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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344677/is-vitamin-d-deficiency-a-public-health-concern-for-low-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-literature-review
#1
Kevin D Cashman, Tony Sheehy, Colette M O'Neill
PURPOSE: Vitamin D deficiency has been receiving increasing attention as a potential public health concern in low and lower-middle income countries (LMICs), of which there are currently 83. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive systematic literature review (SLR) of available data on vitamin D status and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in all 83 LMICs. METHODS: We followed the general methodology for SLRs in the area of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Highest priority was placed on identifying relevant population-based studies, followed by cross-sectional studies, and to a lesser extent case-control studies...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344055/non-organic-vision-loss-in-the-afghanistan-and-iraq-conflicts
#2
Kevin M Broderick, Thomas B Ableman, Eric D Weber, Robert W Enzenauer, Harold J Wain, Keith J Wroblewski
Non-organic visual loss (NOVL), defined as a decrease in visual acuity or field without an identifiable organic cause, can be challenging to diagnose, especially in patients whose NOVL is superimposed on some component of true organic pathology. Exposure to combat puts soldiers at risk of emotional distress and physical trauma, which can contribute to the development of NOVL with conversion disorder or malingering. This case series describes six patients with NOVL who sustained ocular or non-ocular injuries while serving in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, and highlights diagnostic pearls and components of inter-disciplinary management in the unique military context...
August 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335663/improving-mental-health-treatment-utilization-in-military-veterans-examining-the-effects-of-perceived-need-for-care-and-social-support
#3
Robert Graziano, Eric B Elbogen
Objective: Many veterans with mental health problems do not adequately utilize needed care. Research has focused on identifying barriers to mental health care in veterans. Method: The current study adds to existing literature by examining whether perceived need for treatment and social support affect treatment utilization in a national longitudinal survey of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (n = 1090). Results: The Health Beliefs Model (HBM) postulates that a key reason why patients fail to obtain needed care is their belief "it's up to me to handle my own problems...
September 2017: Military Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334944/changes-in-malaria-epidemiology-in-germany-2001-2016-a-time-series-analysis
#4
Sabine Vygen-Bonnet, Klaus Stark
BACKGROUND: German surveillance data showed a sharp rise of malaria cases in 2014 and 2015 due to the increased arrival of refugees from malaria endemic countries. A time series analysis of data from 2001 to 2016 was performed in order to describe the epidemiology of imported malaria in Germany in general and of the recent increase in particular. RESULTS: In total, 11,678 malaria cases were notified between 2001 and 2016 (range 526-1063 cases/year). Newly arriving refugees averaged 10 cases/year (1...
January 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334570/the-effect-of-prehospital-transport-time-injury-severity-and-blood-transfusion-on-survival-of-us-military-casualties-in-iraq
#5
Russ S Kotwal, Laura L F Scott, Jud C Janak, Bruce W Tarpey, Jeffrey T Howard, Edward L Mazuchowski, Frank K Butler, Stacy A Shackelford, Jennifer M Gurney, Zsolt T Stockinger
BACKGROUND: Reducing time from injury to care can optimize trauma patient outcomes. A previous study of prehospital transport of US military casualties during the Afghanistan conflict demonstrated the importance of time and treatment capability for combat casualty survival. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive analysis was conducted to analyze battlefield data collected on US military combat casualties during the Iraq conflict from March 19, 2003 to August 31, 2010...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330009/the-almanach-project-preliminary-results-and-potentiality-from-afghanistan
#6
A Bernasconi, F Crabbé, R Rossi, I Qani, A Vanobberghen, M Raab, S Du Mortier
INTRODUCTION: ALMANACH (ALgorithms for the MANagement of Acute CHildhood illnesses) is an electronic version of IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) running on tablets. ALMANACH enhances its concept, it integrates well into health staff's daily consultation work and facilitates diagnosis and treatment. ALMANACH informs when to refer a child or to perform a rapid diagnostic test (RDT), recommends the right treatment dosage and synchronizes collected data real time with a Health Management Information System (DHIS2) for epidemiological evaluation and decision making...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322052/composition-of-anopheles-species-collected-from-selected-malarious-areas-of-afghanistan-and-iran
#7
Helen Hoosh-Deghati, Navid Dinparast-Djadid, Vahideh Moin-Vaziri, Hoda Atta, Abbas Ali Raz, Seyyed Javad Seyyed-Tabaei, Naseh Maleki-Ravasan, Hamzeh Alipour, Sedigheh Zakeri, Eznollah Azar-Gashb
Background: Malarious areas in Iran are close to Afghanistan and Pakistan that urge the researchers to extend their knowledge on malaria epidemiology to the neighboring countries as well. Vectorial capacity differs at species or even at population level, the first essential step is accurate identification of vectors. This study aimed to identify Anopheles species composition in selected malarious areas of Afghanistan and Iran, providing further applied data for other research in two countries...
September 2017: Journal of Arthropod-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321117/emergency-department-resuscitation-of-pediatric-trauma-patients-in-iraq-and-afghanistan
#8
Steven G Schauer, Guyon J Hill, Jason F Naylor, Michael D April, Matthew Borgman, Vikhyat S Bebarta
BACKGROUND: Military hospital healthcare providers treated children during the recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Compared to adults, pediatric patients present unique challenges during trauma resuscitations and have notably been discussed in few research reports. We seek to describe ED interventions performed on pediatric trauma patients in Iraq and Afghanistan. METHODS: We queried the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) for all pediatric patients in Iraq and Afghanistan from January 2007 to January 2016...
January 4, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314143/modeling-poliovirus-transmission-in-pakistan-and-afghanistan-to-inform-vaccination-strategies-in-undervaccinated-subpopulations
#9
Radboud J Duintjer Tebbens, Mark A Pallansch, Stephen L Cochi, Derek T Ehrhardt, Noha H Farag, Stephen C Hadler, Lee M Hampton, Maureen Martinez, Steve G F Wassilak, Kimberly M Thompson
Due to security, access, and programmatic challenges in areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan, both countries continue to sustain indigenous wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission and threaten the success of global polio eradication and oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation. We fitted an existing differential-equation-based poliovirus transmission and OPV evolution model to Pakistan and Afghanistan using four subpopulations to characterize the well-vaccinated and undervaccinated subpopulations in each country. We explored retrospective and prospective scenarios for using inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization or supplemental immunization activities (SIAs)...
January 3, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310003/resilience-as-a-moderating-factor-between-stress-and-alcohol-related-consequences-in-the-army-national-guard
#10
Jessica Kelley Morgan, Janice Brown, Robert M Bray
Due to the current prolonged conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, members of the United States National Guard and Reserve have shifted from a historically support-based role to an integral segment of combat efforts. Clinical and epidemiological research studies conducted on both civilian and military populations have documented high rates of comorbidity of stress disorders and substance use disorders. It is widely understood that excessive alcohol use is an issue among military personnel. The aim of this paper is to describe risk factors for alcohol-related serious consequences in a study of Army National Guard service members, as well as the role of resilience in protecting against these risks...
January 2, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309023/a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-approaches-to-auditory-rehabilitation-for-blast-exposed-veterans-with-normal-or-near-normal-hearing-who-report-hearing-problems-in-difficult-listening-situations
#11
Gabrielle H Saunders, Melissa T Frederick, Michelle L Arnold, ShienPei C Silverman, Theresa H Chisolm, Paula J Myers
BACKGROUND: Blast exposure is a major source of injury among Service members in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. Many of these blast-exposed veterans report hearing-related problems such as difficulties understanding speech in noise and rapid speech, and following instructions and long conversations that are disproportionate to their measured peripheral hearing sensitivity. Evidence is mounting that these complaints result from damage to the central auditory processing system. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of audiological rehabilitative interventions for blast-exposed veterans with normal or near-normal peripheral hearing and functional hearing difficulties...
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307034/emergency-department-imaging-of-pediatric-trauma-patients-during-combat-operations-in-iraq-and-afghanistan
#12
Jason F Naylor, Michael D April, Jamie L Roper, Guyon J Hill, Paul Clark, Steven G Schauer
BACKGROUND: Military hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan treated children with traumatic injuries during the recent conflicts. Diagnostic imaging is an integral component of trauma management; however, few published data exist on its use in the wartime pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: The authors describe the emergency department (ED) utilization of radiology resources for pediatric trauma patients in Iraq and Afghanistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We queried the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) for all pediatric patients admitted to military fixed-facility hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan from January 2007 to January 2016...
January 6, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302865/global-polio-eradication-way-ahead
#13
Sunil Bahl, Pankaj Bhatnagar, Roland W Sutter, Sigrun Roesel, Michel Zaffran
In 1988, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate poliomyelitis by the year 2000. Although substantial progress was achieved by 2000, global polio eradication proved elusive. In India, the goal was accomplished in 2011, and the entire South-East Asia Region was certified as polio-free in 2014. The year 2016 marks the lowest wild poliovirus type 1 case count ever, the lowest number of polio-endemic countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria and Pakistan), the maintenance of wild poliovirus type 2 eradication, and the continued absence of wild poliovirus type 3 detection since 2012...
January 5, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300139/surviving-families-of-military-suicide-loss-exploring-postvention-peer-support
#14
Jill Harrington-LaMorie, John R Jordan, Kim Ruocco, Julie Cerel
The United States military began to experience a steady increase in suicide rates across all service branches at the inception of the wars in Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003). As the number of suicide deaths increased, so did the number of affected survivors who seek postvention support. Unique issues that accompany suicide death may expose survivors to a more distressing and complicated grief process. Peer support has clinically been observed to be widely utilized by suicide loss survivors. This article explores unique issues accompanying military suicide loss, potential benefits of postvention peer-based support, clinical considerations, and future directions...
January 4, 2018: Death Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297353/strengthening-scaling-up-through-learning-from-implementation-comparing-experiences-from-afghanistan-bangladesh-and-uganda
#15
Sara Bennett, Shehrin Shaila Mahmood, Anbrasi Edward, Moses Tetui, Elizabeth Ekirapa-Kiracho
BACKGROUND: Many effective innovations and interventions are never effectively scaled up. Implementation research (IR) has the promise of supporting scale-up through enabling rapid learning about the intervention and its fit with the context in which it is implemented. We integrate conceptual frameworks addressing different dimensions of scaling up (specifically, the attributes of the service or innovation being scaled, the actors involved, the context, and the scale-up strategy) and questions commonly addressed by IR (concerning acceptability, appropriateness, adoption, feasibility, fidelity to original design, implementation costs, coverage and sustainability) to explore how IR can support scale-up...
December 28, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290294/investigating-the-epidemiology-of-ei-epidemic-spread-in-the-province-of-khyber-pakhtunkhwa-pakistan-in-2015-16
#16
Amjad Khan, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq, Mansur Ud Din Ahmad, Jawad Nazir, Zahida Fatima, Asghar Khan, Shahid Hussain Farooqi
EI in non-vaccinated population causes disruption and economic losses. To identify the risk factors associated with the EI epidemics in equids in Pakistan, a 1:1 matched case control study was conducted during 2015-2016. Including a total of 197 laboratory confirmed cases and negative controls, matched on the basis of geography, time of sampling, specie and age. A piloted questionnaire was used to collect data regarding risk factors associated with the occurrence of EI in face to face interviews. Conditional logistic regression was performed to analyze the data...
January 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283597/ptsd-as-a-moderator-of-a-parenting-intervention-for-military-families
#17
Ashley A Chesmore, Timothy F Piehler, Abigail H Gewirtz
The stress of multiple deployments and exposure to combat places service members at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which may detrimentally affect parenting. Evidence-based parenting programs have been successful in promoting adaptive parenting practices among families exposed to stress. However, the effects of preventive interventions on parenting may vary by military parent's PTSD. The current study includes families who participated in a randomized controlled trial of a parenting intervention for military families known as After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT)...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281137/gender-and-enterprise-in-fragile-refugee-settings-female-empowerment-amidst-male-emasculation-a-challenge-to-local-integration
#18
Holly A Ritchie
This paper examines gender and enterprise in fragile refugee settings. Building on previous research in Afghanistan, it analyses refugee women's evolving economic lives and enterprise initiatives and related social dynamics in refugee communities. Case studies look specifically at two Islamic refugee contexts: Nairobi, Kenya (Somali refugees), and Irbid and Zarqa, Jordan (Syrian refugees). The discussion spotlights the precarious nature of refugee women's new practices and work norms under forced and strained circumstances, without a process of negotiation with male family members...
January 2018: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279716/fraxinus-a-plant-with-versatile-pharmacological-and-biological-activities
#19
REVIEW
Iqra Sarfraz, Azhar Rasul, Farhat Jabeen, Tahira Younis, Muhammad Kashif Zahoor, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Ali
Fraxinus, a member of the Oleaceae family, commonly known as ash tree is found in northeast Asia, north America, east and western France, China, northern areas of Pakistan, India, and Afghanistan. Chemical constituents of Fraxinus plant include various secoiridoids, phenylethanoids, flavonoids, coumarins, and lignans; therefore, it is considered as a plant with versatile biological and pharmacological activities. Its tremendous range of pharmacotherapeutic properties has been well documented including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279320/uk-role-4-military-infectious-diseases-and-tropical-medicine-cases-in-2005-2013
#20
Daniel S Burns, M R Riley, A Mason, M S Bailey
INTRODUCTION: Infectious diseases are a frequent cause of morbidity among British troops. The aim of this paper is to describe the spectrum of infectious diseases seen when UK service personnel are evacuated for definitive care to the Role 4 Medical Treatment Facility based at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of all military patients presenting with infectious diseases and treated at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital between 14 April 2005 and 31 December 2013 was undertaken...
December 25, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
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