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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120892/ce-original-research-does-certification-in-vascular-access-matter-an-analysis-of-the-picc1-survey
#1
Vineet Chopra, Latoya Kuhn, Valerie Vaughn, David Ratz, Suzanne Winter, Nancy Moureau, Britt Meyer, Sarah Krein
Study reveals differences in practices and views between certified and noncertified inserters. ABSTRACT: Background: Although certification by an accredited agency is often a practice prerequisite in health care, it is not required of vascular access specialists who insert peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). Whether certification is associated with differences in practice among inserters is unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to gather information regarding whether certified and noncertified PICC inserters differ with respect to their practices and views about PICC use...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108998/unexpected-role-of-the-imd-pathway-in-drosophila-gut-defense-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#2
Aki Hori, Shoichiro Kurata, Takayuki Kuraishi
In this study, fruit fly of the genus Drosophila is utilized as a suitable model animal to investigate the molecular mechanisms of innate immunity. To combat orally transmitted pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, the Drosophila gut is armed with the peritrophic matrix, which is a physical barrier composed of chitin and glycoproteins: the Duox system that produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn sterilize infected microbes, and the IMD pathway that regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which in turn control ROS-resistant pathogens...
November 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101356/genomic-structural-variation-mediated-allelic-suppression-causes-hybrid-male-sterility-in-rice
#3
Rongxin Shen, Lan Wang, Xupeng Liu, Jiang Wu, Weiwei Jin, Xiucai Zhao, Xianrong Xie, Qinlong Zhu, Huiwu Tang, Qing Li, Letian Chen, Yao-Guang Liu
Hybrids between divergent populations commonly show hybrid sterility; this reproductive barrier hinders hybrid breeding of the japonica and indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies. Here we show that structural changes and copy number variation at the Sc locus confer japonica-indica hybrid male sterility. The japonica allele, Sc-j, contains a pollen-essential gene encoding a DUF1618-domain protein; the indica allele, Sc-i, contains two or three tandem-duplicated ~ 28-kb segments, each carrying an Sc-j-homolog with a distinct promoter...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090430/hybrid-incompatibilities-in-interspecific-crosses-between-tetraploid-wheat-and-its-wild-diploid-relative-aegilops-umbellulata
#4
Moeko Okada, Kentaro Yoshida, Shigeo Takumi
Hybrid abnormalities, severe growth abortion and grass-clump dwarfism, were found in the tetraploid wheat/Aegilops umbellulata hybrids, and the gene expression changes were conserved in the hybrids with those in other wheat synthetic hexaploids. Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk., a diploid goatgrass species with a UU genome, has been utilized as a genetic resource for wheat breeding. Here, we examine the reproductive barriers between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon (Ldn) and various Ae. umbellulata accessions by conducting interspecific crossings...
October 31, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089933/curaxin-cbl0100-blocks-hiv-1-replication-and-reactivation-through-inhibition-of-viral-transcriptional-elongation
#5
Maxime J Jean, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Huachao Huang, Justin Brennan, Sydney Simpson, Andrei Purmal, Katerina Gurova, Michael C Keefer, James J Kobie, Netty G Santoso, Jian Zhu
Despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), predominantly caused by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), remains incurable. The barrier to a cure lies in the virus' ability to establish a latent infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Unsurprisingly, efforts for a sterilizing cure have focused on the "shock and kill" strategy using latency-reversing agents (LRAs) to complement cART in order to eliminate these latent reservoirs. However, this method faces numerous challenges...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075176/retinal-and-cortical-blood-flow-dynamics-following-systemic-blood-neural-barrier-disruption
#6
Flora Hui, Christine T O Nguyen, Zheng He, Algis J Vingrys, Rachel Gurrell, Rebecca L Fish, Bang V Bui
To consider whether imaging retinal vasculature may be used as a marker for cortical vessels, we compared fluorescein angiography flow dynamics before and after pharmacological disruption of blood-neural barriers. Sodium fluorescein (1%, 200 μl/kg) was intravenously delivered in anesthetized adult Long Evans rats (n = 44, brain = 18, retina = 26). In the brain cohort, a cranial window was created to allow direct visualization of surface cortical vessels. Video fluorescein angiography was captured using a rodent retinal camera at 30 frames/second and fluorescence intensity profiles were evaluated for the time to reach 50% brightness (half-rise), 50% decay (half-fall), and the plateau level of remnant fluorescence (offset, %)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068214/electronic-and-optical-properties-of-two-dimensional-gan-from-first-principles
#7
Nocona Sanders, Dylan Bayerl, Guangsha Shi, Kelsey A Mengle, Emmanouil Kioupakis
Gallium nitride (GaN) is an important commercial semiconductor for solid-state lighting applications. Atomically thin GaN, a recently synthesized two-dimensional material, is of particular interest because the extreme quantum confinement enables additional control of its light-emitting properties. We performed first-principles calculations based on density functional and many-body perturbation theory to investigate the electronic, optical, and excitonic properties of monolayer and bilayer two-dimensional (2D) GaN as a function of strain...
November 7, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068175/micro-instillation-of-fluorescein-with-an-inoculation-loop-for-ocular-surface-staining-in-dry-eye-syndrome
#8
Emilie Courrier, Didier Renault, Mathilde Kaspi, Agathe Marcon, Victor Lambert, Thibaud Garcin, Frederic Chiambaretta, Gerhard Garhofer, Gilles Thuret, Philippe Gain
PURPOSE: To describe and validate the micro-instillation of fluorescein on the ocular surface by a disposable calibrated inoculation loop to improve corneal and conjunctival staining quality. METHODS: Accuracy and precision of the volume of 0.5% sodium fluorescein collected by a single use 1 μl-calibrated inoculation loop were measured using a precision balance. Twenty patients (40 eyes) suffering from dry eye syndrome were enrolled in a prospective interventional nonrandomized study...
October 25, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050716/postoperative-spine-dressing-changes-are-unnecessary
#9
Ravi S Bains, Mayur Kardile, Lance K Mitsunaga, Sukhraj Bains, Nirmal Singh, Cary Idler
INTRODUCTION: There is minimal literature regarding when dressing changes should be performed. We present the dressing change protocol adopted by our institution. The purpose of this study was to provide an update of our experience with this dressing change protocol over a 15-year period. METHODS: Effective January 2005, we implemented our universal protocol of no dressing changes for five days after surgery. Reviewing a health system administrative database, all spine surgery cases involving instrumentation performed at our institution were captured...
November 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048573/the-rate-of-evolution-of-postmating-prezygotic-reproductive-isolation-in-drosophila
#10
David A Turissini, Joseph A McGirr, Sonali S Patel, Jean R David, Daniel R Matute
Reproductive isolation is an intrinsic aspect of species formation. For that reason, the identification of the precise isolating traits, and the rates at which they evolve, is crucial to understanding how species originate and persist. Previous work has measured the rates of evolution of prezygotic and postzygotic barriers to gene flow, yet no systematic analysis has studied the rates of evolution of postmating-prezygotic (PMPZ) barriers. We measured the magnitude of two barriers to gene flow that act after mating occurs but before fertilization...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038828/using-the-who-surgical-safety-checklist-to-direct-perioperative-quality-improvement-at-a-surgical-hospital-in-cambodia-the-importance-of-objective-confirmation-of-process-completion
#11
Naomi Y Garland, Sokhavatey Kheng, Michael De Leon, Hourt Eap, Jared A Forrester, Janice Hay, Palritha Oum, Socheat Sam Ath, Simon Stock, Samprathna Yem, Gerlinda Lucas, Thomas G Weiser
BACKGROUND: The WHO surgical safety checklist (SSC) is known to prevent postoperative complications; however, strategies for effective implementation are unclear. In addition to cultural and organizational barriers faced by high-income countries, resource-constrained settings face scarcity of durable and consumable goods. We used the SSC to better understand barriers to improvement at a trauma hospital in Battambang, Cambodia. METHODS: We introduced the SSC and trained data collectors to observe surgical staff performing the checklist...
October 16, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021723/bacterial-infections-in-burn-wound-patients-at-a-tertiary-teaching-hospital-in-accra-ghana
#12
O A Forson, E Ayanka, M Olu-Taiwo, P J Pappoe-Ashong, P J Ayeh-Kumi
Intact human skin surface is essential for protection against infection, preservation of body fluid homeostasis and thermoregulation. Burn injury compromises the skin barrier and enables bacterial infection, hence delaying burn wound healing. This study aimed to determine the microbial profile of burn wounds, and resistance patterns of microbes with respect to the source of the injured patient's wound. Fifty wound swab samples were collected from fifty burn patients at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra (KBTH)...
June 30, 2017: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987005/hybrid-asexuality-as-a-primary-postzygotic-barrier-between-nascent-species-on-the-interconnection-between-asexuality-hybridization-and-speciation
#13
Karel Janko, Jan Pačes, Hilde Wilkinson-Herbots, Rui J Costa, Jan Roslein, Pavel Drozd, Nataliia Iakovenko, Jakub Rídl, Miluše Hroudová, Jan Kočí, Radka Reifová, Věra Šlechtová, Lukáš Choleva
Although sexual reproduction is ubiquitous throughout nature, the molecular machinery behind it has been repeatedly disrupted during evolution, leading to the emergence of asexual lineages in all eukaryotic phyla. Despite intensive research, little is known about what causes the switch from sexual reproduction to asexuality. Interspecific hybridization is one of the candidate explanations but the reasons for the apparent association between hybridization and asexuality remain unclear. In this study we combined cross-breeding experiments with population genetic and phylogenomic approaches to reveal the history of speciation and asexuality evolution in European spined loaches (Cobitis)...
October 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967670/modeling-the-contributions-of-chromosome-segregation-errors-and-aneuploidy-to-saccharomyces-hybrid-sterility
#14
Primrose J Boynton, Thijs Janzen, Duncan Greig
Errors in meiosis can be important postzygotic barriers between different species. In Saccharomyces hybrids, chromosomal missegregation during meiosis I produces gametes with missing or extra chromosomes. Gametes with missing chromosomes are inviable, but we do not understand how extra chromosomes (disomies) influence hybrid gamete inviability. We designed a model predicting rates of missegregation in interspecific hybrid meioses assuming several different mechanisms of disomy tolerance, and compared predictions from the model to observations of sterility in hybrids between Saccharomyces yeast species...
October 2, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967512/modified-gloves-a-chance-for-the-prevention-of-nosocomial-infections
#15
Maxim Gleser, Frank Schwab, Philipp Solbach, Ralf-Peter Vonberg
BACKGROUND: Non-sterile gloves primarily serve as a barrier protection for health care workers (HCWs). However, pathogens may often contaminate the skin of HCWs during glove removal; therefore, pathogens may be further transmitted and cause nosocomial infections. METHODS: A field study was conducted comparing contamination rates when using standard gloves or a new modified product equipped with an additional flap (doffing aid) for easier removal. Gloves were removed after bathing gloved hands in an artificial fluorescent lotion...
September 26, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965892/knowledge-of-nosocomial-infection-control-practices-among-radiographers-in-jordan
#16
M A Abdelrahman, M Alhasan, H Alewaidat, M A Rawashdeh, D S Al Mousa, K A Almhdawi
INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial infections add health-related and financial burdens on health systems. This study aims to evaluate the radiographers' knowledge of nosocomial infection control practices in Jordan. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based assessment was conducted. The main domains of the knowledge based test were the nature of nosocomial infections, standard precautions, and infection control practices specific to the radiology department. Comparison of knowledge among radiographers was assessed using the Student t-test and ANOVA...
November 2017: Radiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960091/race-and-ethnicity-are-not-primary-determinants-in-utilizing-veterinary-services-in-underserved-communities-in-the-united-states
#17
Jessica L Decker Sparks, Bridget Camacho, Philip Tedeschi, Kevin N Morris
A retrospective database analysis (2011-2015) evaluated associations between race and ethnicity and veterinary service utilization by sampling 83,260 companion animals whose guardians (owners) self-identified as White, Black, or Latino/a from 39 Humane Society of the United States Pets for Life (PFL) sites across the United States. Controlling for socioeconomic status, the percentage of nonhuman animals sterilized through PFL whose owners were Latino/a or Black was substantially higher than in previously reported findings...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950279/bacterial-translocation-from-the-gut-to-the-distant-organs-an-overview
#18
Ravinder Nagpal, Hariom Yadav
BACKGROUND: The intestinal epithelial layer is the chief barricade between the luminal contents and the host. A healthy homeostatic intestinal barrier is pivotal for maintaining gastrointestinal health, which impacts the overall health as it safeguards the gut-blood axis and checks gut microbes including potential pathogens from entering into the circulation. SUMMARY: Under healthy milieus, the intestinal barrier is generally very dynamic and effective, with luminal side being heavily infested with a wide variety of gut microbes while the basolateral side remains virtually sterile...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902188/reproductive-interference-and-fecundity-affect-competitive-interactions-of-sibling-species-with-low-mating-barriers-experimental-and-theoretical-evidence
#19
M Gebiola, S E Kelly, L Velten, R Zug, P Hammerstein, M Giorgini, M S Hunter
When allopatric species with incomplete prezygotic isolation come into secondary contact, the outcome of their interaction is not easily predicted. The parasitoid wasp Encarsia suzannae (iES), infected by Cardinium inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), and its sibling species E. gennaroi (EG), not infected by bacterial endosymbionts, may have diverged because of the complementary action of CI and asymmetric hybrid incompatibilities. Whereas postzygotic isolation is now complete because of sterility of F1 hybrid progeny, prezygotic isolation is still incipient...
December 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879818/high-prevalence-of-voluntary-sterilization-among-american-women-explained-by-trade-offs-resulting-from-male-parental-commitment
#20
Kermyt G Anderson
Tubal ligation is the modal form of family planning among American women aged 30 and older. As the preference for tubal ligation over cheaper, lower risk and more reliable methods, such as vasectomy, has puzzled experts, a theoretical approach that explains this preference would be useful. The present study investigates the high prevalence of voluntary sterilization among American women from the perspective of life history theory, arguing that the trade-offs between investing in current and future offspring will favour tubal ligation when women cannot obtain reliable male commitment to future parental investment...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
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