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Sterile barrier

Shayan Amiri, Aliakbar Yousefi-Ahmadipour, Mir-Jamal Hosseini, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Majid Momeny, Heshmat Hosseini-Chegeni, Tahmineh Mokhtari, Sharmin Kharrazi, Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Seyed Mohammad Amini, Somayeh Jafarinejad, Mahmoud Ghazi-Khansari
Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently used in a wide range of consumer products. Considering the small size of Ag-NPs, they are able to pass through variety of biological barriers and exert their effects. In this regard, the unique physicochemical properties of Ag-NPs along with its high application in the industry have raised concerns about their negative effects on human health. Therefore, it investigated whether prenatal exposure to low doses of Ag-NPs is able to induce any abnormality in the cognitive and behavioral performance of adult offspring...
March 14, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Charles-Antoine Guilloux, Claudie Lamoureux, Geneviève Héry-Arnaud
Lungs were considered as sterile for a long time. However, it is now evident that the lungs of healthy people are colonized by microorganisms. Among the bacteria present in the pulmonary microbiota, a significant proportion is anaerobic (strict or facultative). Even though interest in the pulmonary microbiota is increasing, few studies have focused on these unknowns that represent the lung resident anaerobic bacteria. This review describes the biodiversity of anaerobes in physiological conditions, and in different chronic respiratory diseases (cystic fibrosis, COPD, asthma)...
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Gabriel Sollberger, Dorothea Ogmore Tilley, Arturo Zychlinsky
Neutrophils are essential to the homeostatic mission of safeguarding host tissues, responding rapidly and diversely to breaches of the host's barriers to infection, and returning tissues to a sterile state. In response to specific stimuli, neutrophils extrude modified chromatin structures decorated with specific cytoplasmic and granular proteins called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Several pathways lead to this unique form of cell death (NETosis). Extracellular chromatin may have evolved to defend eukaryotic organisms against infection, and its release has at least three functions: trapping and killing of microbes, amplifying immune responses, and inducing coagulation...
March 12, 2018: Developmental Cell
Abigail Schirmer, Courtney Swan, Steven J Hughes, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Monika Oli, Sana Chaudhry, Nikolaus Gravenstein, Chris Giordano
BACKGROUND: The American College of Surgeons reports that 60% of the hundreds of thousands of surgical site infections occurring annually are preventable. The practice of surgeons taking phone calls while remaining sterile in the operating field is often accomplished by interposing a sterile disposable towel between the phone and their glove. After completing the call, surgeons resume operating. The purpose of our study is to test the conceptual idea of whether bacteria transmit from an inanimate object, such as a telephone, to the gloves of a surgeon through a sterile disposable towel...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Akshaya Tatke, Karthik Yadav Janga, Bharathi Avula, XiangDi Wang, Monica M Jablonski, Ikhlas A Khan, Soumyajit Majumdar
The current research was undertaken to determine the existence and magnitude of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression on the blood-ocular barriers by studying the ocular penetration of loperamide, a specific P-gp substrate, in P-gp (Mdr1a) knock-out (KO) and wild type (WT) Sprague Dawley rats. A clear, stable, sterile solution of loperamide (1 mg/mL), for intravenous administration, was formulated and evaluated. Ocular distribution was studied in P-gp KO and WT rats following intravenous administration of loperamide (at two doses)...
March 8, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Naohiro Uezono, Yicheng Zhu, Yusuke Fujimoto, Tetsuro Yasui, Taito Matsuda, Masahide Nakajo, Masahiko Abematsu, Takao Setoguchi, Shuji Mori, Hideo K Takahashi, Setsuro Komiya, Masahiro Nishibori, Kinichi Nakashima
Together with residual host neurons, transplanted neural stem cell (NSC)-derived neurons play a critical role in reconstructing disrupted neural circuits after spinal cord injury (SCI). Since a large number of tracts are disrupted and the majority of host neurons die around the lesion site as the damage spreads, minimizing this spreading and preserving the lesion site are important for attaining further improvements in reconstruction. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a damage-associated molecular pattern protein that triggers sterile inflammation after tissue injury...
March 8, 2018: Stem Cells
Lila Fishman, Andrea L Sweigart
Hybrids between flowering plant species often exhibit reduced fitness, including sterility and inviability. Such hybrid incompatibilities create barriers to genetic exchange that can promote reproductive isolation between diverging populations and, ultimately, speciation. Additionally, hybrid breakdown opens a window into hidden molecular and evolutionary processes occurring within species. Here, we review recent work on the mechanisms and origins of hybrid incompatibility in flowering plants, including both diverse genic interactions and chromosomal incompatibilities...
March 5, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
Z Leguay, E Figueiredo, L Evrillus, V Jacques-Terracol, M Le Verger
INTRODUCTION: The choice of packaging is crucial for the sterility of a reusable medical device. The use-by dates for sterile barrier systems (SBSs) are currently determined solely on the basis of an empirical rating scale developed in 1985. The objective of our work is to validate in a scientific way this deadline for the use of SBS for heat-sealable sleeves and bags, with protective packaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty SBSs were tested after different storage periods ; six, nine and twelve months...
February 22, 2018: Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises
Sang Hye Ji, Se Hoon Ki, Ji Ho Ahn, Jae Ho Shin, Eun Jeong Hong, Yun Ji Kim, Eun Ha Choi
This study focused on sterilization methods for the reduction of microorganisms on perilla leaves by cylinder type Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma with underwater bubbler treatment. S. aureus and E. coli in a suspension were reduced to less than 3.4 and 0.5 log CFU/ml after the plasma treatment for 3 min, respectively. On the perilla leaves, they were also reduced to 4.8 and 1.6 log CFU/ml after the plasma treatment, respectively. The S. aureus and E. coli bacterial cell wall was damaged by the plasma treatment evident by scanning electron microscopic analysis...
February 15, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Yohei Koide, Atsushi Ogino, Takanori Yoshikawa, Yuki Kitashima, Nozomi Saito, Yoshitaka Kanaoka, Kazumitsu Onishi, Yoshihiro Yoshitake, Takuji Tsukiyama, Hiroki Saito, Masayoshi Teraishi, Yoshiyuki Yamagata, Aiko Uemura, Hiroki Takagi, Yoriko Hayashi, Tomoko Abe, Yoshimichi Fukuta, Yutaka Okumoto, Akira Kanazawa
Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive barriers between species has been a central issue in evolutionary biology. The S 1 locus in rice causes hybrid sterility and is a major reproductive barrier between two rice species, Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima The O. glaberrima -derived allele (denoted S 1 g ) on the S 1 locus causes preferential abortion of gametes with its allelic alternative (denoted S 1 s ) in S 1 g / S 1 s heterozygotes. Here, we used mutagenesis and screening of fertile hybrid plants to isolate a mutant with an allele, S 1 mut , which does not confer sterility in the S 1 mut / S 1 g and S 1 mut / S 1 s hybrids...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Robert C Bailey, Irene Nyaboke, Mary Ellen Mackesy-Amiti, Erick Okello, Valentine Pengo, Betha Ochomo, Mary Emmaculate Auma, Simon Were, Stella Ojuok, Evelyne Adoyo, Mildred Adhiambo, Marisa R Young, Rebeca M Plank, Fredrick O Otieno
BACKGROUND: As countries scale up adult voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention, they are looking ahead to long term sustainable strategies, including introduction of early infant male circumcision (EIMC). Although a number of devices for EIMC are prequalified by the World Health Organization, evaluation of additional devices can provide policy-makers and clinicians the information required to make informed decisions. We undertook a field evaluation of the safety and acceptability of the AccuCirc device in Kisumu County, Kenya...
2018: PloS One
Sheraz Khan, Mazhar Iqbal, Muhammad Tariq, Shahid M Baig, Wasim Abbas
HIV-1 latency allows the virus to persist until reactivation, in a transcriptionally silent form in its cellular reservoirs despite the presence of effective cART. Such viral persistence represents a major barrier to HIV eradication since treatment interruption leads to rebound plasma viremia. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins have recently got a considerable attention in regulating HIV-1 post-integration latency as they are involved in the repression of proviral gene expression through the methylation of histones...
2018: Clinical Epigenetics
Dominik Hartl, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Julie Laval, Catherine M Greene, David Habiel, Lokesh Sharma, Ali Önder Yildirim, Charles S Dela Cruz, Cory M Hogaboam
The respiratory tract is faced daily with 10,000 L of inhaled air. While the majority of air contains harmless environmental components, the pulmonary immune system also has to cope with harmful microbial or sterile threats and react rapidly to protect the host at this intimate barrier zone. The airways are endowed with a broad armamentarium of cellular and humoral host defense mechanisms, most of which belong to the innate arm of the immune system. The complex interplay between resident and infiltrating immune cells and secreted innate immune proteins shapes the outcome of host-pathogen, host-allergen, and host-particle interactions within the mucosal airway compartment...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
B A Timmins, C Thomas Riché, M W Saint-Jean, J Tuck, L Merry
AIM: To describe the facilitators and barriers for nurses to perform quality wound care in three surgical wards of a hospital in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. BACKGROUND: Up to a quarter of patients in low- and middle-income countries may acquire at least one infection while hospitalized. There is a paucity of research investigating nursing wound care practices in low- and middle-income countries regarding the prevention of hospital-acquired infections. METHODS: The design was qualitative descriptive...
February 13, 2018: International Nursing Review
Xixi Li, Mei He, Haiyan Wang
In this study, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), a proactive tool, was applied to reduce errors associated with the process which begins with assessment of patient and ends with treatment of complications. The aim of this study is to assess whether FMEA implementation will significantly reduce the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) in intensive care unit.The FMEA team was constructed. A team of 15 medical staff from different departments were recruited and trained. Their main responsibility was to analyze and score all possible processes of central venous catheterization failures...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ania Bogoslowski, Eugene C Butcher, Paul Kubes
Staphylococcus aureus is a skin- and respiratory tract-colonizing bacterium and is the leading cause of community-acquired skin infections. Dissemination of these bacteria into systemic circulation causes bacteremia, which has a high mortality rate. Therefore, understanding the immunologic barriers that prevent dissemination is critical to developing novel treatments. In this study, we demonstrate that an S. aureus breach across skin leads to some migration of the pathogen to the draining lymph node, but no further...
January 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sean Conway, Christine L Sansone, Anika Benske, Kaitlin Kentala, Johan Billen, Jozef Vanden Broeck, Edward M Blumenthal
Normal gut function is vital for animal survival, and deviations from such function can contribute to malnutrition, inflammation, increased susceptibility to pathogens, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, mutation of the gene drop-dead (drd) results in defective gut function, as measured by enlargement of the crop and reduced food movement through the gut, and drd mutation also causes the unrelated phenotypes of neurodegeneration, early adult lethality and female sterility...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Zhengfu Yang, Yingxin Zhang, Lianping Sun, Peipei Zhang, Ling Liu, Ping Yu, Dandan Xuan, Xiaojiao Xiang, Weixun Wu, Liyong Cao, Shihua Cheng
Anther cuticle and pollen exine are two elaborated lipid-soluble barriers protecting pollen grains from environmental and biological stresses. However, less is known about the mechanisms underlying the synthesis of these lipidic polymers. Here, we identified a no-pollen male-sterility mutant cyp703a3-3 from indica restorer line Zhonghui 8015 (Zh8015) mutant library treated with 60Coγ-ray radiation. Histological analysis indicated that cyp703a3-3 underwent abnormal tapetal cells development, produced few orbicules and secreted less sporopollenin precursors to anther locule, as well as cutin monomers on anther...
January 17, 2018: Gene
Heidi Moseson, Diana Greene Foster, Ushma D Upadhyay, Eric Vittinghoff, Corinne H Rocca
CONTEXT: Nonuse and inconsistent use of contraceptives contribute to a high incidence of unintended pregnancy and abortion among U.S. women. Little is known, however, about how these outcomes shape women's subsequent contraceptive use and unintended pregnancy risk. METHODS: Contraceptive use was examined among 880 participants in the Turnaway Study, a five-year longitudinal study of women who sought abortions at 30 U.S. facilities in 2008-2010. Multivariable mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models assessed differences in use by whether women received the abortion; results were used to calculate predicted percentages of women using each method...
January 12, 2018: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
Paul Kubes, Craig Jenne
The liver is a key, frontline immune tissue. Ideally positioned to detect pathogens entering the body via the gut, the liver appears designed to detect, capture, and clear bacteria, viruses, and macromolecules. Containing the largest collection of phagocytic cells in the body, this organ is an important barrier between us and the outside world. Importantly, as portal blood also transports a large number of foreign but harmless molecules (e.g., food antigens), the liver's default immune status is anti-inflammatory or immunotolerant; however, under appropriate conditions, the liver is able to mount a rapid and robust immune response...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
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