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Guillermo Vidal-Diez de Ulzurrun, Yen-Ping Hsueh
Nematode-trapping fungi develop complex trapping devices to capture and consume nematodes. The dynamics of these organisms is especially important given the pathogenicity of nematodes and, consequently, the potential application of nematode-trapping fungi as biocontrol agents. Furthermore, both the nematodes and nematode-trapping fungi can be easily grown in laboratories, making them a unique manipulatable predator-prey system to study their coevolution. Several different aspects of these fungi have been studied, such as their genetics and the different factors triggering trap formation...
March 9, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Alex J Guseman, Shannon Leigh Speer, Gerardo M Perez Goncalves, Gary J Pielak
Protein-protein interactions are fundamental to biology, yet are rarely studied under physiologically-relevant conditions where the concentration of macromolecules can exceed 300 g/L. These high concentrations cause cosolute-complex contacts that are absent in dilute buffer. Understand-ing such interactions is important because they organize the cellular interior. We used 19F NMR, the dimer-forming A34F variant of the model protein GB1 and the cosolutes bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme to assess the effects of repulsive and attractive charge-charge dimer-cosolute interac-tions on dimer stability...
February 23, 2018: Biochemistry
Sirirat Tribuddharat, Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee, Kriangsak Ngamsaengsirisup, Chawalit Wongbuddha
Background: A prolonged stay in an intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) increases the cost of care as well as morbidity and mortality. Several predictive models aim at identifying patients at risk of prolonged ICU stay after cardiac surgery with CPB, but almost all of them involve a preoperative assessment for proper resource management, while one - the Open-Heart Intraoperative Risk (OHIR) score - focuses on intra-operative manipulatable risk factors for improving anesthetic care and patient outcome...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Paul Gilna, Lee R Lynd, Debra Mohnen, Mark F Davis, Brian H Davison
The DOE BioEnergy Science Center has operated as a virtual center with multiple partners for a decade targeting overcoming biomass recalcitrance. BESC has redefined biomass recalcitrance from an observable phenotype to a better understood and manipulatable fundamental and operational property. These manipulations are the result of deeper biological understanding and can be combined with other advanced biotechnology improvements in biomass conversion to improve bioenergy processes and markets. This article provides an overview of key accomplishments in overcoming recalcitrance via better plants, better microbes, and better tools and combinations...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Pablo Ramos Ferrer, Annsley Mace, Samantha N Thomas, Ju-Won Jeon
Graphene, 2D atomic-layer of sp2 carbon, has attracted a great deal of interest for use in solar cells, LEDs, electronic skin, touchscreens, energy storage devices, and microelectronics. This is due to excellent properties of graphene, such as a high theoretical surface area, electrical conductivity, and mechanical strength. The fundamental structure of graphene is also manipulatable, allowing for the formation of an even more extraordinary material, porous graphene. Porous graphene structures can be categorized as microporous, mesoporous, or macroporous depending on the pore size, all with their own unique advantages...
2017: Nano Convergence
Takahisa Watabe, Ming Xu, Miho Watanabe, Junichi Nabekura, Taiga Higuchi, Karin Hori, Mitsuo P Sato, Fumiaki Nin, Hiroshi Hibino, Kaoru Ogawa, Masatsugu Masuda, Kenji F Tanaka
Identification of the causal effects of specific proteins on recurrent and partially reversible hearing loss has been difficult because of the lack of an animal model that provides reversible gene knockdown. We have developed the transgenic mouse line Actin-tTS::Nkcc1tetO/tetO for manipulatable expression of the cochlear K+ circulation protein, NKCC1. Nkcc1 transcription was blocked by the binding of a tetracycline-dependent transcriptional silencer to the tetracycline operator sequences inserted upstream of the Nkcc1 translation initiation site...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
Kazutaka Takeshita, Yoshitomo Kikuchi
A number of insects establish symbiotic associations with beneficial microorganisms in various manners. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris and allied stink bugs possess an environmentally acquired Burkholderia symbiont in their midgut crypts. Unlike other insect endosymbionts, the Burkholderia symbiont is easily culturable and genetically manipulatable outside the host. In conjunction with the experimental advantages of the host insect, the Riptortus-Burkholderia symbiosis is an ideal model system for elucidating the molecular bases underpinning insect-microbe symbioses, which opens a new window in the research field of insect symbiosis...
April 2017: Research in Microbiology
David J Lea-Smith, Ravendran Vasudevan, Christopher J Howe
Cyanobacteria are ecologically important organisms and potential platforms for production of biofuels and useful industrial products. Genetic manipulation of cyanobacteria, especially model organisms such as Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 and Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, is a key tool for both basic and applied research. Generation of unmarked mutants, whereby chromosomal alterations are introduced into a strain via insertion of an antibiotic resistance cassette (a manipulatable fragment of DNA containing one or more genes), followed by subsequent removal of this cassette using a negative selectable marker, is a particularly powerful technique...
May 29, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Aayushi Uberoi, Satoshi Yoshida, Ian H Frazer, Henry C Pitot, Paul F Lambert
Human papillomaviruses are causally associated with 5% of human cancers. The recent discovery of a papillomavirus (MmuPV1) that infects laboratory mice provides unique opportunities to study the life cycle and pathogenesis of papillomaviruses in the context of a genetically manipulatable host organism. To date, MmuPV1-induced disease has been found largely to be restricted to severely immunodeficient strains of mice. In this study, we report that ultraviolet radiation (UVR), specifically UVB spectra, causes wild-type strains of mice to become highly susceptible to MmuPV1-induced disease...
May 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Anselm Sommer, Felix Kordowski, Joscha Büch, Thorsten Maretzky, Astrid Evers, Jörg Andrä, Stefan Düsterhöft, Matthias Michalek, Inken Lorenzen, Prasath Somasundaram, Andreas Tholey, Frank D Sönnichsen, Karl Kunzelmann, Lena Heinbockel, Christian Nehls, Thomas Gutsmann, Joachim Grötzinger, Sucharit Bhakdi, Karina Reiss
ADAM17, a prominent member of the 'Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase' (ADAM) family, controls vital cellular functions through cleavage of transmembrane substrates. Here we present evidence that surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) is pivotal for ADAM17 to exert sheddase activity. PS exposure is tightly coupled to substrate shedding provoked by diverse ADAM17 activators. PS dependency is demonstrated in the following: (a) in Raji cells undergoing apoptosis; (b) in mutant PSA-3 cells with manipulatable PS content; and (c) in Scott syndrome lymphocytes genetically defunct in their capacity to externalize PS in response to intracellular Ca(2+) elevation...
2016: Nature Communications
Jonathan A Nye, Dana Tudorascu, Fabio Esteves, John R Votaw
Myocardial perfusion studies suffer from artifacts caused by misalignment of the transmission and emission data due to the influences of voluntary and involuntary patient motion. Regardless of 68Ge or respiratory-averaged CT based attenuation correction and good patient cooperation, approximately 21% of perfusion studies exhibit artifacts arising from misalignment that cannot be corrected by manipulating the attenuation acquisition protocol. This misalignment, termed cardiac drift, is caused by slow-moving abdominal cavity contents that reposition the heart in the thorax and appear as myocardial uptake overlying the left CT lung in fused PET/CT images...
March 8, 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Cameron A McConkey, Elizabeth Delorme-Axford, Cheryl A Nickerson, Kwang Sik Kim, Yoel Sadovsky, Jon P Boyle, Carolyn B Coyne
In eutherians, the placenta acts as a barrier and conduit at the maternal-fetal interface. Syncytiotrophoblasts, the multinucleated cells that cover the placental villous tree surfaces of the human placenta, are directly bathed in maternal blood and are formed by the fusion of progenitor cytotrophoblasts that underlie them. Despite their crucial role in fetal protection, many of the events that govern trophoblast fusion and protection from microbial infection are unknown. We describe a three-dimensional (3D)-based culture model using human JEG-3 trophoblast cells that develop syncytiotrophoblast phenotypes when cocultured with human microvascular endothelial cells...
March 2016: Science Advances
Maisem Laabei, Ruth Massey
From the first identification of bacteria as a causative agent of disease, researchers have been developing methods and techniques to understand their pathogenic processes. For decades, this work has been limited to looking at a small number of genetically manipulatable isolates in in vitro assays or animal models of infection. Despite these limitations such work has facilitated the development of successful therapeutic strategies, most notably vaccines that target specific virulence-related features. There are however many antimicrobial resistant pathogens for which vaccination strategies have not worked, as we simply do not know enough about how they cause disease...
August 2016: Current Genetics
Marthe T C Walvoort, Vinita Lukose, Barbara Imperiali
Phosphoglycosyltransferases (PGTs) represent "gatekeeper" enzymes in complex glycan assembly pathways by catalyzing transfer of a phosphosugar from an activated nucleotide diphosphosugar to a membrane-resident polyprenol phosphate. The unique structures of selected nucleoside antibiotics, such as tunicamycin and mureidomycin A, which are known to inhibit comparable biochemical transformations, are exploited as the foundation for the development of modular synthetic inhibitors of PGTs. Herein we present the design, synthesis, and biochemical evaluation of two readily manipulatable modular scaffolds as inhibitors of monotopic bacterial PGTs...
March 7, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Emily R Clark, Donald M Kurtz
We report photosensitized H2 generation using a protein scaffold that nucleates formation of platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) and contains "built-in" photosensitizers. The photosensitizers, zinc-protoporphyrin IX or zinc-mesoporphyrin IX (ZnP) were incorporated in place of the naturally occurring heme in the 24-subunit iron storage protein bacterioferritin (Bfr) when the ZnPs were added to the E. coli expression medium. We engineered a stable dimeric Bfr variant with two protein subunits sandwiching a ZnP. Ten glycines were also substituted in place of residues surrounding the vinyl side of the porphyrin in order increase access of solvent and/or redox agents...
January 14, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Kartik A Shah, John J Clark, Brittany A Goods, Timothy J Politano, Nicholas J Mozdzierz, Ross M Zimnisky, Rachel L Leeson, J Christopher Love, Kerry R Love
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind and neutralize human pathogens have great therapeutic potential. Advances in automated screening and liquid handling have resulted in the ability to discover antigen-specific antibodies either directly from human blood or from various combinatorial libraries (phage, bacteria, or yeast). There remain, however, bottlenecks in the cloning, expression and evaluation of such lead antibodies identified in primary screens that hinder high-throughput screening. As such, "hit-to-lead identification" remains both expensive and time-consuming...
December 2015: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Qingtao Li, Liangpeng Ge, Wenbing Wan, Junzi Jiang, Wen Zhong, Jun Ouyang, Malcolm Xing
A persistent challenge in tissue engineering is the fabrication of manipulatable scaffolds for implantation in clinical treatments and use in disease models for drug screening. Electrospinning of nanofibrous membranes is an emerging technology in artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) design that can offer precisely tunable microenvironments upon assembly into three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds that mimic the in vivo ECM structure. In this study, we report a facile and versatile strategy for preparing 3D multilayered constructs from Fe3O4/polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin nanofibrous membranes...
October 2015: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
Zuhaib Fayaz Bhat, Sunil Kumar, Hina Fayaz Bhat
In vitro meat production is a novel idea of producing meat without involving animals with the help of tissue engineering techniques. This biofabrication of complex living products by using various bioengineering techniques is a potential solution to reduce the ill effects of current meat production systems and can dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing "animal-free" meat and meat products. Nutrition-related diseases, food-borne illnesses, resource use and pollution, and use of farm animals are some serious consequences associated with conventional meat production methods...
March 4, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Ang Li, Yung-Chih Lai, Seth Figueroa, Tian Yang, Randall B Widelitz, Krzysztof Kobielak, Qing Nie, Cheng Ming Chuong
BACKGROUND: How tissue patterns form in development and regeneration is a fundamental issue remaining to be fully understood. The integument often forms repetitive units in space (periodic patterning) and time (cyclic renewal), such as feathers and hairs. Integument patterns are visible and experimentally manipulatable, helping us reveal pattern formative processes. Variability is seen in regional phenotypic specificities and temporal cycling at different physiological stages. RESULTS: Here we show some cellular/molecular bases revealed by analyzing integument patterns...
August 2015: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Purnima K Wagh, Margaret A Gardner, Xiaolan Ma, Melissa Callahan, John M Shannon, Susan E Wert, Yoav H Messinger, Louis P Dehner, D Ashley Hill, Kathryn A Wikenheiser-Brokamp
Inherited syndromes provide unique opportunities to identify key regulatory mechanisms governing human disease. We previously identified germline loss-of-function DICER1 mutations in a human syndrome defined by the childhood lung neoplasm pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB), which arises during lung development. DICER1 regulates many biological processes critical in development and disease pathogenesis. Significant challenges in defining the role of DICER1 in human disease are identifying cause-effect relationships and generating manipulatable systems that model the complexity of organ development and disease pathogenesis...
May 2015: Journal of Pathology
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