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Sterile barrier

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329494/contraceptive-use-over-five-years-after-receipt-or-denial-of-abortion-services
#1
Heidi Moseson, Diana Greene Foster, Ushma D Upadhyay, Eric Vittinghoff, Corinne H Rocca
CONTEXT: Nonuse and inconsistent use of contraceptives contribute to a high incidence of unintended pregnancy and abortion among U.S. women. Little is known, however, about how these outcomes shape women's subsequent contraceptive use and unintended pregnancy risk. METHODS: Contraceptive use was examined among 880 participants in the Turnaway Study, a five-year longitudinal study of women who sought abortions at 30 U.S. facilities in 2008-2010. Multivariable mixed-effects logistic and multinomial regression models assessed differences in use by whether women received the abortion; results were used to calculate predicted percentages of women using each method...
January 12, 2018: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328785/immune-responses-in-the-liver
#2
Paul Kubes, Craig Jenne
The liver is a key, frontline immune tissue. Ideally positioned to detect pathogens entering the body via the gut, the liver appears designed to detect, capture, and clear bacteria, viruses, and macromolecules. Containing the largest collection of phagocytic cells in the body, this organ is an important barrier between us and the outside world. Importantly, as portal blood also transports a large number of foreign but harmless molecules (e.g., food antigens), the liver's default immune status is anti-inflammatory or immunotolerant; however, under appropriate conditions, the liver is able to mount a rapid and robust immune response...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321396/-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-underlying-the-sterile-inflammation-after-ischemic-stroke
#3
Takashi Shichita
Inflammation is an essential step for the pathology of ischemic stroke, and is also an important therapeutic target for developing novel therapeutic methods which have a wide therapeutic time window. Since there is no pathogen in the brain, the inflammation will be triggered by some endogenous molecules which are called as danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). So far two important DAMPs, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and peroxiredoxin (PRX), have been recently identified in the ischemic brain. HMGB1 exaggerates the disruption of blood brain barrier; on the other hand, PRX activates mononuclear phagocytes and induces the inflammatory cytokine production through the activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225957/limited-sterile-processing-capabilities-for-safe-surgery-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-experience-in-the-republic-of-congo-madagascar-and-benin
#4
REVIEW
Olive Fast, Christina Fast, Dan Fast, Suzanne Veltjens, Zouliha Salami, Michelle C White
It is highly difficult to perform safe surgery without sterile instruments, yet the capacity to adequately clean, disinfect and sterilise surgical instruments in low-income and middle-income countries is largely unknown. Sterile Processing Education Charitable Trust developed an assessment tool and, in partnership with Mercy Ships, evaluated the sterile processing capacity in 59 facilities in Madagascar, Benin and the Republic of Congo. This data-driven analysis paper illustrates how lack of sterile processing capacity acts as a barrier to safe surgical care...
2017: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196635/male-sterile6021-ms6021-is-required-for-the-development-of-anther-cuticle-and-pollen-exine-in-maize
#5
Youhui Tian, Senlin Xiao, Juan Liu, Yamuna Somaratne, Hua Zhang, Mingming Wang, Huairen Zhang, Li Zhao, Huabang Chen
The anther cuticle and pollen wall function as physical barriers that protect genetic material from various environmental stresses. The anther cuticle is composed of wax and cutin, the pollen wall includes exine and intine, and the components of the outer exine are collectively called sporopollenin. Other than cuticle wax, cutin and sporopollenin are biopolymers compounds. The precise constituents and developmental mechanism of these biopolymeric are poorly understood. Here, we reported a complete male sterile mutant, male sterile6021, in maize...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183849/a-sterilization-method-for-decellularized-xenogeneic-cardiovascular-scaffolds
#6
Cátia Fidalgo, Laura Iop, Manuela Sciro, Michael Harder, Dimosthenis Mavrilas, Sotirios Korossis, Andrea Bagno, Giorgio Palù, Paola Aguiari, Gino Gerosa
Decellularized xenogeneic scaffolds have shown promise to be employed as compatible and functional cardiovascular biomaterials. However, one of the main barriers to their clinical exploitation is the lack of appropriate sterilization procedures. This study investigated the efficiency of a two-step sterilization method, antibiotics/antimycotic (AA) cocktail and peracetic acid (PAA), on porcine and bovine decellularized pericardium. In order to assess the efficiency of the method, a sterilization assessment protocol was specifically designed, comprising: i) controlled contamination with a known amount of bacteria; ii) sterility test; iii) identification of contaminants through MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight) mass spectrometry and iv) quantification by the Most Probable Number (MPN) method...
November 25, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173188/innate-immune-surveillance-in-the-central-nervous-system-in-legionella-pneumophila-infection
#7
Pasqualina Lagana, Luca Soraci, Maria Elsa Gambuzza, Santi Delia
Innate immune response represents a common event in many neuroinflammatory diseases. The resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) are capable of sensing and reacting to both infections and sterile trauma. Peripheral immune cell migration into CNS is regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), although peripheral immune cells can invade CNS through meninges, choroid plexus, perivascular spaces, and cerebrospinal fluid. Consequently, in the brain immune reactions can be mediated by both resident and peripheral immune cells...
November 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171886/reproductive-rights-without-resources-or-recourse
#8
Kimberly Mutcherson
The U.S. Supreme Court declared procreation to be a fundamental right in the early twentieth century in a case involving Oklahoma's Habitual Criminal Sterilization Act, an act that permitted unconsented sterilization of individuals convicted of certain crimes. The right that the Court articulated in that case is a negative right: it requires that the government not place unjustified roadblocks in the way of people seeking to procreate, but it does not require the government to take positive steps to help people procreate if they wish to...
December 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146297/pregnancy-intention-and-contraceptive-use-among-women-by-class-of-obesity-results-from-the-2006-2010-and-2011-2013-national-survey-of-family-growth
#9
Brian T Nguyen, Jennifer L Elia, Cathrine Y Ha, Bliss E Kaneshiro
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting research findings on the association of obesity and pregnancy intention may be due to their collective definition of obesity at a body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) or greater. However, obese women with a BMI of 40 kg/m(2) or greater may be both behaviorally and clinically different from obese women with a lower BMI. This study reexamines this relationship, stratifying by class of obesity; the study also explores variations in contraceptive use by class of obesity given their potential contribution to the incidence of unintended or unwanted pregnancy...
November 13, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120892/ce-original-research-does-certification-in-vascular-access-matter-an-analysis-of-the-picc1-survey
#10
Vineet Chopra, Latoya Kuhn, Valerie Vaughn, David Ratz, Suzanne Winter, Nancy Moureau, Britt Meyer, Sarah Krein
: Background: Although certification by an accredited agency is often a practice prerequisite in health care, it is not required of vascular access specialists who insert peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). Whether certification is associated with differences in practice among inserters is unknown. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to gather information regarding whether certified and noncertified PICC inserters differ with respect to their practices and views about PICC use...
December 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108998/unexpected-role-of-the-imd-pathway-in-drosophila-gut-defense-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Aki Hori, Shoichiro Kurata, Takayuki Kuraishi
In this study, fruit fly of the genus Drosophila is utilized as a suitable model animal to investigate the molecular mechanisms of innate immunity. To combat orally transmitted pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, the Drosophila gut is armed with the peritrophic matrix, which is a physical barrier composed of chitin and glycoproteins: the Duox system that produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn sterilize infected microbes, and the IMD pathway that regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which in turn control ROS-resistant pathogens...
November 3, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101356/genomic-structural-variation-mediated-allelic-suppression-causes-hybrid-male-sterility-in-rice
#12
Rongxin Shen, Lan Wang, Xupeng Liu, Jiang Wu, Weiwei Jin, Xiucai Zhao, Xianrong Xie, Qinlong Zhu, Huiwu Tang, Qing Li, Letian Chen, Yao-Guang Liu
Hybrids between divergent populations commonly show hybrid sterility; this reproductive barrier hinders hybrid breeding of the japonica and indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) subspecies. Here we show that structural changes and copy number variation at the Sc locus confer japonica-indica hybrid male sterility. The japonica allele, Sc-j, contains a pollen-essential gene encoding a DUF1618-domain protein; the indica allele, Sc-i, contains two or three tandem-duplicated ~ 28-kb segments, each carrying an Sc-j-homolog with a distinct promoter...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090430/hybrid-incompatibilities-in-interspecific-crosses-between-tetraploid-wheat-and-its-wild-diploid-relative-aegilops-umbellulata
#13
Moeko Okada, Kentaro Yoshida, Shigeo Takumi
Hybrid abnormalities, severe growth abortion and grass-clump dwarfism, were found in the tetraploid wheat/Aegilops umbellulata hybrids, and the gene expression changes were conserved in the hybrids with those in other wheat synthetic hexaploids. Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk., a diploid goatgrass species with a UU genome, has been utilized as a genetic resource for wheat breeding. Here, we examine the reproductive barriers between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon (Ldn) and various Ae. umbellulata accessions by conducting interspecific crossings...
October 31, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089933/curaxin-cbl0100-blocks-hiv-1-replication-and-reactivation-through-inhibition-of-viral-transcriptional-elongation
#14
Maxime J Jean, Tsuyoshi Hayashi, Huachao Huang, Justin Brennan, Sydney Simpson, Andrei Purmal, Katerina Gurova, Michael C Keefer, James J Kobie, Netty G Santoso, Jian Zhu
Despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), predominantly caused by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), remains incurable. The barrier to a cure lies in the virus' ability to establish a latent infection in HIV/AIDS patients. Unsurprisingly, efforts for a sterilizing cure have focused on the "shock and kill" strategy using latency-reversing agents (LRAs) to complement cART in order to eliminate these latent reservoirs. However, this method faces numerous challenges...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075176/retinal-and-cortical-blood-flow-dynamics-following-systemic-blood-neural-barrier-disruption
#15
Flora Hui, Christine T O Nguyen, Zheng He, Algis J Vingrys, Rachel Gurrell, Rebecca L Fish, Bang V Bui
To consider whether imaging retinal vasculature may be used as a marker for cortical vessels, we compared fluorescein angiography flow dynamics before and after pharmacological disruption of blood-neural barriers. Sodium fluorescein (1%, 200 μl/kg) was intravenously delivered in anesthetized adult Long Evans rats (n = 44, brain = 18, retina = 26). In the brain cohort, a cranial window was created to allow direct visualization of surface cortical vessels. Video fluorescein angiography was captured using a rodent retinal camera at 30 frames/second and fluorescence intensity profiles were evaluated for the time to reach 50% brightness (half-rise), 50% decay (half-fall), and the plateau level of remnant fluorescence (offset, %)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068214/electronic-and-optical-properties-of-two-dimensional-gan-from-first-principles
#16
Nocona Sanders, Dylan Bayerl, Guangsha Shi, Kelsey A Mengle, Emmanouil Kioupakis
Gallium nitride (GaN) is an important commercial semiconductor for solid-state lighting applications. Atomically thin GaN, a recently synthesized two-dimensional material, is of particular interest because the extreme quantum confinement enables additional control of its light-emitting properties. We performed first-principles calculations based on density functional and many-body perturbation theory to investigate the electronic, optical, and excitonic properties of monolayer and bilayer two-dimensional (2D) GaN as a function of strain...
November 7, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068175/micro-instillation-of-fluorescein-with-an-inoculation-loop-for-ocular-surface-staining-in-dry-eye-syndrome
#17
Emilie Courrier, Didier Renault, Mathilde Kaspi, Agathe Marcon, Victor Lambert, Thibaud Garcin, Frederic Chiambaretta, Gerhard Garhofer, Gilles Thuret, Philippe Gain
PURPOSE: To describe and validate the micro-instillation of fluorescein on the ocular surface by a disposable calibrated inoculation loop to improve corneal and conjunctival staining quality. METHODS: Accuracy and precision of the volume of 0.5% sodium fluorescein collected by a single use 1 μl-calibrated inoculation loop were measured using a precision balance. Twenty patients (40 eyes) suffering from dry eye syndrome were enrolled in a prospective interventional nonrandomized study...
October 25, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050716/postoperative-spine-dressing-changes-are-unnecessary
#18
Ravi S Bains, Mayur Kardile, Lance K Mitsunaga, Sukhraj Bains, Nirmal Singh, Cary Idler
INTRODUCTION: There is minimal literature regarding when dressing changes should be performed. We present the dressing change protocol adopted by our institution. The purpose of this study was to provide an update of our experience with this dressing change protocol over a 15-year period. METHODS: Effective January 2005, we implemented our universal protocol of no dressing changes for five days after surgery. Reviewing a health system administrative database, all spine surgery cases involving instrumentation performed at our institution were captured...
November 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048573/the-rate-of-evolution-of-postmating-prezygotic-reproductive-isolation-in-drosophila
#19
David A Turissini, Joseph A McGirr, Sonali S Patel, Jean R David, Daniel R Matute
Reproductive isolation is an intrinsic aspect of species formation. For that reason, the identification of the precise isolating traits, and the rates at which they evolve, is crucial to understanding how species originate and persist. Previous work has measured the rates of evolution of prezygotic and postzygotic barriers to gene flow, yet no systematic analysis has studied the rates of evolution of postmating-prezygotic (PMPZ) barriers. We measured the magnitude of two barriers to gene flow that act after mating occurs but before fertilization...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038828/using-the-who-surgical-safety-checklist-to-direct-perioperative-quality-improvement-at-a-surgical-hospital-in-cambodia-the-importance-of-objective-confirmation-of-process-completion
#20
Naomi Y Garland, Sokhavatey Kheng, Michael De Leon, Hourt Eap, Jared A Forrester, Janice Hay, Palritha Oum, Socheat Sam Ath, Simon Stock, Samprathna Yem, Gerlinda Lucas, Thomas G Weiser
BACKGROUND: The WHO surgical safety checklist (SSC) is known to prevent postoperative complications; however, strategies for effective implementation are unclear. In addition to cultural and organizational barriers faced by high-income countries, resource-constrained settings face scarcity of durable and consumable goods. We used the SSC to better understand barriers to improvement at a trauma hospital in Battambang, Cambodia. METHODS: We introduced the SSC and trained data collectors to observe surgical staff performing the checklist...
December 2017: World Journal of Surgery
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