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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923335/-arrived-in-germany-when-children-who-have-fled-tell-their-stories
#1
Katharina Gerarts, Sabine Andresen, Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer, Fionna Klasen
Arrived in Germany: When Children Who have Fled Tell their Stories For this study, we listened to children who had fled with their families. We made a very conscious decision to focus on accompanied minors who have been displaced, because they go through the standard asylum system with their parent/guardian, which is why they often remain "invisible" as regards their own needs and their specific situation. We gave accompanied children who had fled a space where they could tell their stories and asked them to talk about their memories of their countries of origin, their experiences during their journey and on arrival in Germany, and their lives here, their concerns, but also their hopes and desires...
December 2016: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909951/contrasting-patterns-in-solitary-and-eusocial-bees-while-responding-to-landscape-features-in-the-brazilian-cerrado-a-multiscaled-perspective
#2
D P Silva, D S Nogueira, P De Marco
Landscape structure is an important determinant of biological fluxes and species composition, but species do not respond equally to landscape features or spatial extents. Evaluating "multi-scale" responses of species to landscape structure is an important framework to be considered, allowing insights about habitat requirements for different groups. We evaluated the response of Brazilian Cerrado's bees (eusocial vs. solitary ones) to both the amount and isolation of remnant vegetation in eight nested multiple-local scales...
December 1, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903627/the-role-of-the-antioxidant-system-during-intense-endurance-exercise-lessons-from-migrating-birds
#3
REVIEW
Clara Cooper-Mullin, Scott R McWilliams
During migration, birds substantially increase their metabolic rate and burn fats as fuel and yet somehow avoid succumbing to overwhelming oxidative damage. The physiological means by which vertebrates such as migrating birds can counteract an increased production of reactive species (RS) are rather limited: they can upregulate their endogenous antioxidant system and/or consume dietary antioxidants (prophylactically or therapeutically). Thus, birds can alter different components of their antioxidant system to respond to the demands of long-duration flights, but much remains to be discovered about the complexities of RS production and antioxidant protection throughout migration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901343/colonization-of-snow-by-microorganisms-as-revealed-using-miniature-raman-spectrometers-possibilities-for-detecting-carotenoids-of-psychrophiles-on-mars
#4
Jan Jehlička, Adam Culka, Linda Nedbalová
We tested the potential of a miniaturized Raman spectrometer for use in field detection of snow algae pigments. A miniature Raman spectrometer, equipped with an excitation laser at 532 nm, allowed for the detection of carotenoids in cells of Chloromonas nivalis and Chlamydomonas nivalis at different stages of their life cycle. Astaxanthin, the major photoprotective pigment, was detected in algal blooms originating in snows at two alpine European sites that differed in altitude (Krkonoše Mts., Czech Republic, 1502 m a...
November 30, 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893835/onset-of-oviposition-triggers-abrupt-reduction-in-migratory-flight-behavior-and-flight-muscle-in-the-female-beet-webworm-loxostege-sticticalis
#5
Yunxia Cheng, Lizhi Luo, Thomas W Sappington, Xingfu Jiang, Lei Zhang, Andrei N Frolov
Flight and reproduction are usually considered as two life history traits that compete for resources in a migratory insect. The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L., manages the costs of migratory flight and reproduction through a trade-off in timing of these two life history traits, where migratory behavior occurs during the preoviposition period. To gain insight into how migratory flight and reproduction are coordinated in the female beet webworm, we conducted experiments beginning at the end of the preoviposition period...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872800/invisible-seams-preventing-childhood-obesity-through-an-improved-obstetrics-pediatrics-care-continuum
#6
EDITORIAL
Craig W Moscetti, Nicolaas P Pronk
Progress in altering the current obesity epidemic among children and adolescents remains elusive. Evidence continues to underscore the challenges of altering weight status as children age. Further, weight loss interventions among children and adults alike tend to demonstrate efficacy in the short-term, however individuals tend to slowly revert back to their original weight status over time. New understanding of obesity's early origins suggests the need to rethink current approaches, particularly within healthcare...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869126/caenorhabditis-elegans-as-a-model-system-to-study-post-translational-modifications-of-human-transthyretin
#7
Andrea Henze, Thomas Homann, Isabelle Rohn, Michael Aschner, Christopher D Link, Burkhard Kleuser, Florian J Schweigert, Tanja Schwerdtle, Julia Bornhorst
The visceral protein transthyretin (TTR) is frequently affected by oxidative post-translational protein modifications (PTPMs) in various diseases. Thus, better insight into structure-function relationships due to oxidative PTPMs of TTR should contribute to the understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms. While the in vivo analysis of TTR in mammalian models is complex, time- and resource-consuming, transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans expressing hTTR provide an optimal model for the in vivo identification and characterization of drug-mediated oxidative PTPMs of hTTR by means of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization - time of flight - mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864861/fight-or-flight-flight-increases-immune-gene-expression-but-does-not-help-to-fight-an-infection
#8
L Woestmann, J Kvist, M Saastamoinen
Flight represents a key trait in most insects, being energetically extremely demanding, yet often necessary for foraging and reproduction. Additionally, dispersal via flight is especially important for species living in fragmented landscapes. Even though, based on life-history theory, a negative relationship may be expected between flight and immunity, a number of previous studies have indicated flight to induce an increased immune response. In this study, we assessed whether induced immunity (i.e. immune gene expression) in response to 15-min forced flight treatment impacts individual survival of bacterial infection in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855313/characterization-of-the-clostridium-difficile-volatile-metabolome-using-comprehensive-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#9
Christiaan A Rees, Aimee Shen, Jane E Hill
Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen capable of causing life-threatening infections of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by severe diarrhea. Exposure to certain classes of antibiotics, advanced age, and prolonged hospitalizations are known risk factors for infection by this organism. Anecdotally, healthcare providers have reported that they can smell C. difficile infections in their patients, and several studies have suggested that there may indeed be an olfactory signal associated with C. difficile-associated diarrhea...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852453/current-use-and-outcomes-of-helicopter-transport-in-pediatric-trauma-a-review-of-18-291-transports
#10
Brian R Englum, Kristy L Rialon, Jina Kim, Mark L Shapiro, John E Scarborough, Henry E Rice, Obinna O Adibe, Elisabeth T Tracy
PURPOSE: The role of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in pediatric trauma remains controversial. We examined its use in pediatric trauma and its effectiveness in children with moderate/severe injuries. METHODS: All blunt/penetrating trauma patients ≤18years old in the National Trauma Data Bank were evaluated for use of HEMS and in-hospital mortality. In a comparative effectiveness study, only patients treated at level I/II pediatric centers with injury severity score (ISS)≥9 were included...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845372/ecotypic-differentiation-matters-for-latitudinal-variation-in-energy-metabolism-and-flight-performance-in-a-butterfly-under-climate-change
#11
Hans Van Dyck, Marie-Jeanne Holveck
Life histories of organisms may vary with latitude as they experience different thermal constraints and challenges. This geographic, intraspecific variation could be of significance for range dynamics under climate change beyond edge-core comparisons. In this study, we did a reciprocal transplant experiment between the temperature-regimes of two latitudes with an ectotherm insect, examining the effects on energy metabolism and flight performance. Pararge aegeria expanded its ecological niche from cool woodland (ancestral) to warmer habitat in agricultural landscape (novel ecotype)...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833821/hypergravity-hinders-axonal-development-of-motor-neurons-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#12
Saraswathi Subbammal Kalichamy, Tong Young Lee, Kyoung-Hye Yoon, Jin Il Lee
As space flight becomes more accessible in the future, humans will be exposed to gravity conditions other than our 1G environment on Earth. Our bodies and physiology, however, are adapted for life at 1G gravity. Altering gravity can have profound effects on the body, particularly the development of muscles, but the reasons and biology behind gravity's effect are not fully known. We asked whether increasing gravity had effects on the development of motor neurons that innervate and control muscle, a relatively unexplored area of gravity biology...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827404/flight-behaviour-of-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-workers-is-altered-by-initial-infections-of-the-fungal-parasite-nosema-apis
#13
Ryan Dosselli, Julia Grassl, Andrew Carson, Leigh W Simmons, Boris Baer
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) host a wide range of parasites, some being known contributors towards dramatic colony losses as reported over recent years. To counter parasitic threats, honey bees possess effective immune systems. Because immune responses are predicted to cause substantial physiological costs for infected individuals, they are expected to trade off with other life history traits that ultimately affect the performance and fitness of the entire colony. Here, we tested whether the initial onset of an infection negatively impacts the flight behaviour of honey bee workers, which is an energetically demanding behaviour and a key component of foraging activities...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809255/mono-pegylation-of-alpha-mmc-and-map30-from-momordica-charantia-l-production-identification-and-anti-tumor-activity
#14
Yun Sun, Fenghui Sun, Jianlong Li, Minlu Wu, Xiang Fan, Yanfa Meng, Yao Meng
PEGylation is a well-established and effective strategy to decrease immunogenicity, which can increase the stability and in vivo half-life time. However, the generation of multi-site modified products is inevitable due to the lysine chemistry, which will bring difficulties in subsequent research, such as purification and quantification. Site-specific modification by mPEG-succinimidyl carbonate (mPEG-SC) is a widely used method for N-terminal conjugation. In this study, we used it for site-directed modification on two ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30), from Momordica charantia L...
October 31, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799420/public-health-implications-and-risks-for-children-and-families-resettled-after-exposure-to-armed-conflict-and-displacement
#15
Rachel Calam
Early adverse experiences can precede long-term negative effects on physical health. Children experiencing armed conflict, flight and displacement, and refugee life may be at enhanced risk. Recent psychobiological models integrating knowledge about perinatal and childhood stress with susceptibility to chronic illnesses in later life make clear the pressing need for protective provision for war-affected children, who experience multiple traumas and continuing stressors. There is increasing recognition of the mechanisms linking physical and mental health with adult diseases seen as developmental disorders with origins early in life...
October 30, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795344/rapid-detection-and-identification-of-candidemia-by-direct-blood-culturing-on-solid-medium-using-lysis-centrifugation-method-combined-with-maldi-tof-ms
#16
Evgeny A Idelevich, Barbara Grünastel, Karsten Becker
Candida sepsis is a life-threatening condition with increasing prevalence. In this study, direct blood culturing on solid medium using lysis-centrifugation procedure allowed successful Candida species identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on average 3.8 hours (Sabouraud agar) or 7.4 hours (chocolate agar) prior to the positivity signal for control samples in BACTEC Mycosis-IC/F or BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F bottles, respectively. Direct culturing on solid medium accelerates candidemia diagnostics compared to automated broth-based systems...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779956/emergency-medical-considerations-in-a-space-suited-patient
#17
Alejandro Garbino, Derek M Nusbaum, Daniel M Buckland, Anil S Menon, Jonathan B Clark, Erik L Antonsen
The Stratex Project is a high altitude balloon flight that culminated in a freefall from 41,422 m (135,890 ft), breaking the record for the highest freefall to date. Crew recovery operations required an innovative approach due to the unique nature of the event as well as the equipment involved. The parachutist donned a custom space suit similar to a NASA Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), with life support system mounted to the front and a parachute on the back. This space suit had a metal structure around the torso, which, in conjunction with the parachute and life support assembly, created a significant barrier to extraction from the suit in the event of a medical emergency...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777728/effect-of-acute-stressor-on-reproductive-behavior-differs-between-urban-and-rural-birds
#18
Mikus Abolins-Abols, Sydney F Hope, Ellen D Ketterson
The life-history trade-off between self-maintenance and reproduction posits that investment in one function decreases investment in the other. Manipulating the costs and benefits of functions involved in a trade-off may alter this interaction. Here we ask whether investment in self-maintenance during a stress response alters territorial behavior in wild Dark-eyed Juncos and whether rural and urban birds, which are known to differ in the magnitude of the stress response (greater in rural), also differ in the degree to which stress reduces territorial behavior...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766110/odonata-dragonflies-and-damselflies-as-a-bridge-between-ecology-and-evolutionary-genomics
#19
Seth Bybee, Alex Córdoba-Aguilar, M Catherine Duryea, Ryo Futahashi, Bengt Hansson, M Olalla Lorenzo-Carballa, Ruud Schilder, Robby Stoks, Anton Suvorov, Erik I Svensson, Janne Swaegers, Yuma Takahashi, Phillip C Watts, Maren Wellenreuther
Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) present an unparalleled insect model to integrate evolutionary genomics with ecology for the study of insect evolution. Key features of Odonata include their ancient phylogenetic position, extensive phenotypic and ecological diversity, several unique evolutionary innovations, ease of study in the wild and usefulness as bioindicators for freshwater ecosystems worldwide. In this review, we synthesize studies on the evolution, ecology and physiology of odonates, highlighting those areas where the integration of ecology with genomics would yield significant insights into the evolutionary processes that would not be gained easily by working on other animal groups...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765377/the-information-needs-of-adult-cancer-survivors-across-the-cancer-continuum-a-scoping-review
#20
Chloe Fletcher, Ingrid Flight, Janine Chapman, Kate Fennell, Carlene Wilson
OBJECTIVE: To provide an updated synthesis of the literature that investigates the self-reported information needs of people diagnosed with cancer across the cancer continuum. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of the literature published from August 2003 to June 2015 and expanded an existing typology summarizing the information needs of people diagnosed with cancer. RESULTS: The majority of the included studies (n=104) focused on questions relevant to the diagnosis/active treatment phase of the cancer continuum (52...
October 12, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
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