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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920950/on-the-intrinsic-sterility-of-3d-printing
#1
Russell Y Neches, Kaitlin J Flynn, Luis Zaman, Emily Tung, Nicholas Pudlo
3D printers that build objects using extruded thermoplastic are quickly becoming commonplace tools in laboratories. We demonstrate that with appropriate handling, these devices are capable of producing sterile components from a non-sterile feedstock of thermoplastic without any treatment after fabrication. The fabrication process itself results in sterilization of the material. The resulting 3D printed components are suitable for a wide variety of applications, including experiments with bacteria and cell culture...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920274/adipose-fatty-acid-binding-protein-promotes-saturated-fatty-acid-induced-macrophage-cell-death-through-enhancing-ceramide-production
#2
Yuwen Zhang, Enyu Rao, Jun Zeng, Jiaqing Hao, Yanwen Sun, Shujun Liu, Edward R Sauter, David A Bernlohr, Margot P Cleary, Jill Suttles, Bing Li
Macrophages play a critical role in obesity-associated chronic inflammation and disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of macrophages to elevated fatty acids (FAs) and their contribution to metabolic inflammation in obesity remain to be fully elucidated. In this article, we report a new mechanism by which dietary FAs, in particular, saturated FAs (sFAs), are able to directly trigger macrophage cell death. We demonstrated that excess sFAs, but not unsaturated FAs, induced the production of cytotoxic ceramides (Cers) in macrophage cell lines...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920259/hormone-sensitive-lipase-deficiency-alters-gene-expression-and-cholesterol-content-of-mouse-testis
#3
Feng Wang, Zheng Chen, Xiaofang Ren, Ye Tian, Fucheng Wang, Chao Liu, Pengcheng Jin, Zongyue Li, Feixiong Zhang, Baochang Zhu
Hormone-sensitive lipase-knockout (HSL-/-) mice exhibit azoospermia for unclear reasons. To explore the basis of sterility, we performed the following three experiments. First, HSL protein distribution in the testis was determined. Next, transcriptome analyses were performed on the testes of three experimental groups. Finally, the fatty acid and cholesterol levels in the testes with three different genotypes studied were determined. We found that the HSL protein was present from spermatocyte cells to mature sperm acrosomes in wild-type (HSL+/+) testes...
February 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919924/gradual-vs-abrupt-reduction-of-carpels-in-syncarpous-gynoecia-a-case-study-from-polyscias-subg-arthrophyllum-araliaceae-apiales
#4
Polina V Karpunina, Alexei A Oskolski, Maxim S Nuraliev, Porter P Lowry, Galina V Degtjareva, Tahir H Samigullin, Carmen M Valiejo-Roman, Dmitry D Sokoloff
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Revealing the relative roles of gradual and abrupt transformations of morphological characters is an important topic of evolutionary biology. Gynoecia apparently consisting of one carpel have evolved from pluricarpellate syncarpous gynoecia in several angiosperm clades. The process of reduction can involve intermediate stages, with one fertile and one or more sterile carpels (pseudomonomery). The possible origin of monomery directly via an abrupt change of gynoecium merism has been a matter of dispute...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919790/preservation-of-malassezia-pachydermatis-using-skimmed-milk-as-cryoprotective-agent
#5
F A Silva Sergent, B Acosta-Hernández, J R Jaber, I Rosario Medina, F Real Valcárcel, D Padilla Castillo, S Déniz Suárez
This study evaluated the effect of skimmed milk as a cryoprotectant for the maintenance and long-term preservation of 70 Malassezia pachydermatis strains. An initial suspension of each strain was prepared in sterile distilled water with skimmed milk. The most effective method was cryopreservation that ensured 100% viability for 2years.
December 2, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919445/effective-production-of-recipient-male-pigs-for-spermatogonial-stem-cell-transplantation-by-intratesticular-injection-with-busulfan
#6
Zhuoheng Lin, Jiajing Bao, Qunfang Kong, Yaofu Bai, Fenhua Luo, Zhou Songyang, Yingji Wu, Junjiu Huang
Germ cell transplantation has facilitated spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) and spermatogenesis research and shown great potential in the seed-breeding of domestic livestock. However, little progress has been made in large animals, primarily reflecting the difficulties in preparing sterile recipients. Here, we developed a novel protocol to prepare recipient pigs through the direct injection of busulfan into the cavum vaginale of the scrotums of Landrace-Large bi-crossbreeding male pigs and Seghers male pigs, two economically-important types of pigs, to eliminate endogenous spermatogonia...
November 1, 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919249/-the-microbiome-and-the-pathophysiology-of-asthma
#7
REVIEW
Ashley Sullivan, Eoin Hunt, John MacSharry, Desmond M Murphy
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease whose prevalence is increasing in the western world. Recently research has begun to focus on the role the microbiome plays in asthma pathogenesis in the hope of further understanding this respiratory disorder. Considered sterile until recently, the lungs have revealed themselves to contain a unique microbiota. A shift towards molecular methods for the quantification and sequencing of microbial DNA has revealed that the airways harbour a unique microbiota with apparent, reproducible differences present between healthy and diseased lungs...
December 5, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919214/hydrogel-based-drug-delivery-systems-a-review-with-special-emphasis-on-challenges-associated-with-decontamination-of-hydrogels-and-biomaterials
#8
Irene Satiko Kikuchi, Raquel Galante, Kamal Dua, Daniela Dal Molim Ghisleni, Terezinha de Jesus Andreoli Pinto, Venkata Ramana Malipeddi, Rajendra Awasthi
Many researches involving the development of new techniques and biomaterials to formulate a suitable drug delivery systems and tissue engineering have been conducted. The majority of published literature from these researches emphasizes the production and materials characterization. However there is very limited information regarding their sterilization methods. The present review article has summarized various different literatures that encompasses the difficulties encountered with sterilization methods in the preparations of hydrogels for biological applications...
December 5, 2016: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918526/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-esxh-inhibits-escrt-dependent-cd4-t-cell-activation
#9
Cynthia Portal-Celhay, JoAnn M Tufariello, Smita Srivastava, Aleena Zahra, Thais Klevorn, Patricia S Grace, Alka Mehra, Heidi S Park, Joel D Ernst, William R Jacobs, Jennifer A Philips
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) establishes a persistent infection, despite inducing antigen-specific T-cell responses. Although T cells arrive at the site of infection, they do not provide sterilizing immunity. The molecular basis of how Mtb impairs T-cell function is not clear. Mtb has been reported to block major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) antigen presentation; however, no bacterial effector or host-cell target mediating this effect has been identified. We recently found that Mtb EsxH, which is secreted by the Esx-3 type VII secretion system, directly inhibits the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery...
December 5, 2016: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918250/evaluation-of-immunostimulatory-effects-of-n-2-hydroxy-propyl-3-trimethylammonium-chitosan-chloride-for-improving-live-attenuated-hepatitis-a-virus-vaccine-efficacy
#10
Wei Tao, Ting Fu, Zhuojing He, Ruxi Hu, Lan Jia, Yan Hong
This study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory effects of N-(2-hydroxy) propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC) as an adjuvant for improving a commercial live attenuated hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine efficacy in mice. Mice in the experimental group were intraperitoneally immunized with a solution of HTCC and live attenuated HAV vaccine. And for those injected with sterile water, HTCC or live attenuated HAV vaccine were treated as mock group, negative group, and positive group in turn. The serum HAV-specific IgG titers and the ratios of the serum HAV-specific IgG2a/IgG1 in the experimental group were significantly increased (p = 0...
December 5, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917892/optical-imaging-of-mmp-12-active-form-in-inflammation-and-aneurysm
#11
Mahmoud Razavian, Thomas Bordenave, Dimitris Georgiadis, Fabrice Beau, Jiasheng Zhang, Reza Golestani, Jakub Toczek, Jae-Joon Jung, Yunpeng Ye, Hye-Yeong Kim, Jinah Han, Vincent Dive, Laurent Devel, Mehran M Sadeghi
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 plays a key role in the development of aneurysm. Like other members of MMP family, MMP-12 is produced as a proenzyme, mainly by macrophages, and undergoes proteolytic activation to generate an active form. Accordingly, molecular imaging of the MMP-12 active form can inform of the pathogenic process in aneurysm. Here, we developed a novel family of fluorescent probes based on a selective MMP-12 inhibitor, RXP470.1 to target the active form of MMP-12. These probes were stable in complex media and retained the high affinity and selectivity of RXP470...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917436/looking-ahead-where-to-next-for-animal-models-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#12
REVIEW
Claudio Nardiello, Ivana Mižíková, Rory E Morty
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication of preterm birth, with appreciable morbidity and mortality in a neonatal intensive care setting. Much interest has been shown in the identification of pathogenic pathways that are amenable to pharmacological manipulation (1) to facilitate the development of novel therapeutic and medical management strategies and (2) to identify the basic mechanisms of late lung development, which remains poorly understood. A number of animal models have therefore been developed and continue to be refined with the aim of recapitulating pathological pulmonary hallmarks noted in lungs from neonates with BPD...
December 5, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917219/experience-of-collaboration-between-a-dutch-surgical-team-in-a-ghanaian-orthopaedic-teaching-hospital
#13
T K Timmers, E Kortekaas, Bpc Beyer, E Huizinga, S M V Hezik van, E Twagirayezu, M Bemelman
BACKGROUND: Surgery is an indivisible, indispensable part of healthcare. In Africa, surgery may be thought of as the neglected stepchild of global public health. We describe our experience over a 3-year period of intensive collaboration between specialized teams from a Dutch hospital and local teams of an orthopaedic hospital in Effiduase-Koforidua, Ghana. INTERVENTION: During 2010-2012, medical teams from our hospital were deployed to St. Joseph's Hospital. These teams were completely self-supporting...
September 2016: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917154/hydrogen-cyanide-in-the-rhizosphere-not-suppressing-plant-pathogens-but-rather-regulating-availability-of-phosphate
#14
Tomaž Rijavec, Aleš Lapanje
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria produce chemical compounds with different benefits for the plant. Among them, HCN is recognized as a biocontrol agent, based on its ascribed toxicity against plant pathogens. Based on several past studies questioning the validity of this hypothesis, we have re-addressed the issue by designing a new set of in vitro experiments, to test if HCN-producing rhizobacteria could inhibit the growth of phytopathogens. The level of HCN produced by the rhizobacteria in vitro does not correlate with the observed biocontrol effects, thus disproving the biocontrol hypothesis...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916460/the-upregulation-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-in-the-rabbit-uterus-under-the-lipopolysaccaride-induced-reversible-immunoresponse-state
#15
S J Liu, Y Shi, C Liu, M Zhang, Z C Zuo, C J Zeng, G B Zhou, H Xian, T Z Song
The reproductive organs are more likely to develop gram-negative bacterial infection than other internal organs because of direct access to the body surface. The objective of this study was (1) to provide a suitable intravenous injection dose of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) instead of gram-negative bacterial infection in order to induce a reversible immunoresponse state and (2) to examine the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the uterus of rabbits while in an immunoresponse state. Two series of experiments were performed to accomplish these objectives...
November 29, 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916371/errors-in-bladder-catheterization-are-residents-ready-for-complex-scenarios
#16
Bridget R O'Connell-Long, Rebecca D Ray, Jay N Nathwani, Rebekah M Fiers, Carla M Pugh
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate whether junior surgical residents had successfully mastered bladder catheterization. Our hypothesis was that surgical residents would be overly confident in their abilities and underestimate the potential for case complexity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PGY 2-4 surgery residents (n = 44) were given 15 min. to complete three of four bladder catheterization simulations. Participants reported their mastery by rating confidence using a 5-point Likert scale...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916211/a-32-year-study-of-the-effect-of-pneumococcal-vaccines-on-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-disease
#17
Ronald J Stanek, Nancy B Norton, Maurice A Mufson
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly causes community-acquired pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia and otitis media. Invasive pneumococcal infection (IPD) represents the most serious presentation, occurs in approximately 1 in 4 cases and engenders case fatality rates (CFR) in pneumonia of 20-25% and meningitis of 35-40%. We investigated IPD for 32 years in an American city to assess the effect of differing pneumococcal vaccines on serotype occurrence and CFR among children and adults...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915986/molecular-analysis-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-metallo-beta-lactamase-a-first-report-of-an-iranian-referral-pediatric-hospital
#18
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Mansoure Hosseini, Amir Esmaeil Alyari, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aerouginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causes clinical infections among ill patients. Metallo- Beta- lactamases (MBLs) are important mechanisms of carbapenem (drug of choice) resistance among Pseudomonas aerouginosa isolates. The aim of this study was to determine B- lactamases genes (bla-genes) in P. aerouginosa isolates and to detect percentage of MBLs among P. aerouginosa isolates in different wards. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical isolates of P...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915483/factors-associated-with-sterilization-among-hiv-positive-us-women-in-an-urban-outpatient-clinic
#19
V T Raziano, A N Smoots, L B Haddad, K M Wall
This cross-sectional study sought to determine factors associated with sterilization among HIV-positive US women. HIV-positive women aged 18-45 completed an Audio Computer Assisted Self Interview (ACASI) questionnaire. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression evaluated factors associated with sterilization. The median age of the 187 participants was 37, the majority had at least a high school education, and 88% were African American. Nearly a quarter (22%) of women had undergone sterilization at an average age of 25; of these women, 71% cited their HIV-positive status as an important factor in deciding to have a tubal ligation, 22% expressed desire for future children, 32% reported sterilization regret, and 20% reported feeling pressure to undergo sterilization...
December 4, 2016: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914927/novel-rna-viruses-producing-simultaneous-covert-infections-in-ceratitis-capitata-correlations-between-viral-titers-and-host-fitness-and-implications-for-sit-programs
#20
Angel Llopis-Giménez, Rosa Maria González, Anabel Millán-Leiva, Marta Catalá, Elena Llacer, Alberto Urbaneja, Salvador Herrero
The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata is a highly polyphagous pest, which infests multiple species of fruits and vegetables worldwide. In addition to the traditional control with chemical insecticides, sterile insect technique (SIT) has been implemented in integrated programs worldwide, and has become an essential measure for the control of this pest. A key issue for SIT is to release sterile males that are sufficiently competitive with males from the wild population. Using sequence information available in public databases, three novel picornaviruses infecting medflies were discovered and named as C...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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