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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220277/establishment-of-a-heteroplasmic-mouse-strain-with-interspecific-mitochondrial-dna-haplotypes-and-improvement-of-a-pcr-rflp-based-measurement-system-for-estimation-of-mitochondrial-dna-heteroplasmy
#1
Hiroshi Shitara, Liqin Cao, Midori Yamaguchi, Hiromichi Yonekawa, Choji Taya
Mitochondrial DNA segregation is one of the characteristic modes of mitochondrial inheritance in which the heteroplasmic state of mitochondrial DNA is transmitted to the next generation in variable proportions. To analyze mitochondrial DNA segregation, we produced a heteroplasmic mouse strain with interspecific mitochondrial DNA haplotypes, which contains two types of mitochondrial DNA derived from C57BL/6J and Mus spretus strains. The strain was produced on a C57BL/6J nuclear genomic background by microinjection of donor cytoplasm into fertilized eggs...
February 20, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186611/-ethical-issues-of-oocyte-donation
#2
Yanjin Liu, Libai Cai
The birth and development of oocyte donation technology have brought hope for women with poor ovarian reserve and repeated failure for in vitro fertilization, as well as for those with chromosomal abnormalities, premature ovarian failure, or at perimenopausal or menopausal stages. It has not only preserved their reproductive right, but also stabilized their families and increased social harmony. However, this technology does not only involve infertile couples themselves, but also social and ethical issues concerning their families and the society...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185120/-one-for-sorrow-two-for-joy-american-embryo-transfer-guideline-recommendations-practices-and-outcomes-for-gestational-surrogate-patients
#3
REVIEW
Pamela M White
In January 2016, Melissa Cook, a California gestational surrogate experiencing a multiple-birth pregnancy following the in vitro fertilization (IVF) transfer of three embryos comprised of donor eggs and sperm provided by the intended father, went to the media when the intended father requested that she undergo a fetal reduction because twins were less expensive to raise than triplets. Much of the legal interest in this case to date has centered on the enforceability of surrogacy contracts. However, the Cook case also raises troubling issues about fertility treatment practices involving gestational surrogates, twin preference, and third-party reproduction medical decision-making...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178941/implications-of-human-evolution-and-admixture-for-mitochondrial-replacement-therapy
#4
Lavanya Rishishwar, I King Jordan
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial replacement (MR) therapy is a new assisted reproductive technology that allows women with mitochondrial disorders to give birth to healthy children by combining their nuclei with mitochondria from unaffected egg donors. Evolutionary biologists have raised concerns about the safety of MR therapy based on the extent to which nuclear and mitochondrial genomes are observed to co-evolve within natural populations, i.e. the nuclear-mitochondrial mismatch hypothesis...
February 8, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136000/altruism-or-obligation-the-motivations-and-experience-of-women-who-donate-oocytes-to-known-recipients-in-assisted-conception-treatment-an-interpretative-phenomenological-analysis-study
#5
Santanu Acharya, Louise Bryant, Maureen Twiddy
INTRODUCTION: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the motivations and experience of oocyte donors donating to women known to them. METHODS: Three women who donated oocytes to a close relative were interviewed and data were analysed using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach. RESULTS: The two key elements noted were "motivations for donation" and "coping with the consequences of oocyte donation". The motivation for donation was influenced by the familial bond that was strengthened by the donation process in some cases...
March 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122990/using-stem-cell-derived-gametes-for-same-sex-reproduction-an-alternative-scenario
#6
Seppe Segers, Heidi Mertes, Guido Pennings, Guido de Wert, Wybo Dondorp
It has been suggested that future application of stem-cell derived gametes (SCD-gametes) might lead to the possibility for same-sex couples to have genetically related children. Still, for this to become possible, the technique of gamete derivation and techniques of reprogramming somatic cells to a pluripotent state (directly or via somatic cell nuclear transfer) would have to be perfected. Moreover, egg cells would have to be derived from male cells and sperm cells from female cells, which is believed to be particularly difficult, if not impossible...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107054/helping-relatives-survive-and-reproduce-inclusive-fitness-and-reproductive-value-in-brood-parasitism
#7
Malte Andersson
Costly help can raise a relative's reproduction, survival, and reproductive value and increase the inclusive fitness of the donor of help. Donor fitness is explored here in conspecific brood parasitism. In this alternative reproductive tactic, some females, "parasites," lay eggs in nests of other females of the same species, "hosts," suppliers of help that alone take care of the offspring. Modeling shows that hosts can gain inclusive fitness if parasitized by relatives whose reproduction or survival is thereby increased...
February 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105298/the-right-to-know-one-s-genetic-origins-and-cross-border-medically-assisted-reproduction
#8
EDITORIAL
Vardit Ravitsky
The use of donor sperm or egg for reproduction raises the issue of the right of donor-conceived individuals to know their genetic origins. This paper argues in favor of acknowledging such a right and explores the challenges that cross-border medically assisted reproduction would raise in relation to it. It first explores possible justifications for such a right by discerning its possible conceptual and empirical groundings. It describes some key ethical and policy implications of the removal of donor anonymity...
2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102039/a-dispermic-chimerism-detected-in-a-taiwanese-potential-unrelated-hematopoietic-stem-cell-donor
#9
E K L Yang, S G E Marsh, P-Y Chen, C-P Chen, S-P Chen, P Y Lin
Chimerism is defined as the presence of 2 or more than 1 genetically distinct cell populations in an organism. Dispermic chimeras are derived from the fertilization of 1 or 2 matured nuclei by 2 sperms. We here report detection of a healthy and phenotypically normal female with normal ABO red blood cell typing in whom dispermic chimerism was suspected after 3 alleles were identified at multiple human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci using molecular HLA analysis. Molecular HLA typing showed the donor to have 3 HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1 and -DPB1 alleles in blood, saliva and nail samples...
February 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048961/resource-availability-drives-mating-role-selection-in-a-simultaneous-hermaphrodite-aplysia-californica
#10
Kyle T David, Phillip Tanabe, Lynne A Fieber
In simultaneous hermaphrodites, a clear conflict exists between sperm donor and sperm recipient roles, and how such conflict is mediated remains up for debate. This study observed and recorded mating role selection as a function of resource availability in the simultaneous hermaphrodite Aplysia californica. When food was plentiful, animals assumed both sperm donor and recipient roles at relatively even frequency. However, when half of the mating pairs were placed on restricted diets, food-limited animals assumed the sperm donor role at significantly (P < 0...
December 2016: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003869/attitudes-toward-regulations-of-reproductive-care-in-the-european-union-a-comparison-between-travellers-for-cross-border-reproductive-care-and-citizens-of-the-local-country
#11
R Hertz, M K Nelson, J Suñol
This paper compares two populations with respect to attitudes toward the regulation of reproductive care by the European Union. The two populations are 252 individuals who crossed a national border to receive treatment at an independent clinic in Spain and 45 Spanish citizens who received treatment in their home country. Online surveys were sent to former patients (from many different countries) of a private Spanish clinic. By comparing those who engaged in cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) with those who did not, we examined attitudes toward whether or not the EU should extend to all clients in all countries the type of services the clinic provided...
September 2016: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986906/shedding-new-light-on-the-process-of-licensing-for-pathogenicity-by-th-lymphocytes
#12
Cuiyan Tan, Wambui S Wandu, R Steven Lee, Samuel H Hinshaw, Dennis M Klinman, Eric Wawrousek, Igal Gery
Th cells sensitized against autoantigens acquire pathogenicity following two sequential events, namely activation by their target Ag and a process named "licensing." In this study, we analyzed these processes in a transgenic mouse system in which TCR-transgenic Th cells specific to hen egg lysozyme (HEL) are adoptively transferred to recipients and induce inflammation in eyes expressing HEL. Our data show that the notion that the lung is the organ where "licensing" for pathogenicity takes place is based on biased data collected with cells injected i...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917504/constructing-and-enacting-kinship-in-sister-to-sister-egg-donation-families-a-multi-family-member-interview-study
#13
Hanna Van Parys, Veerle Provoost, Kristin Zeiler, Petra De Sutter, Guido Pennings, Ann Buysse
Although intra-familial egg donation has been practiced for more than 15 years in several countries, little is known about family relationships in this family type. Framed within the new kinship studies, this article focuses on the experiential dimension of kinship in sister-to-sister egg donation families: how is kinship 'unpacked' and 'reconstructed' in this specific family constellation? Qualitative data analysis of interviews with receiving parents, their donating sisters and the donor children revealed six themes: (1) being connected as an extended family; (2) disambiguating motherhood; (3) giving and receiving as structuring processes; (4) acknowledging and managing the 'special' link between donor and child; (5) making sense of the union between father and donor; and (6) kinship constructions being challenged...
December 5, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872720/a-comparative-study-on-the-effects-of-different-cryoprotectants-on-the-quality-of-canine-sperm-during-vitrification-process
#14
Sahar Nouri Gharajelar, Rajab Ali Sadrkhanloo, Masoud Onsori, Adel Saberivand
Cryopreservation has the capacity to extend spermatozoa's lifespan and viability. In addition, the semen samples can be collected, preserved and stored or sent to distant locations and still be used long after the death of the semen donor. In this study for the vitrification of dog sperm (fresh and swum-up sperm), different cryopreservation mediums on the basis of glycerol, milk and egg yolk were used. Then, all of the samples were vitrified in the liquid nitrogen and thawed at least 48 hr later for re-examination of sperm parameters...
2016: Veterinary Research Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853913/differences-in-pregnancy-outcomes-in-donor-egg-frozen-embryo-transfer-fet-cycles-following-preimplantation-genetic-screening-pgs-a-single-center-retrospective-study
#15
Alison Coates, Brandon J Bankowski, Allen Kung, Darren K Griffin, Santiago Munne
PURPOSE: This study aims to test the hypothesis, in a single-center retrospective analysis, that live birth rates are significantly different when utilizing preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) compared to not utilizing PGS in frozen-thawed embryo transfers in our patients that use eggs from young, anonymous donors. The question therefore arises of whether PGS is an appropriate intervention for donor egg cycles. METHODS: Live birth rates per cycle and live birth rates per embryo transferred after 398 frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles were examined from patients who elected to have PGS compared to those who did not...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825378/buying-and-selling-human-eggs-infertility-providers-ethical-and-other-concerns-regarding-egg-donor-agencies
#16
Robert Klitzman
BACKGROUND: Egg donor agencies are increasingly being used as part of IVF in the US, but are essentially unregulated, posing critical ethical and policy questions concerning how providers view and use them, and what the implications might be. METHODS: Thirty-seven in-depth interviews of approximately 1 h were conducted - with 27 IVF providers and 10 patients. RESULTS: Clinicians vary in their views and interactions concerning egg donor agencies, ranging widely in whether and how often they use agencies...
November 8, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822908/the-duration-of-gonadotropin-stimulation-does-not-alter-the-clinical-pregnancy-rate-in-ivf-or-icsi-cycles
#17
N Purandare, G Emerson, C Kirkham, C Harrity, D Walsh, E Mocanu
BACKGROUND: Ovarian stimulation is an essential part of assisted reproduction treatments. Research on whether the duration of stimulation alters the success in assisted reproduction has not been conclusive. AIM: The purpose of the study was to establish whether the duration of ovarian stimulation alters the success in assisted reproduction treatments. METHODS: All fresh (non-donor) stimulation cycles performed in an academic tertiary referral ART centre over a period of 18 years, between 1st January 1997 and 31st December 2014, were identified...
November 7, 2016: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822347/acceptance-and-disclosure-comparing-genetic-symmetry-and-genetic-asymmetry-in-heterosexual-couples-between-egg-recipients-and-embryo-recipients
#18
R Hertz, M K Nelson
This paper explores the attitudes and experiences of 203 women in heterosexual couples who conceived via donated eggs (145) or donated embryos (58) in the last 5 years. Online surveys were sent to former patients (from many different countries) of a private Spanish clinic. By comparing the women in heterosexual couples who relied on donated eggs with those who relied on donated embryos, we examined the meaning of the absence of a genetic tie to a child in the two different situations - that of "genetic symmetry" where neither parent has a genetic tie to that of "genetic asymmetry" where only the mother does not have a genetic tie...
March 28, 2016: Facts, Views & Vision in ObGyn
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820604/influenza-immunization-elicits-antibodies-specific-for-an-egg-adapted-vaccine-strain
#19
Donald D Raymond, Shaun M Stewart, Jiwon Lee, Jack Ferdman, Goran Bajic, Khoi T Do, Michael J Ernandes, Pirada Suphaphiphat, Ethan C Settembre, Philip R Dormitzer, Giuseppe Del Giudice, Oretta Finco, Tae Hyun Kang, Gregory C Ippolito, George Georgiou, Thomas B Kepler, Barton F Haynes, M Anthony Moody, Hua-Xin Liao, Aaron G Schmidt, Stephen C Harrison
For broad protection against infection by viruses such as influenza or HIV, vaccines should elicit antibodies that bind conserved viral epitopes, such as the receptor-binding site (RBS). RBS-directed antibodies have been described for both HIV and influenza virus, and the design of immunogens to elicit them is a goal of vaccine research in both fields. Residues in the RBS of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) determine a preference for the avian or human receptor, α-2,3-linked sialic acid and α-2,6-linked sialic acid, respectively...
December 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819301/talen-mediated-knock-in-via-non-homologous-end-joining-in-the-crustacean-daphnia-magna
#20
Takashi Nakanishi, Yasuhiko Kato, Tomoaki Matsuura, Hajime Watanabe
Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are versatile tools that enable the insertion of DNA into different organisms. Here, we confirmed TALEN-mediated knock-in via non-homologous end joining in the crustacean Daphnia magna, a model organism for ecological and toxicological genomics. We tested two different TALENs, ey1 TALEN and ey2 TALEN, both of which target the eyeless locus. The donor DNA plasmid, harbouring the H2B-GFP reporter gene, was designed to contain both TALEN target sites and was co-injected with each TALEN mRNA into eggs...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
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