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Immune dysregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811623/immune-dysregulation-in-patients-with-carpal-tunnel-syndrome
#1
Gila Moalem-Taylor, Benny Baharuddin, Barbara Bennett, Arun V Krishnan, William Huynh, Matthew C Kiernan, Cindy Shin-Yi Lin, Boaz Shulruf, Elizabeth Keoshkerian, Barbara Cameron, Andrew Lloyd
Peripheral immunity plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis and conferring crucial neuroprotective effects on the injured nervous system, while at the same time may contribute to increased vulnerability to neuropathic pain. Little is known about the reciprocal relationship between entrapment neuropathy and peripheral immunity. This study investigated immune profile in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the most prevalent entrapment neuropathy. All patients exhibited neurophysiological abnormalities in the median nerve, with the majority reporting neuropathic pain symptoms...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807995/regulation-of-the-cell-cycle-and-inflammatory-arthritis-by-the-transcription-cofactor-lbh-gene
#2
Shinji Matsuda, Deepa Hammaker, Katharyn Topolewski, Karoline J Briegel, David L Boyle, Steven Dowdy, Wei Wang, Gary S Firestein
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) display unique aggressive behavior, invading the articular cartilage and promoting inflammation. Using an integrative analysis of RA risk alleles, the transcriptome and methylome in RA FLS, we recently identified the limb bud and heart development (LBH) gene as a key dysregulated gene in RA and other autoimmune diseases. Although some evidence suggests that LBH could modulate the cell cycle, the precise mechanism is unknown and its impact on inflammation in vivo has not been defined...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805308/lymphocyte-profile-and-cytokine-mrna-expression-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-patients-with-recurrent-respiratory-papillomatosis-suggest-dysregulated-cytokine-mrna-response-and-impaired-cytotoxic-capacity
#3
Anna Holm, Olga Nagaeva, Ivan Nagaev, Christos Loizou, Göran Laurell, Lucia Mincheva-Nilsson, Karin Nylander, Katarina Olofsson
OBJECTIVES: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a relatively rare, chronic disease caused by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) 6 and 11, and characterized by wart-like lesions in the airway affecting voice and respiratory function. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic and resolve spontaneously, however, some individuals are afflicted with persistent HPV infections. Failure to eliminate HPV 6 and 11 due to a defect immune responsiveness to these specific genotypes is proposed to play a major role in the development of RRP...
August 14, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804483/the-impact-of-western-diet-and-nutrients-on-the-microbiota-and-immune-response-at-mucosal-interfaces
#4
REVIEW
Donjete Statovci, Mònica Aguilera, John MacSharry, Silvia Melgar
Recent findings point toward diet having a major impact on human health. Diets can either affect the gut microbiota resulting in alterations in the host's physiological responses or by directly targeting the host response. The microbial community in the mammalian gut is a complex and dynamic system crucial for the development and maturation of both systemic and mucosal immune responses. Therefore, the complex interaction between available nutrients, the microbiota, and the immune system are central regulators in maintaining homeostasis and fighting against invading pathogens at mucosal sites...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801359/ccr7-deficiency-allows-accelerated-clearance-of-chlamydia-from-the-female-reproductive-tract
#5
Lin-Xi Li, Jasmine C Labuda, Denise M Imai, Stephen M Griffey, Stephen J McSorley
Immune mechanisms responsible for pathogen clearance from the female reproductive tract (FRT) are incompletely defined; in particular, the contribution of lymphocyte trafficking to this process is unclear. CCR7-deficient mice have profoundly altered lymphocyte recirculation and display ectopic formation of lymphocyte aggregates within mucosal nonlymphoid tissues, including the FRT. In this study, we investigated how altered lymphocyte distribution in CCR7-deficient mice would affect host responses to Chlamydia muridarum within the reproductive tract...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798244/atypical-haemolytic-uremic-syndrome-ahus-and-membranoproliferative-glomerulonephritis-mpgn-different-diseases-or-a-spectrum-of-complement-mediated-glomerular-diseases
#6
Ghada A Ankawi, William F Clark
Historically, patients with kidney diseases caused by genetic or acquired dysregulation of the complement alternative pathway have been grouped into clinical syndromes, C3 glomerulopathy (C3GN/DDD) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA), specifically atypical haemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). Recent data suggested that these diseases share a common pathophysiology and that patients can transition between glomerulopathies in this spectrum. Histopathologically, the main difference cited is the immunofluorescence (IF) findings, with C3 predominance in C3 glomerulopathy (compared with immunoglobulins and complements in immune complex-mediated membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN)) and negative IF in TMA...
August 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797028/characterisation-of-the-cancer-associated-glucocorticoid-system-key-role-of-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-2
#7
Nicola Cirillo, David J Morgan, Maria Carmela Pedicillo, Antonio Celentano, Lorenzo Lo Muzio, Michael J McCullough, Stephen S Prime
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that production of cortisol not only takes place in several non-adrenal peripheral tissues such as epithelial cells but, also, the local inter-conversion between cortisone and cortisol is regulated by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSDs). However, little is known about the activity of this non-adrenal glucocorticoid system in cancers. METHODS: The presence of a functioning glucocorticoid system was assessed in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma and further, in 16 epithelial cell lines from 8 different tissue types using ELISA, western blotting and immunofluorescence...
August 10, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796256/tnf%C3%AE-deficiency-results-in-increased-il-1%C3%AE-in-an-early-onset-of-spontaneous-murine-colitis
#8
S De Santis, D Kunde, V Galleggiante, M Liso, L Scandiffio, G Serino, A Pinto, P Campiglia, R Sorrentino, E Cavalcanti, A Santino, M L Caruso, R Eri, M Chieppa
Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)) is a multifactorial disease resulting from immune dysregulation in the gut. The underlying colitis is characterized by high levels of inflammatory cytokines, including TNFα. Biological intervention for IBD patients using anti-TNFα antibodies is often an effective therapeutic solution. However, TNFα neutralization fails to induce remission in a subgroup of IBD patients, primarily in UC patients. There is a dearth of suitable animal models representing TNFα non-responders...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791291/atopic-dermatitis-studies-through-in-vitro-models
#9
REVIEW
Evelyne De Vuyst, Michel Salmon, Céline Evrard, Catherine Lambert de Rouvroit, Yves Poumay
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a complex inflammatory skin condition that is not fully understood. Epidermal barrier defects and Th2 immune response dysregulations are thought to play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. A vicious circle takes place between these alterations, and it can further be complicated by additional genetic and environmental factors. Studies investigating in more depth the etiology of the disease are thus needed in order to develop functional treatments. In recent years, there have been significant advances regarding in vitro models reproducing important features of AD...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791018/genetic-and-functional-associations-with-decreased-anti-inflammatory-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-induced-protein-3-in-macrophages-from-subjects-with-axial-spondyloarthritis
#10
Yiping Liu, Zhan Ye, Xiang Li, Jennifer L Anderson, Mike Khan, Douglas DaSilva, Marissa Baron, Deborah Wilson, Vera Bocoun, Lynn C Ivacic, Steven J Schrodi, Judith A Smith
OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) is an anti-inflammatory protein implicated in multiple autoimmune and rheumatologic conditions. We hypothesized that lower levels of TNFAIP3 contributes to excessive cytokine production in response to inflammatory stimuli in axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA). A further aim was to determine the immune signaling and genetic variation regulating TNFAIP3 expression in individual subjects. METHODS: Blood-derived macrophages from 50 AxSpA subjects and 30 healthy controls were assessed for TNFAIP3 expression...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789997/environmentally-relevant-level-of-aflatoxin-b1-elicits-toxic-pro-inflammatory-response-in-murine-cns-derived-cells
#11
Jalil Mehrzad, Amir Mohammad Malvandi, Mohsen Alipour, Saman Hosseinkhani
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a well-known member of aflatoxins (AFs) that is considered among highly stable toxic contaminants of food, worldwide. The impact of AFB1 on neural cells and systems has poorly been understood. To assess the cellular effects of AFB1 on brain, we used murine pure primary astrocytes, sub ventricular zone-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs) and microglia cell line (BV2). Cells were exposed separately to environmentally relevant level (20ng/ml) of AFB1 for 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48h in culture...
August 5, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783685/homodimerization-attenuates-the-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-interleukin-37
#12
Andrew M Ellisdon, Claudia A Nold-Petry, Laura D'Andrea, Steven X Cho, Jason C Lao, Ina Rudloff, Devi Ngo, Camden Y Lo, Tatiana P Soares da Costa, Matthew A Perugini, Paul J Conroy, James C Whisstock, Marcel F Nold
Dysregulation of the inflammatory response underlies numerous diseases. Although most interleukin-1 family cytokines are proinflammatory, human interleukin-37 (IL-37) is a powerful, broad-spectrum inhibitor of inflammation and immunity. We determined the crystal structure of IL-37 to establish the anti-inflammatory mechanism of this key cytokine in view of developing IL-37-based therapies. We found that two β-trefoil fold IL-37 molecules form a head-to-head dimer that is stable in solution. IL-37 variants mutated to convert the cytokine into an obligate monomer were up to 13-fold more effective than the dimer in suppressing proinflammatory events both in primary human blood cells and in vivo in murine endotoxic shock...
February 10, 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783170/loss-of-claudin-3-expression-induces-il6-gp130-stat3-signaling-to-promote-colon-cancer-malignancy-by-hyperactivating-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#13
R Ahmad, B Kumar, Z Chen, X Chen, D Müller, S M Lele, M K Washington, S K Batra, P Dhawan, A B Singh
The hyperactivated Wnt/β-catenin signaling acts as a switch to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition and promote colorectal cancer. However, due to its essential role in gut homeostasis, therapeutic targeting of this pathway has proven challenging. Additionally, IL-6/Stat-3 signaling, activated by microbial translocation through the dysregulated mucosal barrier in colon adenomas, facilitates the adenoma to adenocarcinomas transition. However, inter-dependence between these signaling pathways and key mucosal barrier components in regulating colon tumorigenesis and cancer progression remains unclear...
August 7, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777886/lower-levels-of-il-1%C3%AE-gene-expression-are-associated-with-impaired-langerhans-cell-migration-in-aged-human-skin
#14
Suzanne M Pilkington, Stephanie Ogden, Laura Eaton, Rebecca J Dearman, Ian Kimber, Christopher Em Griffiths
Langerhans' cells (LC) play pivotal roles in skin immune responses, linking innate and adaptive immunity. In aged skin there are fewer LC and migration is impaired compared with young skin. These changes may contribute to declining skin immunity in the elderly, including increased skin infections and skin cancer. Interleukin (IL)-1β and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α are mandatory signals for LC migration and previous studies suggest IL-1β signalling may be dysregulated in aged skin. Therefore, we sought to explore the mechanisms underlying these phenomena...
August 4, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777013/investigational-drugs-for-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#15
Francesco Varone, Giuliano Montemurro, Francesco Macagno, Mariarosaria Calvello, Emanuele Conte, Enrica Intini, Bruno Iovene, Paolo Maria Leone, Pier-Valerio Mari, Luca Richeldi
IPF is a specific form of chronic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia of unknown cause, characterized by progressive worsening in lung function and an unfavorable prognosis. Current concepts on IPF pathogenesis are based on a dysregulated wound healing response, leading to an over production of extracellular matrix. Based on recent research however, several other mechanisms are now proposed as potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies. Areas covered: This review analyzes the current investigational strategies targeting extracellular matrix deposition, tyrosine-kinase antagonism, immune and autoimmune response, and cell-based therapy...
August 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776083/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-a-hyperglycaemia-and-insulin-resistance-induced-heart-disease
#16
REVIEW
Guanghong Jia, Adam Whaley-Connell, James R Sowers
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterised in its early stages by diastolic relaxation abnormalities and later by clinical heart failure in the absence of dyslipidaemia, hypertension and coronary artery disease. Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinaemia and hyperglycaemia are each independent risk factors for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The pathophysiological factors in diabetes that drive the development of cardiomyopathy include systemic metabolic disorders, inappropriate activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, subcellular component abnormalities, oxidative stress, inflammation and dysfunctional immune modulation...
August 3, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774781/estrogen-signaling-deregulation-related-with-local-immune-response-modulation-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Damian Jacenik, Adam I Cygankiewicz, Jakub Fichna, Anna Mokrowiecka, Ewa Małecka-Panas, Wanda M Krajewska
The etiology and pathogenesis underlying irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common gastrointestinal disorder are still unclear. Cumulating data suggest dysregulation of inflammatory and immune response pathways and changes of epithelial barrier function. The role of estrogens albeit varied, in responses of immune system is well documented. The aim of this study was to investigate estrogen receptors engagment in IBS subtypes, i.e. constipation predominant (IBS-C) and diarrhea predominant (IBS-D). Furthermore, we analyzed whether estrogen signaling is accompanied by alteration in expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and microRNAs that can regulate among others genes involved in immune responses...
July 31, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774417/treatment-of-hepatitis-b-virus-with-combination-therapy-now-and-in-the-future
#18
REVIEW
Joel S Emery, Jordan J Feld
Chronic Hepatitis B continues as a significant public health problem despite the availability of safe and effective antivirals and a highly effective protective vaccine. Current therapy, however rarely leads to cure and lifelong therapy is often required, contributing to poor uptake and ongoing morbidity. New insights into the hepatitis B viral life cycle and the host immune response have expanded the potential targets for drug therapies with interesting antiviral candidates and novel immunotherapeutic approaches in early stage development...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774416/new-treatments-to-reach-functional-cure-rationale-and-challenges-for-emerging-immune-based-therapies
#19
REVIEW
Adam J Gehring
The landscape for chronic HBV therapy is rapidly evolving. The latest generation of antiviral drugs provide robust virus suppression with a high barrier to resistance that facilitates long-term treatment. However, low rates of HBsAg loss demonstrate that additional strategies are needed to consistency achieve a functional cure. The immune system can clear HBV and establish long-term control over the virus. Sufficiently boosting HBV immunity in chronic patients has been very difficult due to immune exhaustion, immune dysregulation, and inhibitory pathways suppressing the immune response...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774337/pd-1-pd-l-blockade-in-gastrointestinal-cancers-lessons-learned-and-the-road-toward-precision-immunotherapy
#20
REVIEW
Junyu Long, Jianzhen Lin, Anqiang Wang, Liangcai Wu, Yongchang Zheng, Xiaobo Yang, Xueshuai Wan, Haifeng Xu, Shuguang Chen, Haitao Zhao
Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are the most prevalent tumors worldwide, with increasing incidence and mortality. Although surgical resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and molecular targeted therapy have led to significant advances in the treatment of GI cancer patients, overall survival is still low. Therefore, alternative strategies must be identified to improve patient outcomes. In the tumor microenvironment, tumor cells can escape the host immune response through the interaction of PD-1 and PD-L, which inhibits the function of T cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes while increasing the function of immunosuppressive T regulatory cells...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
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