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Immune dysregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214857/epigenetic-alterations-in-cellular-immunity-new-insights-into-autoimmune-diseases
#1
Zijun Wang, Qianjin Lu, Zhihui Wang
Epigenetic modification is an additional regulator in immune responses as the genome-wide profiling somehow fails to explain the sophisticated mechanisms in autoimmune diseases. The effect of epigenetic modifications on adaptive immunity derives from their regulations to induce a permissive or negative gene expression. Epigenetic events, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs) are often found in T cell activation, differentiation and commitment which are the major parts in cellular immunity...
February 8, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208028/early-life-wildfire-smoke-exposure-is-associated-with-immune-dysregulation-and-lung-function-decrements-in-adolescence
#2
Carolyn Black, Joan E Gerriets, Justin H Fontaine, Richart W Harper, Nicholas J Kenyon, Fern Tablin, Edward S Schelegle, Lisa A Miller
RATIONALE: The long-term health effects of wildfire smoke exposure in pediatric populations are not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine if early life exposure to wildfire smoke can affect parameters of immunity and airways physiology that are detectable with maturity. METHODS: We studied a mixed gender cohort of rhesus macaque monkeys that were exposed as infants to ambient wood smoke from a series of Northern California wildfires in the summer of 2008...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205579/tim-3-inhibits-macrophage-control-of-listeria-monocytogenes-by-inhibiting-nrf2
#3
Zhiding Wang, Dejun Sun, Guojiang Chen, Ge Li, Shuaijie Dou, Renxi Wang, He Xiao, Chunmei Hou, Yan Li, Jiannan Feng, Beifen Shen, Gencheng Han
T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) is an immune checkpoint inhibitor and its dysregulation has been related to T cell tolerance and many immune disorders, such as tumors and infection tolerance. However, the physiopathology roles of Tim-3 in innate immunity remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that Tim-3 inhibits macrophage phagocytosis of L. monocytogenes by inhibiting the nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway and increases bacterial burden. Tim-3 signaling promotes Nrf2 degradation by increasing its ubiquitination and, as a result, decreasing its nuclear translocation...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198424/human-ido-competent-long-lived-immunoregulatory-dendritic-cells-induced-by-intracellular-pathogen-and-their-fate-in-humanized-mice
#4
Rajeev K Tyagi, Brodie Miles, Rajesh Parmar, Neeraj K Garg, Sarat K Dalai, Babak Baban, Christopher W Cutler
Targeting of myeloid-dendritic cell receptor DC-SIGN by numerous chronic infectious agents, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, is shown to drive-differentiation of monocytes into dysfunctional mDCs. These mDCs exhibit alterations of their fine-tuned homeostatic function and contribute to dysregulated immune-responses. Here, we utilize P. gingivalis mutant strains to show that pathogen-differentiated mDCs from primary human-monocytes display anti-apoptotic profile, exhibited by elevated phosphorylated-Foxo1, phosphorylated-Akt1, and decreased Bim-expression...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198028/proinflammatory-chemokines-are-major-mediators-of-exuberant-immune-response-associated-with-influenza-a-h1n1-pdm09-virus-infection
#5
Maria Thomas, Reeta Subramaniam Mani, Mariamma Philip, Ranjeeta Adhikary, Sangeeta Joshi, Srigiri S Revadi, Shashidhar Buggi, Anita Desai, Ravi Vasanthapuram
In India, the case fatality ratio of the pandemic A (H1N1) pdm09 influenza was relatively higher when compared to seasonal influenza A infection. Hypercytokinemia or "cytokine storm" has been previously implicated in the pathogenesis of other influenza viruses. The present study was undertaken to compare the cytokine profiles of A (H1N1) pdm09 influenza and seasonal H3 infection in Indian population and to correlate the findings with disease severity. Plasma levels of 18 cytokines/chemokines were measured by flow-cytometry using a bead based assay in patients infected with A (H1N1) pdm09 virus (n = 96) and Influenza A seasonal H3 virus (n = 30) categorised into mild, moderate and severe groups along with healthy controls (n = 36)...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197923/viral-interplay-with-the-host-sumoylation-system
#6
Van G Wilson
Viruses have evolved elaborate means to regulate diverse cellular pathways in order to create a cellular environment that facilitates viral survival and reproduction. This includes enhancing viral macromolecular synthesis and assembly, as well as preventing antiviral responses, including intrinsic, innate, and adaptive immunity. There are numerous mechanisms by which viruses mediate their effects on the host cell, and this includes targeting various cellular post-translational modification systems, including sumoylation...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197769/confounding-effects-of-microbiome-on-the-susceptibility-of-tnfsf15-to-crohn-s-disease-in-the-ryukyu-islands
#7
Shigeki Nakagome, Hiroshi Chinen, Atsushi Iraha, Akira Hokama, Yasuaki Takeyama, Shotaro Sakisaka, Toshiyuki Matsui, Judith R Kidd, Kenneth K Kidd, Heba S Said, Wataru Suda, Hidetoshi Morita, Masahira Hattori, Tsunehiko Hanihara, Ryosuke Kimura, Hajime Ishida, Jiro Fujita, Fukunori Kinjo, Shuhei Mano, Hiroki Oota
Crohn's disease (CD) involves chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract due to dysregulation of the host immune response to the gut microbiome. Even though the host-microbiome interactions are likely contributors to the development of CD, a few studies have detected genetic variants that change bacterial compositions and increase CD risk. We focus on one of the well-replicated susceptible genes, tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 15 (TNFSF15), and apply statistical analyses for personal profiles of genotypes and salivary microbiota collected from CD cases and controls in the Ryukyu Islands, southernmost islands of the Japanese archipelago...
February 14, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197386/deficiency-of-the-immunostimulatory-cytokine-il-21-promotes-intestinal-neoplasia-via-dysregulation-of-the-th1-th17-axis
#8
Mia Shapiro, Bisweswar Nandi, Gabriel Gonzalez, Rao H Prabhala, Hiroshi Mashimo, Qin Huang, Natasha Y Frank, Nikhil C Munshi, Jason S Gold
IL-21 has reported activity in promoting both Th1 and Th17 immune responses. Its role in sporadic human colorectal cancer is unknown. We aimed to delineate the role of IL-21 in a model of sporadic intestinal carcinogenesis. We found that in APC(MIN/+) mice, ablation of IL-21 increased intestinal tumorigenesis. Expression of pro-inflammatory Th17-associated genes, including RORγt and IL-17A, was increased in the intestine in the absence of IL-21, while expression of antitumor Th1-associated genes Tbet, IFNγ, granzyme B, and perforin was decreased...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197363/small-gtpase-rbj-promotes-cancer-progression-by-mobilizing-mdscs-via-il-6
#9
Qiuyan Liu, Ha Zhu, Chaoxiong Zhang, Taoyong Chen, Xuetao Cao
RBJ has been identified to be dysregulated in gastrointestinal cancer and promotes tumorigenesis and progression by mediating nuclear accumulation of active MEK1/2 and sustained activation of ERK1/2. Considering that nuclear accumulation and constitutive activation of MEK/ERK not only promotes tumor progression directly, but also induces chronic inflammation, we wonder whether and how RBJ impairs host immune-surveillance via chronic inflammation and consequently supports tumor progression. Here, we report that higher expression of RBJ in human breast cancer tissue has been significantly correlated with poorer prognosis in breast cancer patients...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196763/il-33-dysregulates-regulatory-t-treg-cells-and-impairs-established-immunological-tolerance-in-the-lungs
#10
Chien-Chang Chen, Takao Kobayashi, Koji Iijima, Fan-Chi Hsu, Hirohito Kita
BACKGROUND: Airway exposure to environmental antigens generally leads to immunological tolerance. A fundamental question remains: why is airway tolerance compromised in patients with allergic airway diseases? Interleukin (IL)-33 promotes innate and adaptive type 2 immunity and may provide the answer to this question. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to investigate the roles IL-33 plays in altering regulatory T (Treg) cells in the lungs and in affecting previously established airway immunological tolerance...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195747/do-aging-factors-influence-the-clinical-presentation-and-management-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#11
Axel E Renteria, Leandra Mfuna Endam, Martin Desrosiers
Objective/Hypothesis Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a complex inflammatory disease of the upper respiratory airways resulting from the dysregulation of immunity and epithelial defenses. More recently, the contribution of an altered nasal microbiome to the development of CRS has also been proposed. However, the impact of aging on the development of CRS has been long overlooked. Here we propose, in a hypothesis piece, that aging can influence the physiopathology of CRS and its subsequent management in an elderly population...
February 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195242/the-alternative-complement-pathway-is-dysregulated-in-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#12
Negar Shahini, Annika E Michelsen, Per H Nilsson, Karin Ekholt, Lars Gullestad, Kaspar Broch, Christen P Dahl, Pål Aukrust, Thor Ueland, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Arne Yndestad, Mieke C Louwe
The complement system, an important arm of the innate immune system, is activated in heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that HF patients are characterized by an imbalance of alternative amplification loop components; including properdin and complement factor D and the alternative pathway inhibitor factor H. These components and the activation product, terminal complement complex (TCC), were measured in plasma from 188 HF patients and 67 age- and sex- matched healthy controls by enzyme immunoassay. Our main findings were: (i) Compared to controls, patients with HF had significantly increased levels of factor D and TCC, and decreased levels of properdin, particularly patients with advanced clinical disorder (i...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194024/regnase-1-a-rapid-response-ribonuclease-regulating-inflammation-and-stress-responses
#13
REVIEW
Renfang Mao, Riyun Yang, Xia Chen, Edward W Harhaj, Xiaoying Wang, Yihui Fan
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are central players in post-transcriptional regulation and immune homeostasis. The ribonuclease and RBP Regnase-1 exerts critical roles in both immune cells and non-immune cells. Its expression is rapidly induced under diverse conditions including microbial infections, treatment with inflammatory cytokines and chemical or mechanical stimulation. Regnase-1 activation is transient and is subject to negative feedback mechanisms including proteasome-mediated degradation or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) mediated cleavage...
February 13, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188499/2017-cis-annual-meeting-immune-deficiency-dysregulation-north-american-conference
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186659/is-chronic-ulcerative-stomatitis-a-variant-of-lichen-planus-or-a-distinct-disease
#15
REVIEW
Liviu Feller, Razia A G Khammissa, Johan Lemmer
Chronic ulcerative stomatitis is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous disorder characterized clinically by erosions or ulcers. Most cases are limited to the mouth. The histopathological features are non-specific or mimic those of oral lichen planus, and studies by immunoflorescent microscopy are essential for definitive diagnosis. The defining immunopathogenic mechanism is the binding of IgG to the nuclear protein deltaNp63alpha of keratinocytes in the basal and parabasal cell layers of the oral stratified epithelium...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185411/htlv-1-seroprevalance-in-sarcoidosis-a-clinical-and-laboratory-study-in-northeast-of-iran
#16
Massoud Saghafi, Zahra Rezaieyazdi, Shima Nabavi, Zahra Mirfeizi, Maryam Sahebari, Masoumeh Salari
AIM: Sarcoidosis is an autoimmune multiorgan granulomatosis disease with unknown origin. Some environmental factors such as viruses may induce the disease in genetically susceptible individuals. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can dysregulate the human immune system and the role of this virus in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has been investigated and documented, such as in uveitis. In this study, we have focused on the seroprevalence of HTLV-1 in sarcoidosis in comparison to the normal population in the northeast of Iran, an endemic area for HTLV-1...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182354/exploring-the-molecular-mechanism-and-biomarker-of-recurrent-aphthous-stomatitis-based-on-gene-expression-microarray
#17
Shang Dan, Zhang Jinwei, Zhang Qiang, Shang Jianwei, Zhang Weijun
BACKGROUND: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common chronic oral diseases with morbidity ranging from 5% to 20%. The pathogenesis is still not fully understood though immune dysregulation and local trauma have been implicated and the curative effect that can be achieved through current therapy is mainly to alleviate the pain. So, the understanding of its molecular mechanisms can allow the prevention and treatment of RAS at the molecular level. METHODS: 14 normal tissues and 14 ulcerated tissues were subjected to Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181143/the-complex-interplay-among-hepatocytes-and-immune-cells-at-the-crossroad-between-inflammation-and-cholesterol-metabolism-in-hyperglycemia
#18
Maurizio Bifulco, Simona Pisanti, Elena Ciaglia
An intriguing piece of evidence for the inflammatory story of type 2 diabetes has come to the light. A recent study by Okin and colleagues adds new clues to the interplay between cholesterol metabolism and immunity and how it impacts glucose homeostasis in inflammatory conditions. But some questions are a still unsolved conundrum. Here we suggest to better dissect the regulatory mechanism of Mevalonate pathway and to underpin a new causative link between immunometabolic dysregulation and diabetes.
February 8, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179904/applications-of-genetically-modified-immunobiotics-with-high-immunoregulatory-capacity-for-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Suguru Shigemori, Takeshi Shimosato
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are chronic inflammatory diseases characterized by dysregulated immune responses of the gastrointestinal tract. In recent years, the incidence of IBDs has increased in developed nations, but their prophylaxis/treatment is not yet established. Site-directed delivery of molecules showing anti-inflammatory properties using genetically modified (gm)-probiotics shows promise as a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of IBD...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179494/hierarchical-clustering-can-identify-b-cell-clones-with-high-confidence-in-ig-repertoire-sequencing-data
#20
Namita T Gupta, Kristofor D Adams, Adrian W Briggs, Sonia C Timberlake, Francois Vigneault, Steven H Kleinstein
Adaptive immunity is driven by the expansion, somatic hypermutation, and selection of B cell clones. Each clone is the progeny of a single B cell responding to Ag, with diversified Ig receptors. These receptors can now be profiled on a large scale by next-generation sequencing. Such data provide a window into the microevolutionary dynamics that drive successful immune responses and the dysregulation that occurs with aging or disease. Clonal relationships are not directly measured, but they must be computationally inferred from these sequencing data...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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