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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912133/fate-of-tetracycline-resistance-in-synthetic-livestock-carcass-leachate-for-two-years
#1
Dennis Espineli Salcedo, Sungpyo Kim
To simulate the fate of antibiotic resistance in leachate from anaerobic carcass landfill site, anaerobic reactors were set-up and their antibiotic resistance activities were monitored for 2 years. Initially, Escherichia coli DH5α with tetracycline resistance pB10 plasmid was inoculated in nutrient rich anaerobic reactors. The fate of tetracycline resistant bacteria (TRB) was tracked by analysis using culture-based method, EC50 (half maximal effective concentration), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912056/conflict-resolution-in-the-genome-how-transcription-and-replication-make-it-work
#2
REVIEW
Stephan Hamperl, Karlene A Cimprich
The complex machineries involved in replication and transcription translocate along the same DNA template, often in opposing directions and at different rates. These processes routinely interfere with each other in prokaryotes, and mounting evidence now suggests that RNA polymerase complexes also encounter replication forks in higher eukaryotes. Indeed, cells rely on numerous mechanisms to avoid, tolerate, and resolve such transcription-replication conflicts, and the absence of these mechanisms can lead to catastrophic effects on genome stability and cell viability...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911848/global-analysis-of-genomic-instability-caused-by-dna-replication-stress-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#3
Dao-Qiong Zheng, Ke Zhang, Xue-Chang Wu, Piotr A Mieczkowski, Thomas D Petes
DNA replication stress (DRS)-induced genomic instability is an important factor driving cancer development. To understand the mechanisms of DRS-associated genomic instability, we measured the rates of genomic alterations throughout the genome in a yeast strain with lowered expression of the replicative DNA polymerase δ. By a genetic test, we showed that most recombinogenic DNA lesions were introduced during S or G2 phase, presumably as a consequence of broken replication forks. We observed a high rate of chromosome loss, likely reflecting a reduced capacity of the low-polymerase strains to repair double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs)...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911794/activation-of-mutant-tert-promoter-by-ras-erk-signaling-is-a-key-step-in-malignant-progression-of-braf-mutant-human-melanomas
#4
Yinghui Li, Hui Shan Cheng, Wee Joo Chng, Vinay Tergaonkar
Although activating BRAF/NRAS mutations are frequently seen in melanomas, they are not sufficient to drive malignant transformation and require additional events. Frequent co-occurrence of mutations in the promoter for telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), along with BRAF alterations, has recently been noted and correlated with poorer prognosis, implicating a functional link between BRAF signaling and telomerase reactivation in melanomas. Here, we report that RAS-ERK signaling in BRAF mutant melanomas is critical for regulating active chromatin state and recruitment of RNA polymerase II at mutant TERT promoters...
November 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911772/c-terminal-domain-ctd-phosphatase-links-rho-gtpase-signaling-to-pol-ii-ctd-phosphorylation-in-arabidopsis-and-yeast
#5
Bo Zhang, Guohua Yang, Yu Chen, Yihong Zhao, Peng Gao, Bo Liu, Haiyang Wang, Zhi-Liang Zheng
Rho GTPases, including the Rho, Cdc42, Rac, and ROP subfamilies, act as pivotal signaling switches in various growth and developmental processes. Compared with the well-defined role of cytoskeletal organization in Rho signaling, much less is known regarding transcriptional regulation. In a mutant screen for phenotypic enhancers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing a constitutively active form of ROP2 (designated CA1-1), we identified RNA polymerase II (Pol II) C-terminal domain (CTD) phosphatase-like 1 (CPL1) as a transcriptional regulator of ROP2 signaling...
November 28, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911719/transcription-by-rna-polymerase-iii-insights-into-mechanism-and-regulation
#6
REVIEW
Tomasz W Turowski, David Tollervey
The highly abundant, small stable RNAs that are synthesized by RNA polymerase III (RNAPIII) have key functional roles, particularly in the protein synthesis apparatus. Their expression is metabolically demanding, and is therefore coupled to changing demands for protein synthesis during cell growth and division. Here, we review the regulatory mechanisms that control the levels of RNAPIII transcripts and discuss their potential physiological relevance. Recent analyses have revealed differential regulation of tRNA expression at all steps on its biogenesis, with significant deregulation of mature tRNAs in cancer cells...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909713/age-associated-differences-in-transporter-gene-expression-in-kidneys-of-male-rats
#7
Yong-Ji Xu, Yang Wang, Yuan-Fu Lu, Shang-Fu Xu, Qin Wu, Jie Liu
Kidney transporters are involved in the secretion and reabsorption of endogenous and exogenous molecules. Numerous factors may influence their expression and affect drug disposition, efficacy and toxicity. The present study aimed to examine the development‑ and age‑associated variations in primary renal transporters in rats, including 6 uptake transporters: Organic anion transporter (OAT) 1 and 3, organic cation transporter (OCT) 1, 2 and 3 and organic anion‑transporting polypeptide (OATP) 4C1, and 6 efflux transporters: Multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), multidrug resistance‑associated protein (MRP) 2 and 4, and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein (MATE) 1 and 2‑K...
November 28, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908831/eukaryotic-translational-initiation-factor-4aii-reduces-the-replication-of-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-by-inhibiting-vp1-polymerase-activity
#8
Li Gao, Kai Li, Li Zhong, Lizhou Zhang, Xiaole Qi, Yongqiang Wang, Yulong Gao, Xiaomei Wang
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive avian disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). Although an interaction between eukaryotic translational initiation factor 4AII (eIF4AII) of the host and viral protein 1 (VP1), the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of IBDV, has been established, the underlying effects of this interaction on IBDV and the molecular mechanism remain unclear. We here report that interaction of the host eIF4AII with VP1 inhibits the RNA polymerase activity of IBDV to reduce its replication in host cells...
November 28, 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908532/ram-589-555-a-new-polymerase-1-inhibitor-as-innovative-targeted-treatment-for-multiple-sclerosis
#9
A Achiron, R Zilkha-Falb, R Mashiach, M Gurevich
Targeting Polymerase-1 (POL1) transcription machinery is a new strategy for suppression of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity that is based on suppression of ribosomal biogenesis and subsequent activation of apoptosis. We developed an oral POL1 inhibiting compound RAM-589.555, that suppress ribosomal biogenesis as an innovative therapeutic approach to ameliorate MS. RAM-589.555 shows high permeability, specificity to POL1 pathway, ability to induce apoptosis and to inhibit proliferation and viability of activated lymphocytes both in-vitro and in-vivo...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908235/pentatricopeptide-motifs-in-the-n-terminal-extension-domain-of-yeast-mitochondrial-rna-polymerase-rpo41p-are-not-essential-for-its-function
#10
J Kruszewski, P Golik
The core mitochondrial RNA polymerase is a single-subunit enzyme that in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is encoded by the nuclear RPO41 gene. It is an evolutionary descendant of the bacteriophage RNA polymerases, but it includes an additional unconserved N-terminal extension (NTE) domain that is unique to the organellar enzymes. This domain mediates interactions between the polymerase and accessory regulatory factors, such as yeast Sls1p and Nam1p. Previous studies demonstrated that deletion of the entire NTE domain results only in a temperature-dependent respiratory deficiency...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907201/tumor-necrosis-factor-like-weak-inducer-of-apoptosis-promotes-hepatic-stellate-cells-migration-via-canonical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mmp9-pathway
#11
Mingcui Xu, Feng Zhang, Aixiu Wang, Chen Wang, Yu Cao, Ming Zhang, Mingming Zhang, Min Su, Xiaoping Zou, Guifang Xu, Yuzheng Zhuge
In the liver, the signal and function of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) have mainly been assessed in association with liver regeneration. However, the effects of TWEAK on liver fibrosis have not been fully elucidated. To investigate the effects of TWEAK on human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and to explore the relevant potential mechanisms, human HSCs line-LX-2 were cultured with TWEAK. Cell migration was detected by transwell assay; cell viability was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8; the expression of MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP7, MMP8, MMP9, MMP10, MMP11, MMP12, MMP13 gene was identified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting; the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was tested by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay; small interfering RNA transfection was applied for depletion of MMP9 and p65...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906966/archival-isolates-confirm-a-single-topotype-of-west-nile-virus-in-australia
#12
Bixing Huang, Natalie A Prow, Andrew F van den Hurk, Richard J N Allcock, Peter R Moore, Stephen L Doggett, David Warrilow
West Nile virus is globally wide-spread and causes significant disease in humans and animals. The evolution of West Nile virus Kunjin subtype in Australia (WNVKUN) was investigated using archival samples collected over a period of 50 years. Based on the pattern of fixed amino acid substitutions and time-stamped molecular clock analyses, a single long-term lineage (or topotype) was inferred. This implies that a bottleneck exists such that regional strains eventually die out and are replaced with strains from a single source...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906584/effects-of-the-transforming-growth-factor-beta-signaling-pathway-on-the-differentiation-of-chicken-embryonic-stem-cells-into-male-germ-cells
#13
Yani Zhang, Yingjie Wang, Qisheng Zuo, Dong Li, Wenhui Zhang, Chao Lian, Beibei Tang, Tianrong Xiao, Man Wang, Kehua Wang, Bichun Li
The objectives of the present study were to screen for key gene and signaling pathways involved in the production of male germ cells in poultry and to investigate the effects of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling pathway on the differentiation of chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into male germ cells. The ESCs, primordial germ cells, and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) were sorted using flow cytometry for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) technology. Male chicken ESCs were induced using 40 ng/mL of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)...
November 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906459/integrative-genomic-analysis-identifies-ancestry-related-expression-quantitative-trait-loci-on-dna-polymerase-%C3%AE-and-supports-the-association-of-genetic-ancestry-with-survival-disparities-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#14
Meganathan P Ramakodi, Karthik Devarajan, Elizabeth Blackman, Denise Gibbs, Danièle Luce, Jacqueline Deloumeaux, Suzy Duflo, Jeffrey C Liu, Ranee Mehra, Rob J Kulathinal, Camille C Ragin
BACKGROUND: African Americans with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have a lower survival rate than whites. This study investigated the functional importance of ancestry-informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in HNSCC and also examined the effect of functionally important genetic elements on racial disparities in HNSCC survival. METHODS: Ancestry-informative SNPs, RNA sequencing, methylation, and copy number variation data for 316 oral cavity and laryngeal cancer patients were analyzed across 178 DNA repair genes...
December 1, 2016: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906093/microrna-140-5p-inhibits-colorectal-cancer-invasion-and-metastasis-by-targeting-adamts5-and-igfbp5
#15
Lihui Yu, Ying Lu, Xiaocui Han, Wenyue Zhao, Jiazhi Li, Jun Mao, Bo Wang, Jie Shen, Shujun Fan, Lu Wang, Mei Wang, Lianhong Li, Jianwu Tang, Bo Song
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world. microRNA-140-5p (miR-140) has been shown to be involved in cartilage development and osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. Some contradictions still exist concerning the role of miR-140 in tumor progression and metastasis, and the underlying mechanism is uncertain. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the expressions of ADAMTS5 and IGFBP5 in CRC tissues. Human CRC cell lines HCT116 and RKO were transfected with miR-140 mimic, inhibitor, or small interfering RNA (siRNA) against ADAMTS5 or IGFBP5, respectively, using oligofectamine or lipofectamine 2000...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904706/the-central-role-of-hotair-in-the-malignancy-of-cd44-human-hypopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells
#16
Hongxia Cheng, Xinhua Cui, Ying Guo, Lintao Gu, Yaning Wang, Qirong Wang, Hui Liang
Human hypopharyngeal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors. CD44 could serve as a molecular marker to screen for cancer stem cells (CSCs) in hypopharyngeal cancer. The aim of this study was to identify the role of HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) on cell proliferation and invasion in CD44+ FADU cells (human hypopharyngeal carcinoma cells). We also explored the underlying mechanism contributing to HOTAIR's observed effects. CD44+ FADU cells were sorted and purified by flow cytometry and infected with lentivirus stably expressing HOTAIR shRNA...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904556/the-effect-of-%C3%AF-fatty-acids-on-the-expression-of-phospholipase-a2-group-2a-in-human-gastric-cancer-patients
#17
Mahboube Shariati, Mahmoud Aghaei, Ahmad Movahedian, Mohammad Hosein Somi, Homayun Dolatkhah, Ahmad Mirza Aghazade
BACKGROUND: Studies show that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may have an inhibitory role in carcinogenesis. It was previously shown that PLA2 group 2A (PLA2G2A) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression is associated with less frequent metastasis and longer survival in gastric adenocarcinoma. This study intends to investigate the effect of PUFAs on the expression of PLA2G2A in patients with gastric cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with gastric cancer (GC) were randomly divided into two groups...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904520/a-diagnostic-one-step-real-time-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-method-for-accurate-detection-of-influenza-virus-type-a
#18
Mohammad Amin Behzadi, Mazyar Ziyaeyan, Abdolvahab Alborzi
INTRODUCTION: Influenza A is known as a public health concern worldwide. In this study, a novel one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rtRT-PCR) assay was designed and optimized for the detection of influenza A viruses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The primers and probe were designed based on the analysis of 90 matrix nucleotide sequence data of influenza type A subtypes from the GenBank database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903796/decreased-endometrial-expression-of-leukemia-inhibitory-factor-receptor-disrupts-the-stat3-signaling-in-adenomyosis-during-the-implantation-window
#19
Chih-Feng Yen, Shuen-Kuei Liao, S Joseph Huang, Selcuk Tabak, Felice Arcuri, Chyi-Long Lee, Aydin Arici, Felice Petraglia, Hsin-Shih Wang, Umit A Kayisli
BACKGROUND: Adenomyosis was found to have negative impacts on embryo implantation. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), proposed to be a molecular marker for endometrial receptivity, works through the LIF receptor (LIFR) on both the embryo and the endometrium. We aimed to evaluate the endometrial expression of LIF and LIFR and its subsequent signaling in patients with adenomyosis during the window of implantation (WOI). METHODS: Endometrium was obtained during the WOI from patients with adenomyosis (age <45 years) who underwent hysterectomy and from age-matched controls who had no endometriosis or adenomyosis...
November 30, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903123/drug-priming-enhances-radiosensitivity-of-adamantinomatous-craniopharyngioma-via-downregulation-of-survivin
#20
Christina Stache, Christiane Bils, Rudolf Fahlbusch, Jörg Flitsch, Michael Buchfelder, Harald Stefanits, Thomas Czech, Udo Gaipl, Benjamin Frey, Rolf Buslei, Annett Hölsken
OBJECTIVE In this study, the authors investigated the underlying mechanisms responsible for high tumor recurrence rates of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) after radiotherapy and developed new targeted treatment protocols to minimize recurrence. ACPs are characterized by the activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), known to mediate radioresistance in various tumor entities. The impact of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) gefitinib or CUDC-101 on radiation-induced cell death and associated regulation of survivin gene expression was evaluated...
December 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
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