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Immune dysregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339495/microrna-expression-profiles-identify-disease-specific-alterations-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#1
Ji-Qing Chen, Gábor Papp, Szilárd Póliska, Krisztina Szabó, Tünde Tarr, Bálint László Bálint, Péter Szodoray, Margit Zeher
The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their critical role in genetic control opened new avenues in understanding of various biological processes including immune cell lineage commitment, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. However, a given miRNA may have hundreds of different mRNA targets and a target might be regulated by multiple miRNAs, thus the characterisation of dysregulated miRNA expression profiles could give a better insight into the development of immunological disturbances in autoimmune diseases...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331244/a-novel-role-for-brain-natriuretic-peptide-inhibition-of-il-1%C3%AE-secretion-via-downregulation-of-nf-kb-erk-1-2-and-nalp3-asc-caspase-1-activation-in-human-thp-1-monocyte
#2
Letizia Mezzasoma, Cinzia Antognelli, Vincenzo Nicola Talesa
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a pleiotropic cytokine and a crucial mediator of inflammatory and immune responses. IL-1β processing and release are tightly controlled by complex pathways such as NF-kB/ERK1/2, to produce pro-IL-1β, and NALP3/ASC/Caspase-1 inflammasome, to produce the active secreted protein. Dysregulation of both IL-1β and its related pathways is involved in inflammatory/autoimmune disorders and in a wide range of other diseases. Identifying molecules modulating their expression is a crucial need to develop new therapeutic agents...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331091/ebolaviruses-associated-with-differential-pathogenicity-induce-distinct-host-responses-in-human-macrophages
#3
Judith Olejnik, Adriana Forero, Laure R Deflubé, Adam J Hume, Whitney A Manhart, Andrew Nishida, Andrea Marzi, Michael G Katze, Hideki Ebihara, Angela L Rasmussen, Elke Mühlberger
Ebola virus (EBOV) and Reston virus (RESTV) are members of the Ebolavirus genus which greatly differ in their pathogenicity. While EBOV causes a severe disease in humans characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response and elevated cytokine and chemokine production, there are no reported disease-associated human cases of RESTV infection, suggesting that RESTV is non-pathogenic for humans. The underlying mechanisms determining the pathogenicity of different ebolavirus species are not yet known. In this study we dissect the host response to EBOV and RESTV infection in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330785/the-interplay-between-angiotensin-ii-tlr4-and-hypertension
#4
REVIEW
Vinicia Campana Biancardi, Gisele Facholi Bomfim, Wagner Luis Reis, Sarah Al-Gassimi, Kenia Pedrosa Nunes
Hypertension is a multifactorial disease. Although a number of different underlying mechanisms have been learned from the various experimental models of the disease, hypertension still poses challenges for treatment. Angiotensin II plays an unquestionable role in blood pressure regulation acting through central and peripheral mechanisms. During hypertension, dysregulation of the Renin-Angiotensin System is associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species causing kidney damage, endothelial dysfunction, and increase in sympathetic activity, among other damages, eventually leading to decline in organ function...
March 19, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330758/regulation-of-type-i-interferon-signaling-in-immunity-and-inflammation-a-comprehensive-review
#5
REVIEW
Kun Chen, Juan Liu, Xuetao Cao
Type I interferons (IFNs) play essential roles in establishing and modulating host defense against microbial infection via induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) through Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway. However, dysregulation of IFNs production and function could also mediate immune pathogenesis such as inflammatory autoimmune diseases and infectious diseases via aberrantly activating inflammatory responses or improperly suppressing microbial controls...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330496/calcium-dysregulation-functional-calpainopathy-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-sporadic-inclusion-body-myositis
#6
David R Amici, Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Davi A G Mázala, Thomas E Lloyd, Andrea M Corse, Lisa Christopher-Stine, Andrew L Mammen, Eva R Chin
Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most common primary myopathy in the elderly, but its pathoetiology is still unclear. Perturbed myocellular calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis can exacerbate many of the factors proposed to mediate muscle degeneration in IBM, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Ca(2+) dysregulation may plausibly be initiated in IBM by immune-mediated membrane damage and/or abnormally accumulating proteins, but no studies to date have investigated Ca(2+) regulation in IBM patients...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329667/serious-infections-are-on-the-rise-in-us-inpatients-with-psoriasis
#7
Derek Y Hsu
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder associated with immune dysregulation and use of systemic immunosuppressive treatments that may predispose toward serious infections. We sought to determine the rates of serious infections in hospitalized patients with psoriasis. We analyzed data from the 2002-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, containing a 20% sample of all US hospitalizations. Psoriasis was determined by a validated algorithm using ICD-9-CM codes. In multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for socio-demographics, psoriasis was associated with multiple serious infections, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (odds ratio [95% confidence intervals] 1...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329554/eosinophilic-dermatosis-of-hematologic-malignancy
#8
Kathryn Martires, Shields Callahan, Vitaly Terushkin, Nooshin Brinster, Marie Leger, Nicholas A Soter
We report a 68-year-old woman with chroniclymphocytic leukemia, who developed numerous,pruritic, edematous, and vesicobullous skin lesionsof the face and extremities over the course of severalmonths. The diagnosis of eosinophilic dermatosis ofhematologic malignancy (EDHM) was made basedon the clinical history and histopathologic features.Owing to the possible link between EDHM and amore aggressive underlying CLL, she was startedagain on chemotherapy. This case serves as areminder that, although the precise pathogenesis ofEDHM remains unclear, the paraneoplastic disorderis the result of immune dysregulation...
December 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326084/hiv-infection-and-compromised-mucosal-immunity-oral-manifestations-and-systemic-inflammation
#9
REVIEW
Samantha E Heron, Shokrollah Elahi
Mucosal surfaces account for the vast majority of HIV transmission. In adults, HIV transmission occurs mainly by vaginal and rectal routes but rarely via oral route. By contrast, pediatric HIV infections could be as the result of oral route by breastfeeding. As such mucosal surfaces play a crucial role in HIV acquisition, and spread of the virus depends on its ability to cross a mucosal barrier. HIV selectively infects, depletes, and/or dysregulates multiple arms of the human immune system particularly at the mucosal sites and causes substantial irreversible damage to the mucosal barriers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325862/reduced-pu-1-expression-underlies-aberrant-neutrophil-maturation-and-function-in-%C3%AE-thalassemia-mice-and-patients
#10
Panjaree Siwaponanan, Jurre Ynze Siegers, Razi Ghazali, Thian Ng, Bradley McColl, Garrett Zhen-Wei Ng, Philip Sutton, Nancy Wang, Isabelle Ooi, Chayada Thiengtavor, Suthat Fucharoen, Pornthip Chaichompoo, Saovaros Svasti, Odilia Louise Wijburg, Jim Vadolas
β-Thalassemia is associated with several abnormalities of the innate immune system. Neutrophils in particular are defective, predisposing patients to life-threatening bacterial infections. The molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in impaired neutrophil function remain incompletely defined. We used the Hbb(th3/+) β-thalassemia mouse and HbE/β-thalassemia patients to investigate dysregulated neutrophil activity. Mature neutrophils from Hbb(th3/+) mice displayed a significant reduction in chemotaxis, opsonophagocytosis and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), closely mimicking the defective immune functions observed in β-thalassemia patients...
March 21, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325688/current-and-emerging-molecular-tests-for-human-papillomavirus-related-neoplasia-in-the-genomic-era
#11
REVIEW
Sixto M Leal, Margaret L Gulley
Laboratory tests have a key role in preventing human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven carcinomas and in guiding therapeutic interventions. An understanding of the virology, immunology, and carcinogenesis of HPV is essential for choosing appropriate diagnostic test modalities and developing new and even more effective cancer prevention strategies. HPV infects basal epithelial cells on multiple surfaces and induces carcinoma primarily in the cervix and the oropharynx. HPV types are stratified as high risk or low risk based on their carcinogenic potential, driven largely by viral interference with cell cycle regulation and the DNA damage response to promote continuous cell division while thwarting apoptosis, which enables mutation accumulation...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325211/stat-transcription-factors-in-t-cell-control-of-health-and-disease
#12
R Goswami, M H Kaplan
The Jak-STAT pathway is one of many pleiotropic signaling pathways that plays an important role in organismal development and in response to changing environmental cues. As a key signaling cascade for cytokines and growth factors, Jak-STAT plays central role in the innate and adaptive immune system. Cytokines control the stability, commitment, and maturation of cytotoxic and helper T cells, parts of the adaptive immune system that mediate immunity to pathogens and are linked to inflammatory diseases. Dysregulation of Jak-STAT protein expression or function leads to autoimmunity, allergic diseases, and cancer...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323284/altered-peripheral-immune-profiles-in-treatment-resistant-depression-response-to-ketamine-and-prediction-of-treatment-outcome
#13
D D Kiraly, S R Horn, N T Van Dam, S Costi, J Schwartz, S Kim-Schulze, M Patel, G E Hodes, S J Russo, M Merad, D V Iosifescu, D S Charney, J W Murrough
A subset of patients with depression have elevated levels of inflammatory cytokines, and some studies demonstrate interaction between inflammatory factors and treatment outcome. However, most studies focus on only a narrow subset of factors in a patient sample. In the current study, we analyzed broad immune profiles in blood from patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) at baseline and following treatment with the glutamate modulator ketamine. Serum was analyzed from 26 healthy control and 33 actively depressed TRD patients free of antidepressant medication, and matched for age, sex and body mass index...
March 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323147/increase-of-circulating-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-conventional-memory-cd4-and-regulatory-t-cells-in-patients-with-common-variable-immunodeficiency-cvid
#14
Karina Mescouto de Melo, Susanne Unger, Baerbel Keller, Sylvia Gutenberger, Ina Stumpf, Sigune Goldacker, Klaus Warnatz
This study investigated whether circulating α4β7(+) expressing T cells could serve as a potential marker for gastrointestinal (GI) disease activity in patients with CVID. The analysis of α4β7(+) T cells in the peripheral blood of 36 patients and 22 healthy donors (HD) revealed increased percentages of α4β7(+) conventional memory CD4 T cells and Tregs, but not among CD8 T-cell populations in patients with CVID compared to HD. No differences between patients with and without chronic or acute GI symptoms were observed...
March 17, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322484/tfe3-positive-renal-cell-carcinoma-occurring-in-three-children-with-dysfunctional-kidneys-on-immunosuppression
#15
Beverly A Schaefer, Theodore S Johnson, David K Hooper, Jaimie D Nathan, James I Geller
Pediatric RCC is a rare pediatric neoplasm and is distinctly different compared to adult RCC, often demonstrating translocation morphology evidenced by unique histopathological features and TFE3 or TFEB nuclear expression. We report three cases of pediatric TFE3 positive RCC (TFE3-RCC) occurring in the setting of chronic kidney disease and long-term pharmacological immunosuppression, including two cases that developed in the native kidney following kidney transplantation. Together, these cases suggest that the kidney microenvironment in combination with immune dysregulation is likely contributing factors in the pathogenesis of some pediatric RCC, warranting further study...
March 21, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322282/maternal-immune-activation-dysregulation-of-the-fetal-brain-transcriptome-and-relevance-to-the-pathophysiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
M V Lombardo, H M Moon, J Su, T D Palmer, E Courchesne, T Pramparo
Maternal immune activation (MIA) via infection during pregnancy is known to increase risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, it is unclear how MIA disrupts fetal brain gene expression in ways that may explain this increased risk. Here we examine how MIA dysregulates rat fetal brain gene expression (at a time point analogous to the end of the first trimester of human gestation) in ways relevant to ASD-associated pathophysiology. MIA downregulates expression of ASD-associated genes, with the largest enrichments in genes known to harbor rare highly penetrant mutations...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322275/oxidative-stress-driven-parvalbumin-interneuron-impairment-as-a-common-mechanism-in-models-of-schizophrenia
#17
P Steullet, J-H Cabungcal, J Coyle, M Didriksen, K Gill, A A Grace, T K Hensch, A-S LaMantia, L Lindemann, T M Maynard, U Meyer, H Morishita, P O'Donnell, M Puhl, M Cuenod, K Q Do
Parvalbumin inhibitory interneurons (PVIs) are crucial for maintaining proper excitatory/inhibitory balance and high-frequency neuronal synchronization. Their activity supports critical developmental trajectories, sensory and cognitive processing, and social behavior. Despite heterogeneity in the etiology across schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder, PVI circuits are altered in these psychiatric disorders. Identifying mechanism(s) underlying PVI deficits is essential to establish treatments targeting in particular cognition...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322270/huntington-s-disease-blood-and-brain-show-a-common-gene-expression-pattern-and-share-an-immune-signature-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Davina J Hensman Moss, Michael D Flower, Kitty K Lo, James R C Miller, Gert-Jan B van Ommen, Peter A C 't Hoen, Timothy C Stone, Amelia Guinee, Douglas R Langbehn, Lesley Jones, Vincent Plagnol, Willeke M C van Roon-Mom, Peter Holmans, Sarah J Tabrizi
There is widespread transcriptional dysregulation in Huntington's disease (HD) brain, but analysis is inevitably limited by advanced disease and postmortem changes. However, mutant HTT is ubiquitously expressed and acts systemically, meaning blood, which is readily available and contains cells that are dysfunctional in HD, could act as a surrogate for brain tissue. We conducted an RNA-Seq transcriptomic analysis using whole blood from two HD cohorts, and performed gene set enrichment analysis using public databases and weighted correlation network analysis modules from HD and control brain datasets...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322172/immune-neuroendocrine-dysregulation-in-patients-with-osteoarthritis-a-revision-and-a-pilot-study
#19
Isabel Gálvez, Silvia Torres-Piles, María Dolores Hinchado, Alberto Álvarez-Barrientos, Pilar Torralbo-Jiménez, Jorge Guerrero, Leticia Martín-Cordero, Eduardo Ortega
BACKGROUND: Although osteoarthritis has predominantly been considered a non-inflammatory degenerative arthropathy, there is growing evidence that various inflammatory and immunological processes might contribute to the onset, progression, and burden of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present investigation was to study the systemic inflammatory and stress responses and the innate response mediated by neutrophils in OA patients. METHOD: A group of patients diagnosed with primary OA according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria and a control group of age-matched healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study...
March 20, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320465/reduced-microbial-diversity-in-adult-survivors-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-and-microbial-associations-with-increased-immune-activation
#20
Ling Ling Chua, Reena Rajasuriar, Mohamad Shafiq Azanan, Noor Kamila Abdullah, Mei San Tang, Soo Ching Lee, Yin Ling Woo, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Hany Ariffin, P'ng Loke
BACKGROUND: Adult survivors of childhood cancers such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have health problems that persist or develop years after cessation of therapy. These late effects include chronic inflammation-related comorbidities such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, but the underlying cause is poorly understood. RESULTS: We compared the anal microbiota composition of adult survivors of childhood ALL (N = 73) with healthy control subjects (N = 61)...
March 20, 2017: Microbiome
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