains SZ01 and CDA6 (ST2448 and ST167, respectively). The mcr-1 expression levels of pMCR1_IncI2 in E...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288722/comparative-analysis-of-phosphoethanolamine-transferases-involved-in-polymyxin-resistance-across-ten-clinically-relevant-gram-negative-bacteria
#7
Jiayuan Huang, Yan Zhu, Meiling Han, Mengyao Li, Jiangning Song, Tony Velkov, Chen Li, Jian Li
The rapid emergence of Gram-negative 'superbugs' has become a significant threat to human health globally and polymyxins become a last-line therapy for these very problematic pathogens. Polymyxins exhibit their antibacterial killing by the initial interaction with lipid A in Gram-negative bacteria. Polymyxin resistance can be mediated by phosphoethanolamine (PEA) modification of lipid A that abolishes the initial electrostatic interaction with polymyxins. Both chromosome-encoded (e.g. EptA, EptB and EptC) and plasmid-encoded PEA transferases (e...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250044/clonal-diversity-virulence-potential-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-escherichia-coli-causing-community-acquired-urinary-tract-infection-in-switzerland
#8
Magdalena T Nüesch-Inderbinen, Melinda Baschera, Katrin Zurfluh, Herbert Hächler, Hansjakob Nüesch, Roger Stephan
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the clonal structure, virulence potential and antibiotic susceptibility of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates causing community acquired urinary tract infection (CAUTI) in unselected primary care patients in Switzerland. Methods: We performed multilocus sequence typing, virulence factor determination, and phenotypic and genotypic antimicrobial resistance testing on 44 non-duplicate UPEC isolates. Results: Twenty-seven different sequence types (STs) were identified...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244831/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-clinical-enterobacter-cloacae-bloodstream-isolates-in-shanghai-china
#9
Su Wang, Shu-Zhen Xiao, Fei-Fei Gu, Jin Tang, Xiao-Kui Guo, Yu-Xing Ni, Jie-Ming Qu, Li-Zhong Han
BACKGROUND: Enterobacter cloacae is a major nosocomial pathogen causing bloodstream infections. We retrospectively conducted a study to assess antimicrobial susceptibility and phylogenetic relationships of E. cloacae bloodstream isolates in two tertiary university-affiliated hospitals in Shanghai, in order to facilitate managements of E. cloacae bloodstream infections and highlight some unknowns for future prevention. METHODS: Fifty-three non-duplicate E. cloacae bloodstream isolates were consecutively collected from 2013 to 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238331/sensitive-and-rapid-detection-of-the-plasmid-encoded-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-1-in-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-by-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#10
Dayang Zou, Simo Huang, Hong Lei, Zhan Yang, Yuxin Su, Xiaoming He, Qinghe Zhao, Yong Wang, Wei Liu, Liuyu Huang
The emergence of the plasmid-encoded colistin-resistance gene mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae represents a new threat to the treatment of infection in the clinical setting. A sensitive and rapid molecular method for detection of the mcr-1 gene in clinical isolates is needed to control the spread of this gene. In this study, we established a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of the mcr-1 gene. This assay was applied to cultured bacteria and spiked human stools. Real-time monitoring of turbidity and chromogenic visualization were used to assess the reaction results...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237785/mcr-3-and-mcr-4-variants-in-carbapenemase-producing-clinical-enterobacteriaceae-do-not-confer-phenotypic-polymyxin-resistance
#11
Jeanette W P Teo, Marimuthu Kalisvar, Indumathi Venkatachalam, Ng Oon Tek, Raymond T P Lin, Sophie Octavia
The world-wide distribution of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance determinants (mcr-1, mcr-2, mcr-3 and mcr-4) coupled to an emerging observation that colistin resistance is more prevalent in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) (1, 2) present a daunting challenge in combatting antimicrobial resistance. Undoubtedly, next-generation sequencing approaches have expedited the discovery of mobile colistin resistance determinants (3).….
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233990/balancing-mcr-1-expression-and-bacterial-survival-is-a-delicate-equilibrium-between-essential-cellular-defence-mechanisms
#12
Qiue Yang, Mei Li, Owen B Spiller, Diego O Andrey, Philip Hinchliffe, Hui Li, Craig MacLean, Pannika Niumsup, Lydia Powell, Manon Pritchard, Andrei Papkou, Yingbo Shen, Edward Portal, Kirsty Sands, James Spencer, Uttapoln Tansawai, David Thomas, Shaolin Wang, Yang Wang, Jianzhong Shen, Timothy Walsh
MCR-1 is a lipid A modifying enzyme that confers resistance to the antibiotic colistin. Here, we analyse the impact of MCR-1 expression on E. coli morphology, fitness, competitiveness, immune stimulation and virulence. Increased expression of mcr-1 results in decreased growth rate, cell viability, competitive ability and significant degradation in cell membrane and cytoplasmic structures, compared to expression of catalytically inactive MCR-1 (E246A) or MCR-1 soluble component. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from mcr-1 strains induces lower production of IL-6 and TNF, when compared to control LPS...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229634/genomic-insights-into-colistin-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-a-tunisian-teaching-hospital
#13
Nadia Jaidane, Rémy A Bonnin, Wejdene Mansour, Delphine Girlich, Elodie Creton, Garance Colleton, Cherifa Chaouch, Noureddine Boujaafar, Olfa Bouallegue, Thierry Naas
The emergence of colistin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CoRKp) is a public health concern since this antibiotic has become the last line of treatment for infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negatives. In this study, we have investigated the molecular basis of colistin-resistance in 13 MDR Kp isolated from 12 patients in a teaching hospital in Sousse, Tunisia. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used to decipher the molecular mechanism of colistin-resistance and to identify the resistome of these CoRKp It revealed a genome of ca...
December 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227182/first-report-of-the-plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-1-in-escherichia-coli-st405-isolated-from-wildlife-in-bejaia-algeria
#14
Taous Bachiri, Rym Lalaoui, Sofiane Bakour, Meriem Allouache, Nadia Belkebla, Jean Marc Rolain, Abdelaziz Touati
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to screen for the presence of mcr-1 gene in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Algeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January to April 2016, a total of 86 fresh stool samples from Barbary macaques were collected in the Toudja forest (Bejaia, Algeria). After isolation, the isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion method, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of colistin was determined by E-test...
December 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209292/characterization-of-colistin-resistant-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-diseased-pigs-in-france
#15
Sabine Delannoy, Laetitia Le Devendec, Eric Jouy, Patrick Fach, Djamel Drider, Isabelle Kempf
We studied a collection of 79 colistin-resistant Escherichia coli isolates isolated from diseased pigs in France between 2009 and 2013. We determined a number of phenotypic and genetic characters using broth microdilution to characterize their antimicrobial susceptibility. We performed pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess their genetic diversity and assign them to phylogroups. High-throughput real-time PCR micro-array was used to screen for a selection of genetic markers of virulence, and PCR and sequencing of the main recognized resistance genes allowed us to investigate the mechanisms of colistin resistance...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197647/genetic-basis-of-chromosomally-encoded-mcr-1-gene
#16
Ruichao Li, Hua Yu, Miaomiao Xie, Kaichao Chen, Ning Dong, Dachuan Lin, Edward Wai-Chi Chan, Sheng Chen
Compared to plasmid-bearing mcr-1, the occurrence of chromosomally-encoded mcr-1 was rare although it has been reported in several cases. This study aims to investigate the genetic features of chromosomally-encoded mcr-1 among E. coli strains and potential genetic basis governing the mobilization of mcr-1 in bacterial chromosomes. The genome sequences of 16 E. coli strains containing a chromosomal mcr-1 gene were obtained and analyzed. Phylogenetic and WGS (Whole Genome Sequencing) analysis demonstrated that mcr-1 was associated with four major types of genetic arrangements, namely ISApl1-mcr1-orf, Tn6330, complex Tn6330 and ΔTn6330 in chromosomes of genetically unrelated E...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182477/detection-of-plasmid-mediated-colistin-resistance-mcr-1-and-mcr-2-genes-in-salmonella-spp-isolated-from-food-at-retail-in-belgium-from-2012-to-2015
#17
Cristina Garcia-Graells, Sigrid C J De Keersmaecker, Kevin Vanneste, Brigitte Pochet, Katie Vermeersch, Nancy Roosens, Katelijne Dierick, Nadine Botteldoorn
A collection of 105 colistin-resistant Salmonella isolates collected from 2012 to 2015 in the national surveillance program in Belgium was screened by PCR for the presence of genes mcr-1 and mcr-2. Of these, 1.90% (2/105) and 0.95% (1/105) tested positive for mcr-1 and mcr-2, respectively. The presence of the mcr-1 or mcr-2 determinant has been confirmed by whole genome sequencing and allowed the localization of these two genes on IncX4 type plasmids. We report here the presence of mcr-1 and the first mcr-2 gene in Salmonella ever isolated in the Belgian food chain...
November 28, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180279/impact-of-the-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-1-on-bacterial-fitness
#18
Manuela Tietgen, Torsten Semmler, Sara Riedel-Christ, Volkhard A J Kempf, Antonio Molinaro, Christa Ewers, Stephan Göttig
A Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate harbouring a 217 kb IncHI2-type plasmid, termed pKP2442, encoding the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was isolated from a leukaemia patient. pKP2442 was mobilized by intra- and intergenus transconjugation from the clinical isolate to E. coli J53 (transconjugation frequency: 6.86 x 10-8 ± 5.57 x 10-8) and K. pneumoniae PRZ (4.04 x 10-8 ± 3.03 x 10-8), respectively. Since acquisition of resistance determinants often results in a loss of fitness, the impact of mcr-1 on fitness of E...
November 24, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176971/occurrence-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamases-kpc-type-and-mcr-1-2-producing-enterobacteriaceae-from-wells-river-water-and-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-oltrep%C3%A3-pavese-area-northern-italy
#19
Mariasofia Caltagirone, Elisabetta Nucleo, Melissa Spalla, Francesca Zara, Federica Novazzi, Vittoria M Marchetti, Aurora Piazza, Ibrahim Bitar, Marica De Cicco, Stefania Paolucci, Giorgio Pilla, Roberta Migliavacca, Laura Pagani
To evaluate the water compartment antibiotic-resistance contamination rates, 11 wells, five streams, and four treatment plants located in the Oltrepò Pavese area were screened for the presence of third generation cephalosporins resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Enterobacteriaceae were also characterized for the Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamases (ESBLs), carbapenemases, and mcr-1 genes presence. From December 2014 to November 2015, 246 water samples were filtered, plated on Plate Count Agar, MacConkey Agar, and MacConkey Agar with cefotaxime...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169659/acquisition-of-the-mcr-1-gene-by-a-high-risk-clone-of-kpc-2-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st437-cc258-brazil
#20
Tanise Vendruscolo Dalmolin, Andreza Francisco Martins, Alexandre Prehn Zavascki, Daiana de Lima-Morales, Afonso Luís Barth
We identified one clinical isolate of K. pneumoniae harboring the mcr 1 (plasmid of IncX4 family) and blaKPC-2 (plasmid of IncFIB family) genes in southern Brazil. These findings highlight that K. pneumoniae isolates carrying both mcr-1 and blaKPC-2 may emergence as a serious threat to antimicrobial therapy.
October 5, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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