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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444846/differential-immune-gene-expression-in-sperm-storage-organs-of-leaf-cutting-ants
#1
Sarah Chérasse, Boris Baer, Morten Schiøtt, Jacobus J Boomsma
Leaf-cutting ant queens mate with multiple males during a single nuptial flight and store sperm for up to two decades. During mating, males transfer sperm from their accessory testes to the queen bursa copulatrix from where it enters the spermatheca, an insect sperm storage organ that has become highly specialised in long-lived ant queens who never re-mate later in life. Long-term storage without the possibility to obtain new sperm creates an immune defence dilemma, because recognition of non-self cells eliminates infections but may also target irreplaceable sperm and reduce lifetime reproductive success...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438490/detection-of-novel-metabolite-for-roxadustat-doping-by-global-metabolomics
#2
Daisuke Saigusa, Norio Suzuki, Yotaro Matsumoto, Keiko Umeda, Yoshihisa Tomioka, Seizo Koshiba, Masayuki Yamamoto
Roxadustat (FG-4592, Rox) is a stabilizer for hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs), which induce production of the erythroid growth factor erythropoietin, and has been listed by the World Anti-Doping Agency as a prohibited substance for athletes since 2011. Although the detection technologies for Rox and its glucuronide-conjugated metabolite (Rox-Gluc) have been developed exploiting triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS), the production of metabolites from Rox in the human body remains to be clarified...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397437/microphallus-ochotensis-sp-nov-digenea-microphallidae-and-relative-merits-of-two-host-microphallid-life-cycles
#3
Kirill V Galaktionov, Isabel Blasco-Costa
A new digenean species, Microphallus ochotensis sp. nov., was described from the intestine of Pacific eiders (Somateria mollissima v-nigrum) from the north of the Sea of Okhotsk. It differs from other microphallids in the structure of the metraterm, which consists of two distinct parts: a sac with spicule-like structures and a short muscular duct opening into the genital atrium. Mi. ochotensis forms a monophyletic clade together with other congeneric species in phylograms derived from the 28S and ITS2 rRNA gene...
February 3, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397170/cross-sectional-study-to-identify-staphylococcal-species-isolated-from-teat-and-inguinal-skin-of-different-aged-dairy-heifers
#4
P R F Adkins, S Dufour, J N Spain, M J Calcutt, T J Reilly, G C Stewart, J R Middleton
The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and distribution of staphylococcal species on the teat and inguinal skin of dairy heifers across the various stages of the heifer life cycle. The cross-sectional study included 106 Holstein heifers with an age range of 0 d to 27 mo that were selected from 11 different groups, based on housing type and age, on a single dairy operation. A composite swabbing sample including all 4 teats and a second composite sample including both inguinal regions of each heifer were collected using gas-sterilized electrostatic dusters (Swiffers; Procter and Gamble, Cincinnati, OH)...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391012/near-death-experiences-attacks-by-family-members-and-absence-of-health-care-in-their-home-countries-affect-the-quality-of-life-of-refugee-women-in-germany-a-multi-region-cross-sectional-gender-sensitive-study
#5
Jenny Jesuthasan, Ekin Sönmez, Ingar Abels, Christine Kurmeyer, Jana Gutermann, Renate Kimbel, Antje Krüger, Guenter Niklewski, Kneginja Richter, Ulrich Stangier, Anja Wollny, Ulrike Zier, Sabine Oertelt-Prigione, Meryam Shouler-Ocak
BACKGROUND: The year 2016 has marked the highest number of displaced people worldwide on record. A large number of these refugees are women, yet little is known about their specific situation and the hurdles they have to face during their journey. Herein, we investigated whether sociodemographic characteristics and traumatic experiences in the home country and during the flight affected the quality of life of refugee women arriving in Germany in 2015-2016. METHODS: Six hundred sixty-three women from six countries (Afghanistan, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Somalia, and Eritrea) living in shared reception facilities in five distinct German regions were interviewed by native speakers using a structured questionnaire...
February 1, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386365/low-intensity-blood-parasite-infections-do-not-reduce-the-aerobic-performance-of-migratory-birds
#6
Steffen Hahn, Silke Bauer, Dimitar Dimitrov, Tamara Emmenegger, Karina Ivanova, Pavel Zehtindjiev, William A Buttemer
Blood parasites (Haemosporidia) are thought to impair the flight performance of infected animals, and therefore, infected birds are expected to differ from their non-infected counterparts in migratory capacity. Since haemosporidians invade host erythrocytes, it is commonly assumed that infected individuals will have compromised aerobic capacity, but this has not been examined in free-living birds. We tested if haemosporidian infections affect aerobic performance by examining metabolic rates and exercise endurance in migratory great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) experimentally treated with Plasmodium relictum pGRW04 and in naturally infected wild birds over consecutive life-history stages...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327266/social-targets-improve-body-based-and-environment-based-strategies-during-spatial-navigation
#7
Esther Kuehn, Xiaoli Chen, Pia Geise, Jan Oltmer, Thomas Wolbers
Encoding the position of another person in space is vital for everyday life. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific navigational strategies associated with encoding the position of another person in the wider spatial environment. We asked two groups of participants to learn the location of a target (person or object) during active navigation, while optic flow information, a landmark, or both optic flow information and a landmark were available in a virtual environment. Whereas optic flow information is used for body-based encoding, such as the simulation of motor movements, landmarks are used to form an abstract, disembodied representation of the environment...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326297/current-status-and-future-directions-of-l%C3%A3-vy-walk-research
#8
REVIEW
Andy M Reynolds
Lévy walks are a mathematical construction useful for describing random patterns of movement with bizarre fractal properties that seem to have no place in biology. Nonetheless, movement patterns resembling Lévy walks have been observed at scales ranging from the microscopic to the ecological. They have been seen in the molecular machinery operating within cells during intracellular trafficking, in the movement patterns of T cells within the brain, in DNA, in some molluscs, insects, fish, birds and mammals, in the airborne flights of spores and seeds, and in the collective movements of some animal groups...
January 11, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321475/intraskeletal-histovariability-allometric-growth-patterns-and-their-functional-implications-in-bird-like-dinosaurs
#9
Edina Prondvai, Pascal Godefroit, Dominique Adriaens, Dong-Yu Hu
With their elongated forelimbs and variable aerial skills, paravian dinosaurs, a clade also comprising modern birds, are in the hotspot of vertebrate evolutionary research. Inferences on the early evolution of flight largely rely on bone and feather morphology, while osteohistological traits are usually studied to explore life-history characteristics. By sampling and comparing multiple homologous fore- and hind limb elements, we integrate for the first time qualitative and quantitative osteohistological approaches to get insight into the intraskeletal growth dynamics and their functional implications in five paravian dinosaur taxa, Anchiornis, Aurornis, Eosinopteryx, Serikornis, and Jeholornis...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319228/mobility-affects-copulation-and-oviposition-dynamics-in-pieris-brassicae-in-semi-natural-cages
#10
Nicolas Larranaga, Michel Baguette, Olivier Calvez, Delphine Legrand
When, how often and for how long organisms mate can have strong consequences for individual fitness and are crucial aspects of evolutionary ecology. Such determinants are likely to be of even greater importance in monandrous species and species with short adult life stages. Previous work suggests that mobility, a key dispersal-related trait, may affect the dynamics of copulations, but few studies have investigated the impact of individual mobility on mating latency, copulation duration and oviposition latency simultaneously...
January 10, 2018: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248738/identification-of-immature-stages-of-phlebotomine-sand-flies-using-maldi-tof-ms-and-mapping-of-mass-spectra-during-sand-fly-life-cycle
#11
Petr Halada, Kristyna Hlavackova, Vit Dvorak, Petr Volf
The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for the species identification of sand flies at different developmental stages and map changes in their protein profiles during the course of whole life cycle. Specimens of six different species from laboratory colonies at larval and pupal stages were examined using MALDI-TOF MS. The protein profiles of larvae were stable from the L2 to L4 developmental stages and clearly distinguishable at the species level...
December 14, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242826/a-triassic-plesiosaurian-skeleton-and-bone-histology-inform-on-evolution-of-a-unique-body-plan
#12
Tanja Wintrich, Shoji Hayashi, Alexandra Houssaye, Yasuhisa Nakajima, P Martin Sander
Secondary marine adaptation is a major pattern in amniote evolution, accompanied by specific bone histological adaptations. In the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction, diverse marine reptiles evolved early in the Triassic. Plesiosauria is the most diverse and one of the longest-lived clades of marine reptiles, but its bone histology is least known among the major marine amniote clades. Plesiosaurians had a unique and puzzling body plan, sporting four evenly shaped pointed flippers and (in most clades) a small head on a long, stiffened neck...
December 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225885/life-history-strategy-resource-dispersion-and-phylogenetic-associations-shape-dispersal-of-a-fig-wasp-community
#13
Vignesh Venkateswaran, Amitabh Shrivastava, Anusha L K Kumble, Renee M Borges
Background: The combined influence of life-history strategy and resource dispersion on dispersal evolution of a biological community, and by extension, on community assemblage, has received sparse attention. Highly specialized fig wasp communities are ideal for addressing this question since the life-history strategies that affect their pace of life and the dispersion of their oviposition resources vary. We compared dispersal capacities of the wasp community of a widespread tropical fig, Ficus racemosa, by measuring flight durations, somatic lipid content and resting metabolic rates...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204692/flight-induced-transgenerational-maternal-effects-influence-butterfly-offspring-performance-during-times-of-drought
#14
Melanie Gibbs, Hans Van Dyck, Casper J Breuker
Maternal condition can generate resource-related maternal effects through differential egg provisioning that can negatively affect offspring performance especially when offspring growth occurs in stressful or sub-optimal environments. Using the Speckled Wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria (L.) we tested the hypothesis that repeated periods of intensive flight during female oviposition affects egg provisioning and reduces offspring performance when larval development occurs under stressful conditions on drought stressed host plants...
December 4, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194033/immunoproteomic-analysis-of-the-protein-repertoire-of-unsporulated-eimeria-tenella-oocysts
#15
Zhenchao Zhang, Shuai Wang, Charles Li, Liheng Liu
The apicomplexan protozoans Eimeria spp. cause coccidioses, the most common intestinal diseases in chickens. Coccidiosis is associated with significant animal welfare issues and has a high economic impact on the poultry industry. Lack of a full understanding of immunogenic molecules and their precise functions involved in the Eimeria life cycles may limit development of effective vaccines and drug therapies. In this study, immunoproteomic approaches were used to define the antigenic protein repertoire from the total proteins of unsporulated Eimeria tenella oocysts...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157874/air-travel-and-postoperative-lymphedema-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Michael Co, Judy Ng, Ava Kwong
Lymphedema is not uncommon after axillary dissection for breast cancer. Improved survival of patients with breast cancer from advances in adjuvant therapy has resulted in increased awareness of the quality of life for long-term survivors. Air travel has been postulated as 1 of the risk factors of lymphedema exacerbation. In the present systematic review, we sought to critically evaluate the current data on this topic. The present study was registered in the Research Registry. A systematic review of lymphedema and air travel was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol...
October 19, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152179/flight-is-the-key-to-postprandial-blood-glucose-balance-in-the-fruit-bats-eonycteris-spelaea-and-cynopterus-sphinx
#17
Xingwen Peng, Xiangyang He, Qi Liu, Yunxiao Sun, Hui Liu, Qin Zhang, Jie Liang, Zhen Peng, Zhixiao Liu, Libiao Zhang
Excessive sugar consumption could lead to high blood glucose levels that are harmful to mammalian health and life. Despite consuming large amounts of sugar-rich food, fruit bats have a longer lifespan, raising the question of how these bats overcome potential hyperglycemia. We investigated the change of blood glucose level in nectar-feeding bats (Eonycteris spelaea) and fruit-eating bats (Cynopterus sphinx) via adjusting their sugar intake and time of flight. We found that the maximum blood glucose level of C...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134033/a-new-cryptic-lactura-from-texas-lepidoptera-zygaenoidea-lacturidae
#18
Tanner Matson, David L Wagner
A new species of Lactura is described from Texas: Lactura rubritegulasp. n. Identity of the new species can be reliably determined by both larval and adult characters, CO1 haplotypes, and its late-spring period of flight activity. Male genitalic features overlap with those of L. basistriga (Barnes & McDunnough, 1913), whereas female structures differ markedly between the pair. The new Sideroxylon-feeding species, rare in collections, is found principally in limestone areas in the vicinity San Antonio, Texas, westward through the southern Hill Country...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093534/logistic-growth-of-a-surface-contamination-network-and-its-role-in-disease-spread
#19
Hao Lei, Yuguo Li, Shenglan Xiao, Xinyan Yang, ChaoHsin Lin, Sharon L Norris, Daniel Wei, Zhongmin Hu, Shengcheng Ji
Surfaces and objects surround us, and touching them is integral to everyday life. Pathogen contaminated surfaces (fomites) are known to transmit diseases. However, little is known about the ways and speed at which surfaces become contaminated. We found that under certain conditions, the number of contaminated surfaces grows logistically, corresponding to possible rapid transmission of infection. In such a surface network, pathogen can be transmitted great distances quickly-as far as people move. We found that the surface contamination network in aircraft cabins exhibits a community structure, with small communities connected by the aisle seatback surfaces and toilets, which are high-touch surfaces...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073055/the-topography-of-the-environment-alters-the-optimal-search-strategy-for-active-particles
#20
Giorgio Volpe, Giovanni Volpe
In environments with scarce resources, adopting the right search strategy can make the difference between succeeding and failing, even between life and death. At different scales, this applies to molecular encounters in the cell cytoplasm, to animals looking for food or mates in natural landscapes, to rescuers during search and rescue operations in disaster zones, and to genetic computer algorithms exploring parameter spaces. When looking for sparse targets in a homogeneous environment, a combination of ballistic and diffusive steps is considered optimal; in particular, more ballistic Lévy flights with exponent [Formula: see text] are generally believed to optimize the search process...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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