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Military burns

Aaron E Barrow, Andrew J Sheean, Travis C Burns
INTRODUCTION: This retrospective cohort study characterized injury patterns, treatment practices, and identified the return to duty (RTD) rate following combat-related multi-ligament knee injuries (MLKI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated injury characteristics and treatment methods of 46 military service members who had sustained a MLKI during combat activity. The primary clinical outcome measure was ability to return to active military duty. Secondary outcomes included subjective pain score, knee motion, knee instability, and use of ambulatory assistive device...
February 22, 2017: Injury
Vladimir Sokolov, Alexey Biryukov, Igor Chmyrev, Mikhail Tarasenko, Pavel Kabanov
The start of World War II (WWII) led to the deployment of combat troops in several continents. Destruction and many casualties among both the military and civilians became an inevitable consequence. A large amount of people injured were in need of life-saving treatment and a speedy return to duty. Intensive studies of the specific issues of diagnosis and treatment of thermal injury were conducted in the Soviet Union before the war. The first special units for patients with burn injuries were created, and the first specialists received their first clinical experience...
2017: Military Medical Research
Daniel S Burns, D Fletcher, K Johnston, M S Bailey, K Campbell
Cutaneous myiasis is a well-described problem in travellers to endemic regions including military personnel. Realistic training is important to ensure that healthcare workers have the confidence and expertise to recognise cutaneous myiasis and safely remove larvae if required. A model is described here that is simple, reproducible and realistic, and will allow for training of military healthcare workers in safe surgical removal of larvae when required.
February 13, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
C Y Jia
Burn surgery has a glorious history in our country, but it still faces enormous challenges at present: the incidence of burn declines year by year, basic research and clinical diagnosis are more or less disjointed, national medical care and education system need to be further perfected, fusion of new technology lags behind, and army system adjustment in military hospitals is in progress, etc. We need to adjust strategies in time of peace, and prepare for challenges so as to create new splendor.
December 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Po-Shun Hsu, Yi-Ting Tsai, Chih-Yuan Lin, Shyi-Gen Chen, Niann-Tzyy Dai, Cheng-Jung Chen, Jia-Lin Chen, Chien-Sung Tsai
INTRODUCTION: Explosion injury is very common on the battlefield and is associated with major burn and inhalation injuries and subsequent high mortality and morbidity rates. Here we report six victims who suffered from explosion injuries caused by stun grenade; all were treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as salvage therapy. This study was aimed to evaluate the indications and efficacy of ECMO in acute and critically ill major burn patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of six patients from Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center in Taiwan...
December 28, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
J Breeze, D C Tong, D Powers, N A Martin, A M Monaghan, D Evriviades, J Combes, G Lawton, C Taylor, A Kay, J Baden, B Reed, N MacKenzie, A J Gibbons, S Heppell, R F Rickard
VIRTUS is the first United Kingdom (UK) military personal armour system to provide components that are capable of protecting the whole face from low velocity ballistic projectiles. Protection is modular, using a helmet worn with ballistic eyewear, a visor, and a mandibular guard. When all four components are worn together the face is completely covered, but the heat, discomfort, and weight may not be optimal in all types of combat. We organized a Delphi consensus group analysis with 29 military consultant surgeons from the UK, United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand to identify a potential hierarchy of functional facial units in order of importance that require protection...
February 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Wendy A Cook, Ardith Z Doorenbos, Elizabeth J Bridges
BACKGROUND: reviews have evaluated research trends for specific conditions and age groups but not for specific populations of research participants. No reviews have evaluated research with military service member participants. PURPOSE: Study objectives were (a) to use to identify trends in biomedical research from 2005 to 2014 in which U.S. military service members actively participated as research participants and (b) to describe a search strategy for adaptation in future ClinicalTrials...
August 15, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Işıl Sayman Muslubaş, Mümin Hocaoğlu, Serra Arf, Hakan Özdemir, Murat Karaçorlu
Laser devices are widely used for medical, military, industrial and entertainment purposes. This extensive and unregulated use of lasers can cause a variety of maculopathies that can result in permanent vision loss. Uncontrolled and inappropriate use of laser instruments should be prevented with strict rules. We strongly emphasize the importance of changing the general misperception that lasers are safe to use for entertainment purposes. In this study we aim to report the clinical features of three patients with a history of maculopathy caused by exposure to laser light in an entertainment venue...
June 2016: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
Jud C Janak, Ian J Stewart, Jonathan A Sosnov, Jeffrey T Howard, Edward D Siew, Mallory M Chan, Nancy Wickersham, T Alp Ikizler, Kevin K Chung
Combat-related blast trauma results in massive tissue injury and tends to involve multiple systems. Further, an acute measure of injury severity based on underlying biological mechanisms may be important for the triage and treatment of these types of patients. We hypothesized that urinary biomarkers (UBs) would reflect severity of injury and that they would be elevated for blast injuries compared to gunshot wounds (GSW) in a cohort of combat casualties. We also postulated that UBs would be higher in patients with burns compared to patients with non-burn trauma in a civilian cohort...
October 26, 2016: Shock
Margaux M Salas, John L Clifford, Jessica R Hayden, Michael J Iadarola, Dayna L Averitt
OBJECTIVE:  Opioid-based analgesics are a major component of the lengthy pain management of burn patients, including military service members, but are problematic due to central nervous system-mediated side effects. Peripheral analgesia via targeted ablation of nociceptive nerve endings that express the transient receptor potential vanilloid channel 1 (TRPV1) may provide an improved approach. We hypothesized that local injection of the TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin (RTX) would produce long-lasting analgesia in a rat model of pain associated with burn injury...
October 29, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Anat Galor, Roy C Levitt, Katherine T McManus, Jerry P Kalangara, Benjamin E Seiden, Jasmine J Park, Derek B Covington, Constantine D Sarantopoulos, Elizabeth R Felix
Importance: Somatosensory dysfunction likely underlies dry eye (DE) symptoms in many individuals yet remains an understudied component of the disease. Its presence has important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Objective: To assess the integrity of nociceptive system processes in persons with DE and ocular pain using quantitative sensory testing (QST) techniques applied at a site remote from the eye. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study conducted at Miami Veterans Affairs Hospital included 118 individuals with a wide variety of DE symptoms and signs...
November 1, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
Daniel S Burns, K A Clay, M S Bailey
Undifferentiated febrile illness in a returning soldier is a common problem encountered by serving medical officers. A 32-year-old soldier presented to Birmingham Heartlands Hospital with fever and acute kidney injury after return from Borneo. Leptospirosis was suspected and empirical antibiotics were started before subsequent confirmation by serology and PCR. Leptospirosis is common in South-East Asia, and troops exercising in jungle areas, and in the UK, are at risk. Advice, including inpatient management when appropriate, is available from the UK Role 4 Military Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Service...
December 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
G C Liu, Z H Kan, J J Sheng, H H Li, L Li, Y Sun, S Z Ji, S H Zhu
Objective: To explore the efficacy of a hydrosurgery system applied in the debridement of extensive residual wounds of patients with severe burn prospectively. Methods: Seventy-six severely burned patients with extensive residual wounds after treatment were admitted into Department of Burn Surgery of Changhai Hospital of the Second Military Medical University from May 2012 to November 2015. The patients were divided into hydrosurgery system debridement group (HD, n=34) and traditional debridement group (TD, n=42) according to the random number table, and their residual wounds were debrided by a hydrosurgery system and conventional surgical instruments respectively...
September 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Robert Cartotto, Zeyu Li, Steven Hanna, Stefania Spano, Donna Wood, Karen Chung, Fernando Camacho
BACKGROUND: The Berlin definition of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) has been applied to military burns resulting from combat-related trauma, but has not been widely studied among civilian burns. This study's purpose was to use the Berlin definition to determine the incidence of ARDS, and its associated respiratory morbidity, and mortality among civilian burn patients. METHODS: Retrospective study of burn patients mechanically ventilated for ≥48h at an American Burn Association-verified burn center...
November 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Clifton L Dalgard, Keith F Polston, Gauthaman Sukumar, Col Timothy M Mallon, Matthew D Wilkerson, Harvey B Pollard
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify serum microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers that indicate deployment-associated exposures in service members at military installations with open burn pits. Another objective was to determine detection rates of miRNAs in Department of Defense Serum Repository (DoDSR) samples with a high-throughput methodology. METHODS: Low-volume serum samples (n = 800) were profiled by miRNA-capture isolation, pre-amplification, and measurement by a quantitative PCR-based OpenArray platform...
August 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Xiaoyan Xia, Alesia Carroll-Haddad, Nicole Brown, Mark J Utell, Col Timothy M Mallon, Philip K Hopke
OBJECTIVE: The objectives were: 1) measure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 100 μL of human serum and 2) assess PAH and PCDD/PCDF as markers of burn pit exposures during military deployments. METHODS: PAHs and PCDDs/PCDFs were analyzed in 100 μL serum samples collected pre- and post-deployment from 200 persons deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan (CASE); 200 persons not deployed (CONTROL) with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...
August 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Kyle W Blasch, John E Kolivosky, Jack M Heller
OBJECTIVE: This study presents environmental air samples collected at a US military installation with a solid waste disposal facility (SWDF) containing a burn pit from 2005 through 2012 and compared these results with occupational (breathing zone) samples. METHODS: Particulate matter (PM) environmental samples were collected as part of the installation monitoring program. Service Members in four security positions were monitored for PM and acrolein occupational exposures...
August 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Mauro Masiol, Col Timothy M Mallon, Kevin M Haines, Mark J Utell, Philip K Hopke
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to use ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) concentrations measured at Joint Base Balad in Iraq in 2007 to identify the sources of these species and their spatial patterns. METHODS: The ratios of the measured species were compared with literature data for likely emission sources. Using the multiple site measurements on specific days, contour maps have been drawn using inverse distance weighting (IDW)...
August 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
John C Hunninghake, Andrew J Skabelund, Michael J Morris
Deployment to Southwest Asia is associated with increased airborne hazards such as geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust, or air pollution. There are numerous ongoing studies to evaluate the potential effects of inhaled particulate matter on reported increases in acute and chronic respiratory symptoms. Providers need to be aware of potential causes of pulmonary disease such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia, asthma, and vocal cord dysfunction that have been associated with deployment. Other pulmonary disorders such as interstitial lung disease are infrequently reported...
August 2016: Military Medicine
Oscar Thabouillot, R Roffi, K Bertho, F Ramon, D Commeau, Y Fressancourt, E Quemeneur, N-C Roche, O Dubourg
INTRODUCTION: Each year, the French Special Weapons And Tactics team, Groupe d'Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale, recruits new members through a physically demanding 8-week selection process. The goal of this study is to estimate the incidence and the causes for temporary or final interruptions during this process for medical reasons. SUBJECTS, MATERIAL AND METHODS: All of the candidates for the November 2015 selection process were included in this prospective study...
July 13, 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
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