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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108844/cultural-identity-among-afghan-and-iraqi-traumatized-refugees-towards-a-conceptual-framework-for-mental-health-care-professionals
#1
Simon P N Groen, Annemiek Richters, Cornelis J Laban, Walter L J M Devillé
Cultural identity in relation with mental health is of growing interest in the field of transcultural psychiatry. However, there is a need to clarify the concept of cultural identity in order to make it useful in clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to unravel the complexity and many layers of cultural identity, and to assess how stress and acculturation relate to (changes in) cultural identity. As part of a larger study about cultural identity, trauma, and mental health, 85 patients from Afghanistan and Iraq in treatment for trauma-related disorders were interviewed with a Brief Cultural Interview...
January 20, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107370/neuronal-injury-and-glial-changes-are-hallmarks-of-open-field-blast-exposure-in-swine-frontal-lobe
#2
Srinivasu Kallakuri, Alok Desai, Ke Feng, Sharvani Tummala, Tal Saif, Chaoyang Chen, Liying Zhang, John M Cavanaugh, Albert I King
With the rapid increase in the number of blast induced traumatic brain injuries and associated neuropsychological consequences in veterans returning from the operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the need to better understand the neuropathological sequelae following exposure to an open field blast exposure is still critical. Although a large body of experimental studies have attempted to address these pathological changes using shock tube models of blast injury, studies directed at understanding changes in a gyrencephalic brain exposed to a true open field blast are limited and thus forms the focus of this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104991/prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-hemodialysis-patients-in-the-middle-east-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Soheil Ashkani-Esfahani, Seyed Moayed Alavian, Mohammad Salehi-Marzijarani
AIM: To determine hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prevalence in each country of the Middle-East and the overall prevalence of the region. METHODS: In this systematic review, we gathered all documents related to HCV infection prevalence among hemodialysis patients in 17 middle-east countries from April 2006 to March 2016. We selected only cross-sectional studies that had proper sampling and measurement methods as well as a valid statistical analysis. RESULTS: After screening of 7311 documents, 56 studies were selected reporting the prevalence of HCV infection among hemodialysis patients from 10 countries of the region...
January 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102530/surgeon-preparedness-for-mass-casualty-events-adapting-essential-military-surgical-lessons-for-the-home-front
#4
Kyle N Remick, Stacy Shackelford, John S Oh, Jason M Seery, Daniel Grabo, John Chovanes, Kirby R Gross, Shawn C Nessen, Nigel Rm Tai, Rory F Rickard, Eric Elster, C W Schwab
Military surgeons have gained familiarity and experience with mass casualty events (MCEs) as a matter of routine over the course of the last two conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Over the same period of time, civilian surgeons have increasingly faced complex MCEs on the home front. Our objective is to summarize and adapt these combat surgery lessons to enhance civilian surgeon preparedness for complex MCEs on the home front. The authors describe the unique lessons learned from combat surgery over the course of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq and adapt these lessons to enhance civilian surgical readiness for a MCE on the home front...
April 2016: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098580/an-investigation-of-treatment-engagement-among-returning-veterans-with-problematic-anger
#5
Kirsten H Dillon, Eric F Crawford, Harold Kudler, Kristy A Straits-Troster, Eric B Elbogen, Patrick S Calhoun
Anger is a commonly reported problem among returning veterans, yet little attention has been devoted to studying treatment engagement among veterans who report anger problems but do not have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study compares Iraq-Afghanistan veterans with anger/no PTSD (n = 159) to others reporting significant PTSD symptoms (n = 285) and those reporting neither anger nor PTSD (n = 716) on rates of treatment utilization, perceived barriers to treatment, and preferences for care. Relative to the PTSD group, the anger/no-PTSD group was significantly less likely to have received mental health treatment in the last year, despite endorsing barriers to treatment at a lower rate...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097165/in-silico-comparison-of-iranian-hiv-1-envelop-glycoprotein-with-five-nearby-countries
#6
Maryam Ghafari, Mandana Behbahani, Hassan Mohabatkar
HIV-1 envelope (env) glycoprotein mediates an important role in entry of the virus into the susceptible target cells. As env glycoprotein of HIV-1 is highly variable in the different geographical regions, in the present study, different properties of this protein in Iran are compared with five nearby countries. The sequences of HIV-1 env glycoproteins of Iran, Afghanistan, Russia, Turkey, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia databases were collected from databases. Amino acid composition and physical and chemical properties of the proteins from these countries were studied using Protparam and COPid tools...
June 2016: Molecular Biology Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080076/adverse-childhood-experiences-and-risk-for-suicidal-behavior-in-male-iraq-and-afghanistan-veterans-seeking-ptsd-treatment
#7
Timothy D Carroll, Joseph M Currier, Wesley H McCormick, Kent D Drescher
OBJECTIVE: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with increased risk for suicide and appear to occur in disproportionately high rates among men who served in the U.S. military. However, research has yet to examine a comprehensive range of ACEs among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or whether these premilitary stressors may contribute to suicidal behavior in this highly vulnerable population. METHOD: A sample of 217 men entering a residential program for combat-related PTSD completed measures for ACEs, combat exposure, and lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts...
January 12, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077864/knowledge-and-perceptions-of-polio-and-polio-immunization-in-polio-high-risk-areas-of-pakistan
#8
Muhammad Atif Habib, Sajid Bashir Soofi, Noshad Ali, Imtiaz Hussain, Farhana Tabassum, Zamir Suhag, Saeed Anwar, Imran Ahmed, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta
Pakistan and Afghanistan remain the only countries where polio is endemic, and Pakistan reports the most cases in the world. Although the rate is lower than in previous years, the situation remains alarming. We conducted a mixed methods study in high-risk areas of Pakistan to identify knowledge, attitudes, and practices of target populations about polio vaccine and its eradication, and to estimate coverage of routine immunization and oral polio vaccine. We surveyed 10,685 households in Karachi, 2522 in Pishin, and 2005 in Bajaur...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077398/mild-traumatic-brain-injury-is-associated-with-reduced-cortical-thickness-in-those-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Jasmeet P Hayes, Mark W Logue, Naomi Sadeh, Jeffrey M Spielberg, Mieke Verfaellie, Scott M Hayes, Andrew Reagan, David H Salat, Erika J Wolf, Regina E McGlinchey, William P Milberg, Annjanette Stone, Steven A Schichman, Mark W Miller
Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury is one of the strongest environmental risk factors for the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as late-onset Alzheimer's disease, although it is unclear whether mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, also confers risk. This study examined mild traumatic brain injury and genetic risk as predictors of reduced cortical thickness in brain regions previously associated with early Alzheimer's disease, and their relationship with episodic memory. Participants were 160 Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans between the ages of 19 and 58, many of whom carried mild traumatic brain injury and post-traumatic stress disorder diagnoses...
January 11, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072876/genetic-nature-of-elemental-contents-in-wheat-grains-and-its-genomic-prediction-toward-the-effective-use-of-wheat-landraces-from-afghanistan
#10
Alagu Manickavelu, Tomohiro Hattori, Shuhei Yamaoka, Kazusa Yoshimura, Youichi Kondou, Akio Onogi, Minami Matsui, Hiroyoshi Iwata, Tomohiro Ban
Profiling elemental contents in wheat grains and clarifying the underlying genetic systems are important for the breeding of biofortified crops. Our objective was to evaluate the genetic potential of 269 Afghan wheat landraces for increasing elemental contents in wheat cultivars. The contents of three major (Mg, K, and P) and three minor (Mn, Fe, and Zn) elements in wheat grains were measured by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Large variations in elemental contents were observed among landraces...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068142/distinguishing-war-related-ptsd-resulting-from-perpetration-and-betrayal-based-morally-injurious-events
#11
Alexander H Jordan, Ethan Eisen, Elisa Bolton, William P Nash, Brett T Litz
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) during a combat deployment may lead to PTSD through distinct pathways from danger-based events. We also examined the prevalence of perpetration-based PMIEs, during which service members behaved in ways that violated their own moral values, and betrayal-based PMIEs, during which personal moral expectations were violated by trusted others. METHOD: Using a sample of 867 active duty Marines from a single infantry battalion that engaged in heavy ground combat while deployed to Afghanistan, a structural equation model was built to examine the relationships between perpetration- and betrayal-based PMIEs, combat experiences, and peritraumatic dissociation reported at 1 month postdeployment, and guilt/shame, anger, and PTSD symptoms reported at 8 months postdeployment...
January 9, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063711/fine-particulates-over-south-asia-review-and-meta-analysis-of-pm2-5-source-apportionment-through-receptor-model
#12
Nandita Singh, Vishnu Murari, Manish Kumar, S C Barman, Tirthankar Banerjee
Fine particulates (PM2.5) constitute dominant proportion of airborne particulates and have been often associated with human health disorders, changes in regional climate, hydrological cycle and more recently to food security. Intrinsic properties of particulates are direct function of sources. This initiates the necessity of conducting a comprehensive review on PM2.5 sources over South Asia which in turn may be valuable to develop strategies for emission control. Particulate source apportionment (SA) through receptor models is one of the existing tool to quantify contribution of particulate sources...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062527/lessons-from-the-organisation-of-the-uk-medical-services-deployed-in-support-of-operation-telic-iraq-and-operation-herrick-afghanistan
#13
Martin C M Bricknell, M Nadin
This paper provides the definitive record of the UK Defence Medical Services (DMS) lessons from the organisation of medical services in support of Operation (Op) TELIC (Iraq) and Op HERRICK (Afghanistan). The analysis involved a detailed review of the published academic literature, internal post-operational tour reports and post-tour interviews. The list of lessons was reviewed through three Military Judgement Panel cycles producing the single synthesis 'the golden thread' and eight 'silver bullets' as themes to institutionalise the learning to deliver the golden thread...
January 6, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051982/single-neurosurgeon-operative-experience-at-craig-joint-theater-hospital-during-the-afghanistan-surge-november-2010-to-april-2011-part-ii-humanitarian-cases
#14
John Joseph Steele
BACKGROUND: The Afghanistan Surge saw NATO troops working with their Afghan partners to remove Taliban governance and replace it with a more democratic model. As part of this endeavor, medical support for both trauma and humanitarian cases was needed. OBJECTIVE: Identify and discuss disease trends to better prepare for future combat medical treatments. METHODS: Retrospective review of operative experience from a neurosurgeon from November 2010 to April 2011...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051981/single-neurosurgeon-operative-experience-at-craig-joint-theater-hospital-during-the-afghanistan-surge-november-2010-to-april-2011-part-i-neurotrauma-cases
#15
John Joseph Steele
BACKGROUND: The Afghanistan Surge saw NATO troops working with their Afghan partners to remove Taliban governance and replace it with a more democratic model. As part of this effort, medical support for both trauma and humanitarian cases was needed. OBJECTIVE: Identify and discuss disease trends to better prepare for future combat medical care. METHODS: Retrospective review of operative experience from a single neurosurgeon from November 2010 to April 2011...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045798/the-association-between-toxic-exposures-and-chronic-multisymptom-illness-in-veterans-of-the-wars-of-iraq-and-afghanistan
#16
Bryann B DeBeer, Dena Davidson, Eric C Meyer, Nathan A Kimbrel, Suzy B Gulliver, Sandra B Morissette
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if post-9/11 veterans deployed to the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts experienced toxic exposures and whether they are related to symptoms of chronic multisymptom illness (CMI). METHODS: Data from 224 post-9/11 veterans who self-reported exposure to hazards in theater were analyzed using hierarchical regression. RESULTS: Of the sample, 97.2% endorsed experiencing one or more potentially toxic exposure...
January 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043506/drug-resistance-pattern-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-the-province-with-highest-incidence-of-tuberculosis-in-iran
#17
N Mansoori, Masoumeh Douraghi, F Vaziri, A A Rajabloo, M Sheikhi, M Taziki, M Atarjalali
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in Golestan Province is consistently higher than other provinces of Iran. This study aimed to determine the rate of drug resistance to first-line antibiotics in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates recovered from new cases in this province. METHODS: The sputum and broncho-alveolar lavage samples from 3828 patients who were suspected for active TB were collected from March 2015 to July 2015. All specimens were subjected to smear microscopy and culture...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043499/complex-emergencies-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region-impact-on-tuberculosis-control
#18
Akihiro Seita
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) has witnessed the largest refugee crisis in history. Overall, 70% of the global refugee populations are from Palestine, Syria, Afghanistan, or Somalia. We reviewed the possible impact of such crisis on the tuberculosis situation in EMR. METHODS: We used the available data and information from the World Health Organization and other international and national institutions. RESULTS: Overall, 15 out of 22 countries in the EMR are either engulfed in complex emergencies (10 countries) or suffering from their neighbors' complex emergencies (7 countries), whereas two countries suffer from both...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043222/public-health-action-following-an-outbreak-of-toxigenic-cutaneous-diphtheria-in-an-auckland-refugee-resettlement-centre
#19
Gary E Reynolds, Helen Saunders, Angela Matson, Fiona O'Kane, Sally A Roberts, Salvin K Singh, Lesley M Voss, Tomasz Kiedrzynski
Global forced displacement has climbed to unprecedented levels due largely to regional conflict. Degraded public health services leave displaced people vulnerable to multiple environmental and infectious hazards including vaccine preventable disease. While diphtheria is rarely notified in New Zealand, a 2 person outbreak of cutaneous diphtheria occurred in refugees from Afghanistan in February 2015 at the refugee resettlement centre in Auckland. Both cases had uncertain immunisation status. The index case presented with a scalp lesion during routine health screen and toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated...
December 24, 2016: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040826/consequences-of-ptsd-for-the-work-and-family-quality-of-life-of-female-and-male-u-s-afghanistan-and-iraq-war-veterans
#20
Dawne Vogt, Brian N Smith, Annie B Fox, Timothy Amoroso, Emily Taverna, Paula P Schnurr
PURPOSE: Although it is well established that combat-related PTSD can lead to reduced quality of life, less is known about the relative effect of PTSD on different aspects of former service members' post-military readjustment. Moreover, research on female veterans' reintegration experiences is limited. This study aimed to document the work and family quality of life of post-9/11 male and female veterans and evaluate the gender-specific impact of PTSD on veterans' work and family outcomes...
December 31, 2016: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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