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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903308/joint-spatial-time-series-epidemiological-analysis-of-malaria-and-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-infection
#1
O A Adegboye, M Al-Saghir, D H Y Leung
Malaria and leishmaniasis are among the two most important health problems of many developing countries especially in the Middle East and North Africa. It is common for vector-borne infectious diseases to have similar hotspots which may be attributed to the overlapping ecological distribution of the vector. Hotspot analyses were conducted to simultaneously detect the location of local hotspots and test their statistical significance. Spatial scan statistics were used to detect and test hotspots of malaria and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan in 2009...
December 1, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903139/diversion-of-veterans-with-criminal-justice-involvement-to-treatment-courts-participant-characteristics-and-outcomes
#2
Jack Tsai, Bessie Flatley, Wesley J Kasprow, Sean Clark, Andrea Finlay
OBJECTIVE: This study compared characteristics and outcomes between veterans who participated in veterans treatment courts (VTCs) and veterans involved in criminal justice who participated in other treatment courts (TCs) or who participated in neither VTCs or TCs. METHODS: Data from 22,708 veterans (N=8,083 VTC participants, 680 participants in other TCs [other-TC participants], and 13,945 participants in neither VTCs nor TCs [non-TC participants]) in the Veterans Justice Outreach (VJO) program were analyzed by using multilevel regression models...
December 1, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901293/live-birth-sex-ratios-and-father-s-geographic-origins-in-jerusalem-1964-1976
#3
J Groeger, M Opler, K Kleinhaus, M C Perrin, R Calderon-Margalit, O Manor, O Paltiel, D Conley, S Harlap, D Malaspina
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether ancestry influenced sex ratios of offspring in a birth cohort before parental antenatal sex selection influenced offspring sex. METHODS: We measured the sex ratio as the percent of males according to countries of birth of paternal and maternal grandfathers in 91,459 live births from 1964 to 1976 in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study. Confidence limits (CI) were computed based on an expected sex ratio of 1.05, which is 51.4% male. RESULTS: Of all live births recorded, 51...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898153/postconcussive-symptom-overreporting-in-iraq-afghanistan-veterans-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Sarah M Jurick, Elizabeth W Twamley, Laura D Crocker, Chelsea C Hays, Henry J Orff, Shahrokh Golshan, Amy J Jak
A comprehensive evaluation, including the assessment of neurobehavioral symptoms, has been instituted at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system to address the large number of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) Veterans returning with mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs). The Validity-10 is measure of symptom overreporting embedded within the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory, a component of the comprehensive evaluation that assesses postconcussive symptom severity...
2016: Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893861/attitudes-towards-intimate-partner-violence-against-women-among-women-and-men-in-39-low-and-middle-income-countries
#5
Thach Duc Tran, Hau Nguyen, Jane Fisher
BACKGROUND: Violence against women perpetrated by an intimate partner (IPV) is prevalent in low- and middle-income countries (LAMIC). The aim was to describe the attitudes of women and men towards perpetration of physical violence to women by an intimate partner, in a large group of low- and middle-income countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used data from Round Four of the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys. Attitudes towards IPV against women were assessed by a study-specific scale asking if 'wife beating' is justified in any of five circumstances...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893267/identity-adjustment-among-afghanistan-and-iraq-war-veterans-with-reintegration-difficulty
#6
Robert J Orazem, Patricia A Frazier, Paula P Schnurr, Heather E Oleson, Kathleen F Carlson, Brett T Litz, Nina A Sayer
Objective: To examine perceptions of identity adjustment in a diverse, national sample of U.S. veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. Method: The authors conducted a planned thematic analysis of text written by Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans when they were asked to describe their reintegration difficulties as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of online expressive writing (Sayer et al., 2015). Participants were 100 randomly selected veterans from the larger study (42 women and 58 men, 60 active duty and 38 reserves or National Guard)...
November 28, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886740/local-peace-and-contemporary-conflict-constructing-commonality-and-exclusion-during-war-in-afghanistan
#7
Daniel Karell
Despite the "local turn" in international peacekeeping and the emphasis on community-centered development during the recent wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, it remains poorly understood how local actors-both foreign and indigenous-shape local-level wartime settings. This article explores the processes and consequences of one military unit's efforts to "win hearts and minds" in Afghanistan during 2012-13. The first portion of the analysis examines original textual data with a novel methodological approach depicting the unit's perceptions of commonalities between itself and local actors...
January 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886722/gender-race-the-veteran-wage-gap
#8
Brandon Vick, Gabrielle Fontanella
This paper analyzes earnings outcomes of Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans. We utilize the 2009-2013 American Community Survey and a worker-matching methodology to decompose wage differences between veteran and non-veteran workers. Among fully-employed, 25-40 year-olds, veteran workers make 3% less than non-veteran workers. While male veterans make 9% less than non-veterans, female and black veterans experience a wage premium (2% and 7% respectively). Decomposition of the earnings gap identifies some of its sources...
January 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886636/the-impact-of-social-support-unit-cohesion-and-trait-resilience-on-ptsd-in-treatment-seeking-military-personnel-with-ptsd-the-role-of-posttraumatic-cognitions
#9
Yinyin Zang, Thea Gallagher, Carmen P McLean, Hallie S Tannahill, Jeffrey S Yarvis, Edna B Foa
BACKGROUND: The personal resources of social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience have been found to be associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity among military personnel. However, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are unclear. We hypothesized that negative posttraumatic cognitions, which are associated with PTSD, mediate the relationships between these personal resources and PTSD. METHODS: The relationship between PTSD symptom severity and a latent factor comprised of social support, unit cohesion, and trait resilience was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 366 treatment-seeking active duty military personnel with PTSD following deployments to or near Iraq or Afghanistan...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885790/hardiness-avoidance-coping-and-alcohol-consumption-in-war-veterans-a-moderated-mediation-study
#10
Paul T Bartone, Bjorn H Johnsen, Jarle Eid, Sigurd W Hystad, Jon C Laberg
Military personnel often engage in excessive alcohol use after returning from deployments. Thus far, research has paid scant attention to personality factors that may increase or diminish the risk for increased alcohol consumption in this population. The present study explores how psychological hardiness, avoidance coping, and stress exposure may interact to influence alcohol consumption patterns in soldiers following deployment. U.S. Army National Guard soldiers (N = 357) were surveyed shortly after returning from combat operations in Afghanistan...
November 24, 2016: Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885431/forensic-age-assessment-of-asylum-seekers-in-finland
#11
Mari Metsäniitty, Olli Varkkola, Janna Waltimo-Sirén, Helena Ranta
In Finland, forensic age assessment is strictly regulated by legislation. According to the Aliens Act (301/2004) and the amendment of the Act (549/2010), the police authorities, the frontier guard authorities, and the immigration authorities have the right to refer asylum seekers to the University of Helsinki, Department of Forensic Medicine, for age assessment. These assessments are especially performed to solve if the person is of major age, the cutoff being 18 completed years. The forensic age assessment is largely based on dental development, since the special permit of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) to the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Helsinki, allowing the use of ionizing radiation for non-medical purposes, includes dental and hand X-rays...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880752/progress-toward-poliomyelitis-eradication-pakistan-january-2015-september-2016
#12
Christopher H Hsu, Abdirahman Mahamud, Rana Muhammad Safdar, Jamal Ahmed, Jaume Jorba, Salmaan Sharif, Noha Farag, Maureen Martinez, Rudolph H Tangermann, Derek Ehrhardt
Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nigeria remain the only countries where endemic wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) transmission continues. This report describes the activities, challenges, and progress toward polio eradication in Pakistan during January 2015-September 2016 and updates previous reports (1,2). In 2015, a total of 54 WPV1 cases were reported in Pakistan, an 82% decrease from 2014. In 2016, 15 WPV1 cases had been reported as of November 1, representing a 61% decrease compared with the 38 cases reported during the same period in 2015 (Figure 1)...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879419/tympanoplasty-outcomes-for-blast-induced-perforations-from-iraq-and-afghanistan-2007-2012
#13
Sungjin A Song, Shankar K Sridhara, Philip D Littlefield
OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics of blast-induced tympanic membrane perforations that do not spontaneously heal, evaluate the outcomes of tympanoplasty techniques, and understand the factors associated with surgical success. SETTING: Two tertiary military health care institutions. STUDY DESIGN: Case series with chart review. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This study reviewed the practice of 1 military neurotologist and included all tympanoplasties for combat blast-induced perforations from 2007 to 2012, which comprised a total of 55 patients...
November 22, 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876041/time-series-analysis-of-malaria-in-afghanistan-using-arima-models-to-predict-future-trends-in-incidence
#14
Mohammad Y Anwar, Joseph A Lewnard, Sunil Parikh, Virginia E Pitzer
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains endemic in Afghanistan. National control and prevention strategies would be greatly enhanced through a better ability to forecast future trends in disease incidence. It is, therefore, of interest to develop a predictive tool for malaria patterns based on the current passive and affordable surveillance system in this resource-limited region. METHODS: This study employs data from Ministry of Public Health monthly reports from January 2005 to September 2015...
November 22, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872285/armed-conflict-and-population-displacement-as-drivers-of-the-evolution-and-dispersal-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#15
Vegard Eldholm, John H-O Pettersson, Ola B Brynildsrud, Andrew Kitchen, Erik Michael Rasmussen, Troels Lillebaek, Janne O Rønning, Valeriu Crudu, Anne Torunn Mengshoel, Nadia Debech, Kristian Alfsnes, Jon Bohlin, Caitlin S Pepperell, Francois Balloux
The "Beijing" Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lineage 2 (L2) is spreading globally and has been associated with accelerated disease progression and increased antibiotic resistance. Here we performed a phylodynamic reconstruction of one of the L2 sublineages, the central Asian clade (CAC), which has recently spread to western Europe. We find that recent historical events have contributed to the evolution and dispersal of the CAC. Our timing estimates indicate that the clade was likely introduced to Afghanistan during the 1979-1989 Soviet-Afghan war and spread further after population displacement in the wake of the American invasion in 2001...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869415/a-new-challenge-for-the-world-the-eradication-of-polio
#16
Ángela Gentile, Héctor Abate
Poliovirus infects 100% of susceptible individuals and causes acute flaccid paralysis in one out of200 infections. Type 1 causes epidemic poliomyelitis; type 2 has been eradicated worldwide; and type 3 is close to being eradicated. In this region, the last case of wild poliovirus occurred in Peru in 1991. There are still two endemic countries: Afghanistan and Pakistan, but countries where there is no circulation of the wild poliovirus have also reported imported cases of polio. In May 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the polio eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and, as a result, developed the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018...
December 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868261/mental-health-of-transgender-veterans-of-the-iraq-and-afghanistan-conflicts-who-experienced-military-sexual-trauma
#17
Jan A Lindsay, Colt Keo-Meier, Sonora Hudson, Annette Walder, Lindsey A Martin, Michael R Kauth
Little is known about military sexual trauma (MST) in transgender veterans. To address this gap, we examined archival data regarding transgender veterans from the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. There were 332 transgender veterans treated at the Veterans Health Administration between 2000 and 2013 (78 men, 254 women; mean age 33.86 years), with most being non-Hispanic White. Transgender status and mental health conditions were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9(th) Revision (ICD-9; World Health Organization, 1980) codes and chart review...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866483/wild-and-vaccine-derived-poliovirus-circulation-and-implications-for-polio-eradication
#18
P L Lopalco
Polio cases due to wild virus are reported by only three countries in the world. Poliovirus type 2 has been globally eradicated and the last detection of poliovirus type 3 dates to November 2012. Poliovirus type 1 remains the only circulating wild strain; between January and September 2016 it caused 26 cases (nine in Afghanistan, 14 in Pakistan, three in Nigeria). The use of oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been the key to success in the eradication effort. However, paradoxically, moving towards global polio eradication, the burden caused by vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) becomes increasingly important...
November 21, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863701/the-many-wounds-of-war-the-association-of-service-related-and-clinical-characteristics-with-problems-with-the-law-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-veterans
#19
Autumn Backhaus, Shadi Gholizadeh, Kathryn M Godfrey, James Pittman, Niloofar Afari
Previous research has demonstrated that veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at higher risk for aggression, hostility, and anger, potentially leading to problems with the law or disciplinary action while in the military. There have been calls for increased consideration of the unique aspects of the judicial system in legal matters with veterans involved. The bulk of the research so far has considered the link between PTSD, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and combat exposure, but little is known about the potential role of chronic pain and Military Sexual Trauma (MST) in a veteran's experience of anger, aggression, and discipline while in the military and legal concerns...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852604/longitudinal-examination-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-as-a-long-term-outcome-of-iraq-war-deployment
#20
Jennifer J Vasterling, Mihaela Aslan, Susan P Proctor, John Ko, Brian P Marx, Matthew Jakupcak, Paula P Schnurr, Theresa Gleason, Grant D Huang, John Concato
The mental health toll of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars on military veterans has been considerable, yet little is known about the persistence of these adverse outcomes, especially relative to predeployment status. We prospectively examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a long-term consequence of warzone deployment, integrating data collected from 2003-2014. In the Neurocognition Deployment Health Study, we measured PTSD symptoms in US Army soldiers before and shortly after Iraq War deployment. We used the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version and a structured clinical interview (i...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
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