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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039424/seasonal-population-dynamics-of-megacopta-cribraria-hemiptera-plataspidae-in-kudzu-and-soybean-and-implication-for-insecticidal-management-in-soybean
#1
J L Blount, P M Roberts, M D Toews, W A Gardner, G D Buntin, J W Davis, J N All
Megacopta cribraria (F.), an invasive species introduced from Asia in 2009, is now prolific in the southeastern United States. Megacopta cribraria develops primarily on kudzu and soybean completing two generations. It is not well understood how this economic pest is affected by changes in geographic distribution in the United States or how population levels have changed since its establishment. The effect of insecticide application timing on field populations of M. cribraria is not well documented. These studies seek to understand how population dynamics of M...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028548/spatial-molecular-architecture-of-the-microbial-community-of-a-peltigera-lichen
#2
Neha Garg, Yi Zeng, Anna Edlund, Alexey V Melnik, Laura M Sanchez, Hosein Mohimani, Alexey Gurevich, Vivian Miao, Stefan Schiffler, Yan Wei Lim, Tal Luzzatto-Knaan, Shengxin Cai, Forest Rohwer, Pavel A Pevzner, Robert H Cichewicz, Theodore Alexandrov, Pieter C Dorrestein
Microbes are commonly studied as individual species, but they exist as mixed assemblages in nature. At present, we know very little about the spatial organization of the molecules, including natural products that are produced within these microbial networks. Lichens represent a particularly specialized type of symbiotic microbial assemblage in which the component microorganisms exist together. These composite microbial assemblages are typically comprised of several types of microorganisms representing phylogenetically diverse life forms, including fungi, photosymbionts, bacteria, and other microbes...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028082/a-variable-instar-climate-driven-individual-beetle-based-phenology-model-for-the-invasive-asian-longhorned-beetle-coleoptera-cerambycidae
#3
R Talbot Trotter, Melody A Keena
Efforts to manage and eradicate invasive species can benefit from an improved understanding of the physiology, biology, and behavior of the target species, and ongoing efforts to eradicate the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) highlight the roles this information may play. Here, we present a climate-driven phenology model for A. glabripennis that provides simulated life-tables for populations of individual beetles under variable climatic conditions that takes into account the variable number of instars beetles may undergo as larvae...
December 2016: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018664/altered-expression-of-pectoral-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-corresponds-to-migration-status-in-the-white-crowned-sparrow-zonotrichia-leucophrys-gambelii
#4
Brandy P Velten, Kenneth C Welch, Marilyn Ramenofsky
Birds undergo numerous changes as they progress through life-history stages, yet relatively few studies have examined how birds adapt to both the dynamic energetic and mechanical demands associated with such transitions. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression, often linked with muscle fibre type, is strongly correlated with a muscle's mechanical power-generating capability, thus we examined several morphological properties, including MyHC expression of the pectoralis, in a long-distance migrant, the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) throughout the progression from winter, spring departure and arrival on breeding grounds...
November 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010844/pharmacokinetic-study-based-on-a-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-quadrupole-ion-trap-time-of-flight-imaging-mass-microscope-combined-with-a-novel-relative-exposure-approach-a-case-of-octreotide-in-mouse-target-tissues
#5
Tai Rao, Yuhao Shao, Naoki Hamada, Yanmin Li, Hui Ye, Dian Kang, Boyu Shen, Xinuo Li, Xiaoxi Yin, Zhangpei Zhu, Haofeng Li, Lin Xie, Guangji Wang, Yan Liang
Application of imaging mass spectrometry in drug pharmacokinetics remains challenging due to its weak quantitative capability. Herein, an imaging mass microscope (iMScope), equipped with an optical microscope, an atmospheric pressure ion-source chamber for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (AP-MALDI) and a hybrid quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight (QIT-TOF) analyzer, was first validated and applied to visualize drug disposition in vivo. The distribution and elimination rate of the therapeutic peptide octreotide, a long-acting analogue of the natural hormone somatostatin, was first calculated based on the data determined by iMScope system combining a novel relative exposure strategy...
February 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986943/flight-of-rhyzopertha-dominica-coleoptera-bostrichidae-a-spatio-temporal-analysis-with-pheromone-trapping-and-population-genetics
#6
A W Ridley, J P Hereward, G J Daglish, S Raghu, G A McCulloch, G H Walter
The flight of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), near grain storages and at distances from them, was investigated to assess the potential of these beetles to infest grain and spread insecticide resistance genes. We caught R. dominica in pheromone-baited flight traps (and blank controls) set at storages, in fields away from storages, and in native vegetation across a 12-mo period. A functional set of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers was developed, enabling population genetic analyses on the trapped beetles...
December 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973609/laser-fluorescence-illuminates-the-soft-tissue-and-life-habits-of-the-early-cretaceous-bird-confuciusornis
#7
Amanda R Falk, Thomas G Kaye, Zhonghe Zhou, David A Burnham
In this paper we report the discovery of non-plumage soft tissues in Confuciusornis, a basal beaked bird from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota in northeastern China. Various soft tissues are visualized and interpreted through the use of laser-stimulated fluorescence, providing much novel anatomical information about this early bird, specifically reticulate scales covering the feet, and the well-developed and robust pro- and postpatagium. We also include a direct comparison between the forelimb soft tissues of Confuciusornis and modern avian patagia...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923335/-arrived-in-germany-when-children-who-have-fled-tell-their-stories
#8
Katharina Gerarts, Sabine Andresen, Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer, Fionna Klasen
Arrived in Germany: When Children Who have Fled Tell their Stories For this study, we listened to children who had fled with their families. We made a very conscious decision to focus on accompanied minors who have been displaced, because they go through the standard asylum system with their parent/guardian, which is why they often remain "invisible" as regards their own needs and their specific situation. We gave accompanied children who had fled a space where they could tell their stories and asked them to talk about their memories of their countries of origin, their experiences during their journey and on arrival in Germany, and their lives here, their concerns, but also their hopes and desires...
December 2016: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909951/contrasting-patterns-in-solitary-and-eusocial-bees-while-responding-to-landscape-features-in-the-brazilian-cerrado-a-multiscaled-perspective
#9
D P Silva, D S Nogueira, P De Marco
Landscape structure is an important determinant of biological fluxes and species composition, but species do not respond equally to landscape features or spatial extents. Evaluating "multi-scale" responses of species to landscape structure is an important framework to be considered, allowing insights about habitat requirements for different groups. We evaluated the response of Brazilian Cerrado's bees (eusocial vs. solitary ones) to both the amount and isolation of remnant vegetation in eight nested multiple-local scales...
December 1, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903627/the-role-of-the-antioxidant-system-during-intense-endurance-exercise-lessons-from-migrating-birds
#10
REVIEW
Clara Cooper-Mullin, Scott R McWilliams
During migration, birds substantially increase their metabolic rate and burn fats as fuel and yet somehow avoid succumbing to overwhelming oxidative damage. The physiological means by which vertebrates such as migrating birds can counteract an increased production of reactive species (RS) are rather limited: they can upregulate their endogenous antioxidant system and/or consume dietary antioxidants (prophylactically or therapeutically). Thus, birds can alter different components of their antioxidant system to respond to the demands of long-duration flights, but much remains to be discovered about the complexities of RS production and antioxidant protection throughout migration...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901343/colonization-of-snow-by-microorganisms-as-revealed-using-miniature-raman-spectrometers-possibilities-for-detecting-carotenoids-of-psychrophiles-on-mars
#11
Jan Jehlička, Adam Culka, Linda Nedbalová
We tested the potential of a miniaturized Raman spectrometer for use in field detection of snow algae pigments. A miniature Raman spectrometer, equipped with an excitation laser at 532 nm, allowed for the detection of carotenoids in cells of Chloromonas nivalis and Chlamydomonas nivalis at different stages of their life cycle. Astaxanthin, the major photoprotective pigment, was detected in algal blooms originating in snows at two alpine European sites that differed in altitude (Krkonoše Mts., Czech Republic, 1502 m a...
December 2016: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893835/onset-of-oviposition-triggers-abrupt-reduction-in-migratory-flight-behavior-and-flight-muscle-in-the-female-beet-webworm-loxostege-sticticalis
#12
Yunxia Cheng, Lizhi Luo, Thomas W Sappington, Xingfu Jiang, Lei Zhang, Andrei N Frolov
Flight and reproduction are usually considered as two life history traits that compete for resources in a migratory insect. The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L., manages the costs of migratory flight and reproduction through a trade-off in timing of these two life history traits, where migratory behavior occurs during the preoviposition period. To gain insight into how migratory flight and reproduction are coordinated in the female beet webworm, we conducted experiments beginning at the end of the preoviposition period...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872800/invisible-seams-preventing-childhood-obesity-through-an-improved-obstetrics-pediatrics-care-continuum
#13
EDITORIAL
Craig W Moscetti, Nicolaas P Pronk
Progress in altering the current obesity epidemic among children and adolescents remains elusive. Evidence continues to underscore the challenges of altering weight status as children age. Further, weight loss interventions among children and adults alike tend to demonstrate efficacy in the short-term, however individuals tend to slowly revert back to their original weight status over time. New understanding of obesity's early origins suggests the need to rethink current approaches, particularly within healthcare...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869126/caenorhabditis-elegans-as-a-model-system-to-study-post-translational-modifications-of-human-transthyretin
#14
Andrea Henze, Thomas Homann, Isabelle Rohn, Michael Aschner, Christopher D Link, Burkhard Kleuser, Florian J Schweigert, Tanja Schwerdtle, Julia Bornhorst
The visceral protein transthyretin (TTR) is frequently affected by oxidative post-translational protein modifications (PTPMs) in various diseases. Thus, better insight into structure-function relationships due to oxidative PTPMs of TTR should contribute to the understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms. While the in vivo analysis of TTR in mammalian models is complex, time- and resource-consuming, transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans expressing hTTR provide an optimal model for the in vivo identification and characterization of drug-mediated oxidative PTPMs of hTTR by means of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization - time of flight - mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS)...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864861/fight-or-flight-flight-increases-immune-gene-expression-but-does-not-help-to-fight-an-infection
#15
L Woestmann, J Kvist, M Saastamoinen
Flight represents a key trait in most insects, being energetically extremely demanding, yet often necessary for foraging and reproduction. Additionally, dispersal via flight is especially important for species living in fragmented landscapes. Even though, based on life-history theory, a negative relationship may be expected between flight and immunity, a number of previous studies have indicated flight to induce an increased immune response. In this study, we assessed whether induced immunity (i.e. immune gene expression) in response to 15-min forced flight treatment impacts individual survival of bacterial infection in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855313/characterization-of-the-clostridium-difficile-volatile-metabolome-using-comprehensive-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#16
Christiaan A Rees, Aimee Shen, Jane E Hill
Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen capable of causing life-threatening infections of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by severe diarrhea. Exposure to certain classes of antibiotics, advanced age, and prolonged hospitalizations are known risk factors for infection by this organism. Anecdotally, healthcare providers have reported that they can smell C. difficile infections in their patients, and several studies have suggested that there may indeed be an olfactory signal associated with C. difficile-associated diarrhea...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852453/current-use-and-outcomes-of-helicopter-transport-in-pediatric-trauma-a-review-of-18-291-transports
#17
Brian R Englum, Kristy L Rialon, Jina Kim, Mark L Shapiro, John E Scarborough, Henry E Rice, Obinna O Adibe, Elisabeth T Tracy
PURPOSE: The role of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in pediatric trauma remains controversial. We examined its use in pediatric trauma and its effectiveness in children with moderate/severe injuries. METHODS: All blunt/penetrating trauma patients ≤18years old in the National Trauma Data Bank were evaluated for use of HEMS and in-hospital mortality. In a comparative effectiveness study, only patients treated at level I/II pediatric centers with injury severity score (ISS)≥9 were included...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845372/ecotypic-differentiation-matters-for-latitudinal-variation-in-energy-metabolism-and-flight-performance-in-a-butterfly-under-climate-change
#18
Hans Van Dyck, Marie-Jeanne Holveck
Life histories of organisms may vary with latitude as they experience different thermal constraints and challenges. This geographic, intraspecific variation could be of significance for range dynamics under climate change beyond edge-core comparisons. In this study, we did a reciprocal transplant experiment between the temperature-regimes of two latitudes with an ectotherm insect, examining the effects on energy metabolism and flight performance. Pararge aegeria expanded its ecological niche from cool woodland (ancestral) to warmer habitat in agricultural landscape (novel ecotype)...
November 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833821/hypergravity-hinders-axonal-development-of-motor-neurons-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Saraswathi Subbammal Kalichamy, Tong Young Lee, Kyoung-Hye Yoon, Jin Il Lee
As space flight becomes more accessible in the future, humans will be exposed to gravity conditions other than our 1G environment on Earth. Our bodies and physiology, however, are adapted for life at 1G gravity. Altering gravity can have profound effects on the body, particularly the development of muscles, but the reasons and biology behind gravity's effect are not fully known. We asked whether increasing gravity had effects on the development of motor neurons that innervate and control muscle, a relatively unexplored area of gravity biology...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827404/flight-behaviour-of-honey-bee-apis-mellifera-workers-is-altered-by-initial-infections-of-the-fungal-parasite-nosema-apis
#20
Ryan Dosselli, Julia Grassl, Andrew Carson, Leigh W Simmons, Boris Baer
Honey bees (Apis mellifera) host a wide range of parasites, some being known contributors towards dramatic colony losses as reported over recent years. To counter parasitic threats, honey bees possess effective immune systems. Because immune responses are predicted to cause substantial physiological costs for infected individuals, they are expected to trade off with other life history traits that ultimately affect the performance and fitness of the entire colony. Here, we tested whether the initial onset of an infection negatively impacts the flight behaviour of honey bee workers, which is an energetically demanding behaviour and a key component of foraging activities...
November 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
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