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Life flight

Dimitri A Skandalis, Paolo S Segre, Joseph W Bahlman, Derrick J E Groom, Kenneth C Welch, Christopher C Witt, Jimmy A McGuire, Robert Dudley, David Lentink, Douglas L Altshuler
Flying animals of different masses vary widely in body proportions, but the functional implications of this variation are often unclear. We address this ambiguity by developing an integrative allometric approach, which we apply here to hummingbirds to examine how the physical environment, wing morphology and stroke kinematics have contributed to the evolution of their highly specialised flight. Surprisingly, hummingbirds maintain constant wing velocity despite an order of magnitude variation in body weight; increased weight is supported solely through disproportionate increases in wing area...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
Melanie Gibbs, Laura Weir
This study investigated the interactive effects of growth on drought stressed host plants and pathogen challenge with the baculovirus Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) on survival and fitness-related traits using the Speckled Wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria (L.). Exposure to AcMNPV significantly reduced survival to pupation. For surviving larvae, sub-lethal infection significantly decreased daily mass acquisition rates and pupal mass. Growth on drought stressed plants increased daily mass acquisition rates resulting in heavier pupae, and increased resource allocation to adult reproduction...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Kevin Jeanne Dit Fouque, Alyssa Garabedian, Jacob Porter, Matthew Baird, Xueqin Pang, Todd D Williams, Lingjun Li, Alexandre Shvartsburg, Francisco Fernandez-Lima
Despite often minute concentrations in vivo, d-amino acid containing peptides (DAACPs) are crucial to many life processes. Standard proteomics protocols fail to detect them as d/l substitutions do not affect the peptide parent and fragment masses. The differences in fragment yields are often limited, obstructing the investigations of important but low abundance epimers in isomeric mixtures. Separation of d/l-peptides using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was impeded by small collision cross section differences (commonly ∼1%)...
October 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Tina Harrison, Jason Gibbs, Rachael Winfree
Anthropogenic landscapes are associated with biodiversity loss and large shifts in species composition and traits. These changes predict the identities of winners and losers of future global change, and also reveal which environmental variables drive a taxon's response to land use change. We explored how the biodiversity of native bee species changes across forested, agricultural, and urban landscapes. We collected bee community data from 36 sites across a 75,000 km(2) region, and analyzed bee abundance, species richness, composition, and life history traits...
October 4, 2017: Global Change Biology
Ahmed H Abdel-Wahab, J P Michaud, Mohamed H Bayoumy, Samir S Awadalla, Mohamed El-Gendy
The flight activity of Coleomegilla maculata DeGeer and Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was examined by observing tethered beetles in the laboratory. C. maculata were fed eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller, as were larval H. convergens, whereas adult H. convergens were fed Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner) to induce egg maturation; adults of both species received water and diluted honey. A spot of magnetic paint was applied to one elytrum of each beetle, which then adhered to a small neodymium magnet attached to a thread...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Narges Hadjesfandiari, Marie Weinhart, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, Rainer Haag, Donald E Brooks
Platelets have a limited shelf life, due to the risk of bacterial contamination and platelet quality loss. Most platelet storage bags are made of a mixture of polyvinyl chloride with a plasticizer, denoted as pPVC. To improve biocompatibility of pPVC with platelets and to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation, an antifouling polymer coating is developed using mussel-inspired chemistry. A copolymer of N,N-dimethylacrylamide and N-(3-aminopropyl)methacrylamide hydrochloride is synthesized and coupled with catechol groups, named DA51-cat...
September 29, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Haiying Chen, W Jack Rejeski, Thomas M Gill, Jack Guralnik, Abby C King, Anne Newman, Steven N Blair, David Conroy, Christine Liu, Todd Manini, Marco Pahor, Walter T Ambrosius, Michael E Miller
Background: The objective assessment of major mobility disability (objective MMD) by a 400-meter walk test (400 MWT) is important but not always practical. Previous research on the relationship between self-reported MMD (SR MMD) and objective MMD is sparse and limited to cross-sectional data. Methods: We evaluated agreement between SR MMD and objective MMD using longitudinal data from the Lifestyle Interventions for Elders (LIFE) study. The SR MMD indices were defined based on having a lot of difficulty or inability to walk a quarter of a mile (SR-1/4MILE), walk several blocks (SR-BLOCKS), and climb one flight of stairs (SR-STAIRS)...
August 9, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Christoph Kannicht, Mario Kröning, Barbara A Solecka-Witulska, Guido Kohla, Julia Rosenlöcher
Prevention and treatment of bleeding in patients suffering from hemophilia A are inconvenient due to repeated intravenous infusions owing to the short half-life of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) in circulation. Besides (glyco-)pegylation of the FVIII molecule, a bioengineering approach comprises the protein fusion to Fc-immunoglobulin (Ig)G that mediate protection from clearance or degradation via binding to the neonatal Fc receptor. While human-like N-glycosylation of recombinant FVIII is known to be crucial for the clotting factor's quality and function, the particular glycosylation of the fused Fc portion has not been investigated in detail so far, despite its known impact on Fcγ receptor binding...
May 17, 2017: Bioengineering
Fei Tan, Constantin Bartels, Rory McConn Walsh
OBJECTIVE: To explore the aetiology of and to evaluate the importance of MRI investigation on the posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in an Irish population. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of 500 patients with posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, diagnosed and treated by the senior author over a 10-year period. Most patients underwent an MRI brain and inner ear, following the same scan protocol...
September 21, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Matthew J Fuxjager, Meredith C Miles, Franz Goller, John Petersen, Julia Yancey
Steroid hormone action in the brain regulates many animals' elaborate social displays used for courtship and competition, but it is increasingly recognized that the periphery may also be a site for potent steroidal modulation of complex behavior. However, the mechanisms of such "bottom up" regulation of behavioral outflow are largely unclear. To study this problem, we examine how androgenic sex hormones act through the skeletal muscular system to mediate elaborate courtship acrobatics in a tropical bird called the golden-collared manakin...
August 29, 2017: Endocrinology
Y Jiang, A P Møller
Predation is a common cause of death in numerous organisms, and a host of antipredator defences have evolved. Such defences often have a genetic background as shown by significant heritability and microevolutionary responses towards weaker defences in the absence of predators. Flight initiation distance (FID) is the distance at which an individual animal takes flight when approached by a human, and hence, it reflects the life-history compromise between risk of predation and the benefits of foraging. Here, we analysed FID in 128 species of birds in relation to three measures of genetic variation, band sharing coefficient for minisatellites, observed heterozygosity and inbreeding coefficient for microsatellites in order to test whether FID was positively correlated with genetic variation...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Károly Péter Sárvári, József Sóki, Miklós Iván, Cecilia Miszti, Krisztina Latkóczy, Szilvia Zsóka Melegh, Edit Urbán
Members of the genus Bacteroides are important components of the normal microbiota of gastrointestinal tract; however, as opportunistic pathogens are also associated with severe or even life-threatening infections with significant mortality. Various species within Bacteroides fragilis group are phenotypically very similar; thus, their identifications with traditional-automated biochemical methods are frequently inaccurate. The identification of the newly discovered or reclassified bacteria can be doubtful because of the lack of biochemical profile in the database of these tests...
September 11, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Samita Limbu, Melody Keena, Fang Chen, Gericke Cook, Hannah Nadel, Kelli Hoover
Periodic introductions of the Asian subspecies of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij and Lymantria dispar japonica Motschulsky, in North America are threatening forests and interrupting foreign trade. Although Asian gypsy moth has similar morphology to that of European and North American gypsy moth, it has several traits that make it a greater threat, the most important being the flight capability of females. Asian gypsy moth is not yet established in North America; however, infestations have been detected multiple times in Canada and the United States...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
Anil Rana, Matheus P Oliveira, Andy V Khamoui, Ricardo Aparicio, Michael Rera, Harry B Rossiter, David W Walker
The accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria has been implicated in aging, but a deeper understanding of mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy during aging is missing. Here, we show that upregulating Drp1-a Dynamin-related protein that promotes mitochondrial fission-in midlife, prolongs Drosophila lifespan and healthspan. We find that short-term induction of Drp1, in midlife, is sufficient to improve organismal health and prolong lifespan, and observe a midlife shift toward a more elongated mitochondrial morphology, which is linked to the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria in aged flight muscle...
September 6, 2017: Nature Communications
Phong Ha Nguyen, Ki Wan Kim, Young Won Lee, Kang Ryoung Park
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), which are commonly known as drones, have proved to be useful not only on the battlefields where manned flight is considered too risky or difficult, but also in everyday life purposes such as surveillance, monitoring, rescue, unmanned cargo, aerial video, and photography. More advanced drones make use of global positioning system (GPS) receivers during the navigation and control loop which allows for smart GPS features of drone navigation. However, there are problems if the drones operate in heterogeneous areas with no GPS signal, so it is important to perform research into the development of UAVs with autonomous navigation and landing guidance using computer vision...
August 30, 2017: Sensors
Mariam Honarmand, E Tobias Krause, Marc Naguib
The conditions an organism experiences during early development can have profound and long lasting effects on its subsequent behavior, attractiveness, and life history decisions. Most previous studies have exposed individuals to different conditions throughout development until nutritional independence. Yet under natural conditions, individuals may experience limitations for much shorter periods due to transient environmental fluctuations. Here, we used zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) in captivity to determine if conditions experienced during distinctly different early developmental phases contribute differently to male and female attractiveness and subsequent reproduction...
2017: PeerJ
Alberto Cereser, Markus Strobl, Stephen A Hall, Axel Steuwer, Ryoji Kiyanagi, Anton S Tremsin, Erik B Knudsen, Takenao Shinohara, Peter K Willendrup, Alice Bastos da Silva Fanta, Srinivasan Iyengar, Peter M Larsen, Takayasu Hanashima, Taketo Moyoshi, Peter M Kadletz, Philipp Krooß, Thomas Niendorf, Morten Sales, Wolfgang W Schmahl, Søren Schmidt
The physical properties of polycrystalline materials depend on their microstructure, which is the nano- to centimeter scale arrangement of phases and defects in their interior. Such microstructure depends on the shape, crystallographic phase and orientation, and interfacing of the grains constituting the material. This article presents a new non-destructive 3D technique to study centimeter-sized bulk samples with a spatial resolution of hundred micrometers: time-of-flight three-dimensional neutron diffraction (ToF 3DND)...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jiří Jarkovský, Kateřina Skřivanová, Klára Benešová, Lenka Šnajdrová, Jakub Gregor, Hana Peterková, Marcela Bendová, Dagmar Brančíková, Nela Elfmarková, Tomáš Svěrák, Ľubomíra Anderková, Luboš Minář, Markéta Protivánková, Jan Nedvěd, Ladislav Dušek, Lydia Temoshok
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the prognostic significance of breast cancer patients characteristics (coping strategies, BMI, age) and disease characteristics (stage of disease, relapse) with respect to quality of life (QoL) following treatment.Sample and settings: 120 breast cancer patients following treatment were recruited. Health-related QoL was assessed using the Czech version of FACT-B and SF-36; additionally, we used a life satisfaction questionnaire. Coping strategies were assessed using the SVF-78 method...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
A R Heller, N Salvador, M Frank, J Schiffner, R Kipke, C Kleber
BACKGROUND: Regarding survival and quality of life recent mass casualty incidents again emphasize the importance of early identification of the correct degree of injury/illness to enable prioritization of treatment amongst patients and their transportation to an appropriate hospital. The present study investigated existing triage algorithms in terms of sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) as well as its process duration in a relevant emergency patient cohort. METHODS: In this study 500 consecutive air rescue missions were evaluated by means of standardized patient records...
August 10, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
Francesca Di Pippo, Roberta Congestri
A microcosm designed for culturing aquatic phototrophic biofilms on artificial substrata was used to perform experiments with microphytobenthos sampled during summer toxic outbreaks of Ostreopsis cf. ovata along the Middle Tyrrhenian coast. This dynamic approach aimed at exploring the unique and complex nature of O. cf. ovata bloom development in the benthic system. Epibenthic assemblages were used as inocula for co-cultures of bloom organisms on polycarbonate slides at controlled environmental conditions. Biofilm surface adhesion, growth, and spatial structure were evaluated along with shifts in composition and matrix production in a low disturbance regime, simulating source habitat...
August 6, 2017: Microorganisms
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