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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433608/toward-biotechnology-in-space-high-throughput-instruments-for-in-situ-biological-research-beyond-earth
#1
REVIEW
Fathi Karouia, Kianoosh Peyvan, Andrew Pohorille
Space biotechnology is a nascent field aimed at applying tools of modern biology to advance our goals in space exploration. These advances rely on our ability to exploit in situ high throughput techniques for amplification and sequencing DNA, and measuring levels of RNA transcripts, proteins and metabolites in a cell. These techniques, collectively known as "omics" techniques have already revolutionized terrestrial biology. A number of on-going efforts are aimed at developing instruments to carry out "omics" research in space, in particular on board the International Space Station and small satellites...
April 19, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424311/mechanics-of-the-thorax-in-flies
#2
REVIEW
Tanvi Deora, Namrata Gundiah, Sanjay P Sane
Insects represent more than 60% of all multicellular life forms, and are easily among the most diverse and abundant organisms on earth. They evolved functional wings and the ability to fly, which enabled them to occupy diverse niches. Insects of the hyper-diverse orders show extreme miniaturization of their body size. The reduced body size, however, imposes steep constraints on flight ability, as their wings must flap faster to generate sufficient forces to stay aloft. Here, we discuss the various physiological and biomechanical adaptations of the thorax in flies which enabled them to overcome the myriad constraints of small body size, while ensuring very precise control of their wing motion...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418705/accurate-differentiation-of-carotenoid-pigments-using-flight-representative-raman-spectrometers
#3
Cedric Malherbe, Ian B Hutchinson, Melissa McHugh, Richard Ingley, Jan Jehlička, Howell G M Edwards
Raman spectrometers will be utilized on two Mars rover missions, ExoMars and Mars 2020, in the near future, to search for evidence of life and habitable geological niches on Mars. Carotenoid pigments are recognized target biomarkers, and as they are highly active in Raman spectroscopy, they can be readily used to characterize the capabilities of space representative instrumentation. As part of the preparatory work being performed for the ExoMars mission, a gypsum crust colonized by microorganisms was interrogated with commercial portable Raman instruments and a flight representative Raman laser spectrometer...
April 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405295/flight-performance-in-the-altricial-zebra-finch-developmental-effects-and-reproductive-consequences
#4
Ondi L Crino, Brett Klaassen van Oorschot, Kristen E Crandell, Creagh W Breuner, Bret W Tobalske
The environmental conditions animals experience during development can have sustained effects on morphology, physiology, and behavior. Exposure to elevated levels of stress hormones (glucocorticoids, GCs) during development is one such condition that can have long-term effects on animal phenotype. Many of the phenotypic effects of GC exposure during development (developmental stress) appear negative. However, there is increasing evidence that developmental stress can induce adaptive phenotypic changes. This hypothesis can be tested by examining the effect of developmental stress on fitness-related traits...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402469/health-system-functionality-in-a-low-income-country-in-the-midst-of-conflict-the-case-of-yemen
#5
Naseeb Qirbi, Sharif A Ismail
Background:  Although the literature on effects of armed conflict on population health is extensive, detailed assessments of effects on public health 'systems' are few. This article aims to help address this deficit through the medium of a case study on Yemen, describing health system and health outcome performance prior to the internationalisation of the conflict there in March 2015, before assessing the impact of war on health system functionality since that time. Method : Review of peer- and non-peer reviewed literature from 2005 to 2016 from academic sources, multilateral organizations, donors and governmental and non-governmental organizations, augmented by secondary data analysis...
April 11, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401467/response-of-extreme-haloarchaeon-haloarcula-argentinensis-rr10-to-simulated-microgravity-in-clinorotation
#6
Rebecca Thombre, Vinaya Shinde, Jyotsana Dixit, Sagar Jagtap, Pandit B Vidyasagar
Gravity is the fundamental force that may have operated during the evolution of life on Earth. It is thus important to understand as to what the effects of gravity are on cellular life. The studies related to effect of microgravity on cells may provide greater insights in understanding of how the physical force of gravity shaped life on Earth. The present study focuses on a unique group of organisms called the Haloarchaea, which are known for their extreme resistance to survive in stress-induced environments...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398255/robust-in-flight-sensor-fault-diagnostics-for-aircraft-engine-based-on-sliding-mode-observers
#7
Xiaodong Chang, Jinquan Huang, Feng Lu
For a sensor fault diagnostic system of aircraft engines, the health performance degradation is an inevitable interference that cannot be neglected. To address this issue, this paper investigates an integrated on-line sensor fault diagnostic scheme for a commercial aircraft engine based on a sliding mode observer (SMO). In this approach, one sliding mode observer is designed for engine health performance tracking, and another for sensor fault reconstruction. Both observers are employed in in-flight applications...
April 11, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396389/subduction-zone-forearc-serpentinites-as-incubators-for-deep-microbial-life
#8
Oliver Plümper, Helen E King, Thorsten Geisler, Yang Liu, Sonja Pabst, Ivan P Savov, Detlef Rost, Thomas Zack
Serpentinization-fueled systems in the cool, hydrated forearc mantle of subduction zones may provide an environment that supports deep chemolithoautotrophic life. Here, we examine serpentinite clasts expelled from mud volcanoes above the Izu-Bonin-Mariana subduction zone forearc (Pacific Ocean) that contain complex organic matter and nanosized Ni-Fe alloys. Using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy, we determined that the organic matter consists of a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds and functional groups such as amides...
April 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393904/transcriptomic-changes-in-an-animal-bacterial-symbiosis-under-modeled-microgravity-conditions
#9
Giorgio Casaburi, Irina Goncharenko-Foster, Alexandrea A Duscher, Jamie S Foster
Spaceflight imposes numerous adaptive challenges for terrestrial life. The reduction in gravity, or microgravity, represents a novel environment that can disrupt homeostasis of many physiological processes. Additionally, it is becoming increasingly clear that an organism's microbiome is critical for host health and examining its resiliency in microgravity represents a new frontier for space biology research. In this study, we examine the impact of microgravity on the interactions between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its beneficial symbiont Vibrio fischeri, which form a highly specific binary mutualism...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388002/identification-and-quantitative-analysis-of-physalin-d-and-its-metabolites-in-rat-urine-and-feces-by-liquid-chromatography-with-triple-quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#10
Yunliang Zheng, Cong Cao, Meihua Lin, You Zhai, Zhiwei Ge, Jianzhong ShenTu, Lihua Wu, Xingjiang Hu
Physalin D is known to show extensive bioactivities. However, no excretion study has elucidated the excretion of physalin D and its metabolites. This study investigates the excretion of physalin D and its metabolites in rats. Metabolites in rat urine and feces were separated and identified by liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Furthermore, a validated high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to quantify physalin D, physalin D glucuronide, and physalin D sulfate in rats feces and urine after the intragastric administration of physalin D...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386940/morphological-constraints-on-changing-avian-migration-phenology
#11
Anders Pape Møller, Diego Rubolini, Nicola Saino
Many organisms at northern latitudes have responded to climate warming by advancing their spring phenology. Birds are known to show earlier timing of spring migration and reproduction in response to warmer springs. However, species show heterogeneous phenological responses to climate warming, with those that have not advanced or have delayed migration phenology experiencing population declines. Although some traits (such as migration distance) partly explain heterogeneity in phenological responses, the factors affecting interspecies differences in the responsiveness to climate warming have yet to be fully explored...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382376/climate-effects-on-late-season-flight-times-of-massachusetts-butterflies
#12
L Zipf, E H Williams, R B Primack, S Stichter
Although the responses of living organisms to climate change are being widely investigated, little attention has been given to such effects late in the growing season. We studied the late-season flight times of 20 species of butterflies in a geographically limited region, the state of Massachusetts in the USA, by examining change in dates of flight over a 22-year period and in response to average monthly temperature and precipitation. By analyzing the last 10% of each year's observations reported by observers of the Massachusetts Butterfly Club, we found that seven species remain in flight significantly later into the fall than they did two decades earlier, while two species show reduced late-season flight...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370901/temporal-changes-in-liver-tissue-metabolome-of-lambs-fed-low-quality-roughage
#13
Wenbin Xu, Naoto Okayama, Atsushi Iwasawa, Masato Yayota
Early experience with low-quality roughage may induce adaptations in ruminants' metabolism. This study was conducted to explore the variation in the hepatic metabolomes of lambs fed low-quality roughage beginning early in life. Five lambs were fed Sudan grass hay (crude protein (CP): 4.6% of the dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber, 68.5% of DM) for 6 months during time periods P1, P2 and P3, which consisted of 2 months each. The metabolizable energy (ME) and CP intake satisfied lambs' maintenance requirements in P1 and P2, but the ME intake was 78...
April 2, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365228/the-thoracic-morphology-of-the-wingless-dune-cricket-comicus-calcaris-orthoptera-schizodactylidae-novel-apomorphic-characters-for-the-group-and-adaptations-to-sand-desert-environments
#14
Fanny Leubner, Sven Bradler, Benjamin Wipfler
Schizodactylidae, splay-footed or dune crickets, represents a distinct lineage among the highly diverse orthopteran subgroup Ensifera (crickets, katydids and allies). Only two extant genera belong to the Schizodactylidae: the winged Eurasian genus Schizodactylus, whose ecology and morphology is well documented, and the wingless South African Comicus, for which hardly any studies providing morphological descriptions have been conducted since its taxonomic description in 1888. Based on the first in-depths study of the skeletomuscular system of the thorax of Comicus calcarisIrish 1986, we provide information on some unique characteristics of this character complex in Schizodactylidae...
March 29, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362634/site-selective-conjugation-of-an-anticoagulant-aptamer-to-recombinant-albumins-and-maintenance-of-neonatal-fc-receptor-binding
#15
Julie Schmøkel, Anders Voldum, Georgia Tsakiridou, Matthias Kuhlmann, Jason Cameron, Esben S Sørensen, Jesper Wengel, Kenneth A Howard
Aptamers are an attractive molecular medicine that offers high target specificity. Nucleic acid-based aptamers, however, are prone to nuclease degradation and rapid renal excretion that require blood circulatory half-life extension enabling technologies. The long circulatory half-life, predominately facilitated by engagement with the cellular recycling neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), and ligand transport properties of albumin promote it as an attractive candidate to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of aptamers...
May 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362493/effect-of-major-royal-jelly-proteins-on-spatial-memory-in-aged-rats-metabolomics-analysis-in-urine
#16
Di Chen, Fang Liu, Jian-Bo Wan, Chao-Qiang Lai, Li-Rong Shen
Royal jelly (RJ) produced by worker honeybees is the sole food for the queen bee throughout her life as well as the larvae of worker bees for the first 3 days after hatching. Supplementation of RJ in the diet has been shown to increase spatial memory in rodents. However, the key constituents in RJ responsible for improvement of cognitive function are unknown. Our objective was to determine if the major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) extracted from RJ can improve the spatial memory of aged rats. The spatial memory assay using the Morris water maze test was administered once to rats after a 14-week feeding...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343237/actogram-analysis-of-free-flying-migratory-birds-new-perspectives-based-on-acceleration-logging
#17
REVIEW
Johan Bäckman, Arne Andersson, Lykke Pedersen, Sissel Sjöberg, Anders P Tøttrup, Thomas Alerstam
The use of accelerometers has become an important part of biologging techniques for large-sized birds with accelerometer data providing information about flight mode, wing-beat pattern, behaviour and energy expenditure. Such data show that birds using much energy-saving soaring/gliding flight like frigatebirds and swifts can stay airborne without landing for several months. Successful accelerometer studies have recently been conducted also for free-flying small songbirds during their entire annual cycle. Here we review the principles and possibilities for accelerometer studies in bird migration...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343228/focal-brain-injury-associated-with-a-model-of-severe-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-nonhuman-primates
#18
Ryan M McAdams, Ronald J McPherson, Raj P Kapur, Sandra E Juul
Worldwide, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. To better understand the mechanisms contributing to brain injury and improve outcomes in neonates with HIE, better preclinical animal models that mimic the clinical situation following birth asphyxia in term newborns are needed. In an effort to achieve this goal, we modified our nonhuman primate model of HIE induced by in utero umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) to include postnatal hypoxic episodes, in order to simulate apneic events in human neonates with HIE...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340597/temporal-dynamics-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-people-sharing-a-confined-environment-a-520-day-ground-based-space-simulation-mars500
#19
Silvia Turroni, Simone Rampelli, Elena Biagi, Clarissa Consolandi, Marco Severgnini, Clelia Peano, Sara Quercia, Matteo Soverini, Franck G Carbonero, Giovanna Bianconi, Petra Rettberg, Francesco Canganella, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela
BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbial communities and their temporal dynamics are gaining increasing interest due to the significant implications for human health. Recent studies have shown the dynamic behavior of the gut microbiota in free-living, healthy persons. To date, it is not known whether these dynamics are applicable during prolonged life sharing in a confined and controlled environment. RESULTS: The MARS500 project, the longest ground-based space simulation ever, provided us with a unique opportunity to trace the crew microbiota over 520 days of isolated confinement, such as that faced by astronauts in real long-term interplanetary space flights, and after returning to regular life, for a total of 2 years...
March 24, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324770/a-non-fatal-intoxication-and-seven-deaths-involving-the-dissociative-drug-3-meo-pcp
#20
Anna Johansson, Daniel Lindstedt, Markus Roman, Gunilla Thelander, Elisabet I Nielsen, Ulrica Lennborn, Håkan Sandler, Sten Rubertsson, Johan Ahlner, Robert Kronstrand, Fredrik C Kugelberg
INTRODUCTION: 3-methoxyphencyclidine (3-MeO-PCP) appeared on the illicit drug market in 2011 and is an analogue of phencyclidine, which exhibits anesthetic, analgesic and hallucinogenic properties. In this paper, we report data from a non-fatal intoxication and seven deaths involving 3-MeO-PCP in Sweden during the period March 2014 until June 2016. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: The non-fatal intoxication case, a 19-year-old male with drug problems and a medical history of depression, was found awake but tachycardic, hypertensive, tachypnoeic and catatonic at home...
March 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
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