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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788506/experiences-and-career-intentions-of-combat-deployed-uk-military-personnel
#1
R Morris-Butler, N Jones, N Greenberg, B Campion, S Wessely
Background: Most studies of the psychological impact of military deployment focus on the negative and traumatic aspects. Less is known about the full range of deployment experiences nor how these may impact on career intentions. Aims: To examine subjective operational experiences and career intentions in deployed UK military personnel using data gathered toward the end of an operational deployment. Methods: Data were gathered during deployment in Iraq and Afghanistan...
May 17, 2018: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788111/acute-assessment-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-post-traumatic-stress-after-exposure-to-a-deployment-related-explosive-blast
#2
Monty T Baker, John C Moring, Willie J Hale, Jim Mintz, Stacey Young-McCaughan, Richard A Bryant, Donna K Broshek, Jeffrey T Barth, Robert Villarreal, Cynthia L Lancaster, Steffany L Malach, Jose M Lara-Ruiz, William Isler, Alan L Peterson
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are two of the signature injuries in military service members who have been exposed to explosive blasts during deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan. Acute stress disorder (ASD), which occurs within 2-30 d after trauma exposure, is a more immediate psychological reaction predictive of the later development of PTSD. Most previous studies have evaluated service members after their return from deployment, which is often months or years after the initial blast exposure...
May 18, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787556/unrealized-potential-of-the-us-military-battlefield-trauma-system-dow-rate-is-higher-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-than-in-vietnam-but-cfr-and-kia-rate-are-lower
#3
Shawn C Nessen, Jennifer Gurney, Todd E Rasmussen, Andrew P Cap, Elizabeth Mann-Salinas, Tuan D Le, Stacy Shackelford, Kyle N Remick, Kevin Akers, Brian Eastridge, Donald Jenkins, Zsolt Stockinger, Clinton K Murray, Kirby Gross, Jason Seery, Robert Mabry, John B Holcomb
Level IV/Observational/Retrospective/Historic Controls.
May 4, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787549/long-term-patient-centered-outcomes-of-lower-extremity-vascular-trauma
#4
Zane B Perkins, Barbaros Yet, Simon Glasgow, William Marsh, Nigel R M Tai, Todd E Rasmussen
OBJECTIVE: To describe the long-term outcomes of military lower extremity vascular injuries, and the decision-making of surgeons treating these injuries. BACKGROUND: Lower extremity vascular trauma is an important cause of preventable death and severe disability, and decisions on amputation or limb salvage can be difficult. Additionally, the complexity of the condition is not amenable to controlled study, and there is limited data to guide clinical decision-making and establish sensible treatment expectations during rehabilitation...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783887/a-vision-for-global-heath-diplomacy-in-the-foreign-policy-process-using-smart-power-to-prevent-and-resolve-international-conflict
#5
Sebastian Kevany
In the twenty-first Century, the developed world attempts to provide global health assistance, to poorer countries - at least in part in the pursuit and maintenance of world order and stability. Rarely, however - and in most cases, then on an ad hoc basis - are related foreign policy tools deployed in combination with each other. Nonetheless, there is currently greater openness than ever before to such interdigitation. Not least this reflects the unprecedented challenges of modern political and security conditions - struggling to operate amidst a broader culture of global adverserialism, and conflict which conventional systems of intervention have struggled to successfully resolve...
May 21, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783077/effects-of-prolonged-exposure-and-virtual-reality-exposure-on-suicidal-ideation-in-active-duty-soldiers-an-examination-of-potential-mechanisms
#6
REVIEW
Aaron M Norr, Derek J Smolenski, Greg M Reger
OBJECTIVE: The current study sought to investigate the effects of exposure therapy on suicidal ideation (SI), as well as potential mechanistic pathways of SI reduction among active duty military personnel. METHODS: Active duty army soldiers (N = 162) were recruited from a military base in the U.S. and were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial comparing Prolonged Exposure (PE), Virtual Reality Exposure (VRE), and a wait-list control for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) stemming from deployments to Iraq or Afghanistan...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769371/how-are-we-currently-training-and-maintaining-clinical-readiness-of-us-and-uk-military-surgeons-responsible-for-managing-head-face-and-neck-wounds-on-deployment
#7
John Breeze, J G Combes, J DuBose, D B Powers
INTRODUCTION: The conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan provided military surgeons from the USA and the UK with extensive experience into the management of injuries to the head, face and neck (HFN) from high energy bullets and explosive weaponry. The challenge is now to maintain the expertise in managing such injuries for future military deployments. METHODS: The manner in which each country approaches four parameters required for a surgeon to competently treat HFN wounds in deployed military environments was compared...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769017/a-cross-sectional-investigation-of-the-health-needs-of-asylum-seekers-in-a-refugee-clinic-in-germany
#8
Laura F Goodman, Guy W Jensen, Joseph M Galante, Diana L Farmer, Stephanie Taché
BACKGROUND: Over one million asylum seekers were registered in Germany in 2016, most from Syria and Afghanistan. The Refugee Convention guarantees access to healthcare, however delivery mechanisms remain heterogeneous. There is an urgent need for more data describing the health conditions of asylum seekers to guide best practices for healthcare delivery. In this study, we describe the state of health of asylum seekers presenting to a multi-specialty primary care refugee clinic. METHODS: Demographic and medical diagnosis data were extracted from the electronic medical records of patients seen at the ambulatory refugee clinic in Dresden, Germany between 15 September 2015 and 31 December 2016...
May 16, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760853/emergency-physicians-at-war
#9
REVIEW
Andrew E Muck, Melissa Givens, Vikhyat S Bebarta, Phillip E Mason, Craig Goolsby
Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF-A) in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) represent the first major, sustained wars in which emergency physicians (EPs) fully participated as an integrated part of the military's health system. EPs proved invaluable in the deployments, and they frequently used the full spectrum of trauma and medical care skills. The roles EPs served expanded over the years of the conflicts and demonstrated the unique skill set of emergency medicine (EM) training. EPs supported elite special operations units, served in medical command positions, and developed and staffed flying intensive care units...
May 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755807/assessing-the-prevalence-and-incidence-of-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-the-eastern-mediterranean-region
#10
Mohammadreza Masjedi, Elaheh Ainy, Faried Zayeri, Rogayeh Paydar
OBJECTIVES: This study conducted in 2016 aimed to assess the prevalence and incidence of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A meta-analysis to evaluate the published research relating to asthma and COPD was conducted using data from 23 EMR Office (EMRO) countries and searching using the web of science, PubMed, SciVerse Scopus, Google scholar, and MEDLINE databases. The keywords entered were all EMRO countries (Afghanistan, Bahrain, Djibouti, Egypt, Islamic republic Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arab, Somalia, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, Yemen republic, and Cyprus) and asthma OR chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) OR (chronic bronchitis)...
April 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753547/an-analysis-of-casualties-presenting-to-military-emergency-departments-in-iraq-and-afghanistan
#11
Steven G Schauer, Jason F Naylor, Joshua J Oliver, Joseph K Maddry, Michael D April
BACKGROUND: During the past 17 years of conflict the deployed US military health care system has found new and innovative ways to reduce combat mortality down to the lowest case fatality rate in US history. There is currently a data dearth of emergency department (ED) care delivered in this setting. We seek to describe ED interventions in this setting. METHODS: We used a series of ED procedure codes to identify subjects within the Department of Defense Trauma Registry from January 2007 to August 2016...
May 2, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746452/progress-toward-polio-eradication-worldwide-january-2016-march-2018
#12
Farrah Khan, S Deblina Datta, Arshad Quddus, John F Vertefeuille, Cara C Burns, Jaume Jorba, Steven G F Wassilak
In 1988, when an estimated 350,000 cases of poliomyelitis occurred in 125 countries, the World Health Assembly resolved to eradicate polio globally. Transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) continues uninterrupted in only three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan) (1), and among the three serotypes, WPV type 1 (WPV1) remains the only confirmed circulating type. This report describes global progress toward polio eradication during January 2016-March 2018, and updates previous reports (2). In 2017, 22 WPV1 cases were reported, a 41% decrease from the 37 WPV1 cases reported in 2016...
May 11, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743085/determinants-of-early-neonatal-mortality-in-afghanistan-an-analysis-of-the-demographic-and-health-survey-2015
#13
Gulam Muhammed Al Kibria, Vanessa Burrowes, Allysha Choudhury, Atia Sharmeen, Swagata Ghosh, Arif Mahmud, Angela Kc
BACKGROUND: Neonatal mortality is declining slowly compared to under-five mortality in many developing countries including Afghanistan. About three-fourths of these deaths occur in the early neonatal period (i.e., the first week of life). Although a number of studies investigated determinants of early neonatal mortality in other countries, there is a lack of evidence regarding this in Afghanistan. This study investigated determinants of early neonatal mortality in Afghanistan. METHODS: Data from the Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey 2015 (AfDHS 2015) were analyzed...
May 9, 2018: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740959/preparedness-for-treating-victims-of-terrorist-attacks-in-australia-learning-from-recent-military-experience
#14
Jeffrey V Rosenfeld, Biswadev Mitra, De Villiers Smit, Mark C Fitzgerald, Benjamin Butson, Michael Stephenson, Michael C Reade
The Australian health system is generally well prepared for mass casualty events. Fortunately, there have been very few terrorist attacks and these have involved low numbers of casualties compared with events overseas. Nevertheless, Australian health professionals need to be prepared to treat mass casualties with blast and ballistic trauma. The US military and its allies including Australia have had extensive experience with mass casualty management in the Middle East and Afghanistan wars for more than a decade...
May 9, 2018: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739111/identification-of-a-novel-nonsense-mutation-in-a-patient-with-transfusion-dependent-hb-h-disease
#15
Nikola Holtkamp, Anneta Pistioli, Thomas Rasenack, Holger Kiesewetter, Klaus-Guenter Heinze
BACKGROUND: Hb H disease is a form of α-thalassemia. The high clinical variability is influenced by the exact combination of mutations. Here we report on a 29-year-old female patient from Afghanistan who received regular blood transfusions since her childhood. METHODS: For diagnosis we employed Sanger sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, hemoglobin-electrophoresis, and hematological analysis. RESULTS: Molecular genetic analysis revealed a non-deletional Hb H genotype with two in cis point mutations in HBA1 (c...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737931/rux-largely-restores-lungs-in-iraq-pm-exposed-mice-up-regulating-regulatory-t-cells-tregs
#16
David Lin, Jonathan Li, Rabail Razi, Niha Qamar, Laurie Levine, Thomas Zimmerman, Sayyed A Hamidi, Millicent Schmidt, Marc G Golightly, Todd Rueb, Andrea Harrington, Merrill Garnett, Frank Antonawich, Steven McClain, Courtney Cox, Po Hsuan Huang, Anthony M Szema
Background Military personnel post-deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan have noted new-onset respiratory illness. This study's primary objective was to further develop an animal model of Iraq Afghanistan War Lung Injury (IAW-LI) and to test a novel class of anti-injury drug called RuX. Methods Particulate Matter (PM) samples were obtained in Iraq then characterized by spectromicroscopy. C57BL/6 mice underwent orotracheal instillation with PM, followed by drinkable treatment with RuX. Lung histology, inspiratory capacity (FlexiVent), thymic/splenic regulatory T cell (Treg) number, and whole-lung genomics were analyzed...
May 8, 2018: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734488/virtual-reality-exposure-versus-prolonged-exposure-for-ptsd-which-treatment-for-whom
#17
Aaron M Norr, Derek J Smolenski, Andrea C Katz, Albert A Rizzo, Barbara O Rothbaum, JoAnn Difede, Patricia Koenen-Woods, Mark A Reger, Greg M Reger
BACKGROUND: The majority of studies comparing active psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) do not find significant differences at posttreatment. This was the case in a recent trial examining prolonged exposure (PE) and virtual reality exposure (VRE) among active-duty soldiers with combat-related PTSD. Matching individual patients to specific treatments provides a potential avenue to improve significantly the public health impact of effective treatments for PTSD...
May 7, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733396/trends-in-mental-health-outcomes-and-combat-exposure-among-us-marines-returning-from-iraq-afghanistan-or-other-deployments-2004-13
#18
Jessica Kelley Morgan, Alison Levin-Rector, Richard A Van Dorn, James Trudeau, Laurel L Hourani, Joel K Cartwright, Pamela K Lattimore
Background: As of 2015, more than 2.7 million US military Veterans have served in support of the Global War on Terror. The negative sequelae associated with deployment stressors and related traumas are well-documented. Although data on mental health issues are routinely collected from service members returning from deployment, these data have not been made publicly available, leaving researchers and clinicians to rely on convenience samples, outdated studies and small sample sizes. Methods: Population-based data of US Marines returning from deployment between 2004 and 2013 were analyzed, using the Post-Deployment Health Assessment...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733267/a-gender-analysis-of-a-national-community-health-workers-program-a-case-study-of-afghanistan
#19
Said Ahmad Maisam Najafizada, Ivy Lynn Bourgeault, Ronald Labonté
Gender equity can be a neglected issue in health system reforms. This paper explores the multiple layered gender dynamics of the Afghan Community Health Worker (CHW) Program within broader health system reforms in Afghanistan using a qualitative research design. We interviewed policy makers, health managers, CHWs and community members in 16 sites in 2013 and 2014. We found that gendered societal norms interact and influence the Afghan CHW program in a dynamic way. Gendered social norms around the division of labour tend to privilege women in terms of access to resources at the community level, but it is men who hold leadership positions that ultimately decide how the resources are to be distributed...
May 7, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729228/the-impact-of-stigma-on-community-reintegration-of-veterans-with-traumatic-brain-injury-and-the-well-being-of-their-caregivers
#20
Sean M Phelan, Lauren R Bangerter, Greta Friedemann-Sanchez, Kandace A Lackore, Megan A Morris, Courtney H Van Houtven, Kathleen F Carlson, Michelle van Ryn, Kristin J Harden, Joan M Griffin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between perceived stigma and discrimination and caregiver strain, caregiver well-being, and patient community reintegration. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey study of 564 informal caregivers of Veterans of US wars in Iraq and Afghanistan who experienced traumatic brain injuries or polytrauma (TBI/PT). SETTING: Care settings of community dwelling former inpatients of any US Veterans Polytrauma Rehabilitation Center...
May 2, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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