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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636095/suppression-or-knockout-of-saf-sam-overcomes-the-sa-mediated-hybrid-male-sterility-in-rice
#1
Yongyao Xie, Baixiao Niu, Yunming Long, Gousi Li, Jintao Tang, Yaling Zhang, Ding Ren, Yao-Guang Liu, Letian Chen
Hybrids between the indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa) are usually sterile, which hinders utilization of heterosis in the inter-subspecific hybrid breeding. The complex locus Sa comprises two adjacently located genes, SaF and SaM, which interact to cause abortion of pollen grains carrying the japonica allele in japonica-indica hybrids. Here we showed that silencing of SaF or SaM by RNA interference restored male fertility in indica-japonica hybrids with heterozygous Sa. We further used CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing to knockout the SaF and SaM alleles respectively of an indica rice line to create hybrid-compatible lines...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633998/changes-in-risk-behaviours-during-and-following-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-who-inject-drugs-the-activate-study
#2
Håvard Midgard, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Evan B Cunningham, Brian Conway, Markus Backmund, Philip Bruggmann, Julie Bruneau, Stefan Bourgeois, Adrian Dunlop, Graham R Foster, Margaret Hellard, Geert Robaeys, Maria C Thurnheer, Martin Weltman, Janaki Amin, Philippa S Marks, Sophie Quiene, Gregory J Dore, Olav Dalgard, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: The risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection due to continued injecting risk behaviours might remain a barrier to HCV treatment among people who inject drugs. We aimed to evaluate changes in risk behaviours during and following HCV treatment among people with ongoing injecting drug use or receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST). METHODS: ACTIVATE was an international multicentre clinical trial conducted between 2012 and 2014. Participants with HCV genotypes 2/3 infection were treated with peg-interferon/ribavirin for 12 or 24 weeks and completed a self-administered behavioural questionnaire at each study visit...
June 17, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632532/postpartum-tubal-sterilization-making-the-case-for-urgency
#3
Michael G Richardson, Sarah J Hall, Lisa C Zuckerwise
The parturient who requests postpartum sterilization has given consideration to and has made decisions regarding this aspect of her medical care long before her delivery. She arrives at parturition expecting the postpartum procedure to be performed as intended. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has reaffirmed its opinion that postpartum sterilization is an urgent procedure, owing to the safety and superior effectiveness of tubal sterilization via minilaparotomy in the immediate postpartum period, and the adverse consequences for mothers, babies, and society when the procedure is not actualized as desired and intended...
June 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630163/measuring-the-potential-energy-barrier-to-lipid-bilayer-electroporation
#4
Jason T Sengel, Mark I Wallace
Electroporation is a common tool for gene transfection, tumour ablation, sterilization and drug delivery. Using experimental methods, we explore the temperature dependence of electropore formation in a model membrane system (droplet-interface bilayers), using optical single-channel recording to image the real-time gating of individual electropores. We investigate the influence of the agarose substrate on electropores formed in this system. Furthermore, by examining the temperature-dependent kinetics of pore opening and closure we are able to estimate a barrier to pore opening in 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPhPC) membranes to be 25...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610608/isoliquiritigenin-alleviates-early-brain-injury-after-experimental-intracerebral-hemorrhage-via-suppressing-ros-and-or-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-promoting-nrf2-antioxidant-pathway
#5
Jun Zeng, Yizhao Chen, Rui Ding, Liang Feng, Zhenghao Fu, Shuo Yang, Xinqing Deng, Zhichong Xie, Shizhong Zheng
BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) induces potently oxidative stress responses and inflammatory processes. Isoliquiritigenin (ILG) is a flavonoid with a chalcone structure and can activate nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant system, negatively regulate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathways, but its role and potential molecular mechanisms in the pathology following ICH remain unclear...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604770/pervasive-antagonistic-interactions-among-hybrid-incompatibility-loci
#6
Rafael F Guerrero, Christopher D Muir, Sarah Josway, Leonie C Moyle
Species barriers, expressed as hybrid inviability and sterility, are often due to epistatic interactions between divergent loci from two lineages. Theoretical models indicate that the strength, direction, and complexity of these genetic interactions can strongly affect the expression of interspecific reproductive isolation and the rates at which new species evolve. Nonetheless, empirical analyses have not quantified the frequency with which loci are involved in interactions affecting hybrid fitness, and whether these loci predominantly interact synergistically or antagonistically, or preferentially involve loci that have strong individual effects on hybrid fitness...
June 12, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592669/what-shapes-the-continuum-of-reproductive-isolation-lessons-from-heliconius-butterflies
#7
C Mérot, C Salazar, R M Merrill, C D Jiggins, M Joron
The process by which species evolve can be illuminated by investigating barriers that limit gene flow between taxa. Recent radiations, such as Heliconius butterflies, offer the opportunity to compare isolation between pairs of taxa at different stages of ecological, geographical, and phylogenetic divergence. Here, we report a comparative analysis of existing and novel data in order to quantify the strength and direction of isolating barriers within a well-studied clade of Heliconius Our results highlight that increased divergence is associated with the accumulation of stronger and more numerous barriers to gene flow...
June 14, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592558/duplication-and-loss-of-function-of-genes-encoding-rna-polymerase-iii-subunit-c4-causes-hybrid-incompatibility-in-rice
#8
Giao Ngoc Nguyen, Yoshiyuki Yamagata, Yuko Shigematsu, Miyako Watanabe, Yuta Miyazaki, Kazuyuki Doi, Kosuke Tashiro, Satoru Kuhara, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Jianzhong Wu, Takashi Matsumoto, Hideshi Yasui, Atsushi Yoshimura
Reproductive barriers are commonly observed in both animals and plants, in which they maintain species integrity and contribute to speciation. This report shows that a combination of loss-of-function alleles at two duplicated loci, DUPLICATED GAMETOPHYTIC STERILITY 1 (DGS1) on chromosome 4 and DGS2 on chromosome 7, causes pollen sterility in hybrid progeny derived from an interspecific cross between cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, and an Asian annual wild rice, Oryza nivara Male gametes carrying the DGS1 allele from O...
June 7, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591375/-barriers-to-the-search-for-female-sterilization-among-women-in-the-bolsa-fam%C3%A3-lia-program
#9
Marion Teodósio de Quadros, Giselle Maria Nanes Correia Dos Santos
Poor women in the Bolsa Família program are accused of having more children in order to enroll or remain in the program. In an ethnographic study (2012-2014), we analyzed reports by five beneficiaries of the program and found exactly the opposite. The women reported that they had gone to public health services in Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in hopes of avoiding more children, but that they had encountered various obstacles. Such barriers included difficulties in obtaining reversible contraception and restrictions in the supply of sterilization in these services, which increases the demand for cesarean sections...
June 1, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580146/use-of-physiological-knowledge-to-control-the-invasive-sea-lamprey-petromyzon-marinus-in-the-laurentian-great-lakes
#10
Michael J Siefkes
Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America is an example of using physiological knowledge to successfully control an invasive species and rehabilitate an ecosystem and valuable fishery. The parasitic sea lamprey contributed to the devastating collapse of native fish communities after invading the Great Lakes during the 1800s and early 1900s. Economic tragedy ensued with the loss of the fishery and severe impacts to property values and tourism resulting from sea lamprey-induced ecological changes...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578151/an-updated-assessment-of-postpartum-sterilization-fulfillment-after-vaginal-delivery
#11
Kristen K Wolfe, Machelle D Wilson, Melody Y Hou, Mitchell D Creinin
OBJECTIVE: To describe sterilization completion rates after vaginal delivery and indications for unfulfilled procedures. STUDY DESIGN: We used labor and delivery operating room and delivery logs to identify all women over 20years of age with a completed live vaginal birth beyond 24weeks gestation over a 33-month period (March 1, 2012 to November 30, 2014). We reviewed the electronic medical records of all of these patients, and identified those who requested a sterilization procedure as indicated in a physician's admission note or antenatal record...
May 31, 2017: Contraception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539401/transmembrane-helix-hydrophobicity-is-an-energetic-barrier-during-the-retrotranslocation-of-integral-membrane-erad-substrates
#12
Christopher J Guerriero, Karl-Richard Reutter, Andrew A Augustine, G Michael Preston, Kurt F Weiberth, Timothy D Mackie, Hillary C Cleveland-Rubeor, Neville P Bethel, Keith M Callenberg, Kunio Nakatsukasa, Michael Grabe, Jeffrey L Brodsky
Integral membrane proteins fold inefficiently and are susceptible to turnover via the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. During ERAD, misfolded proteins are recognized by molecular chaperones, polyubiquitinated, and retrotranslocated to the cytoplasm for proteasomal degradation. Although many aspects of this pathway are defined, how transmembrane helices (TMHs) are removed from the membrane and into the cytoplasm prior to degradation is poorly understood. In this study, we asked whether the hydrophobic character of a TMH acts as an energetic barrier to retrotranslocation...
May 24, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510760/what-factors-hinder-the-decision-making-process-for-women-with-cancer-and-contemplating-fertility-preservation-treatment
#13
Georgina Jones, Jane Hughes, Neda Mahmoodi, Emily Smith, Jonathan Skull, William Ledger
BACKGROUND: Although fertility preservation (FP) treatment options have increased, the existing evidence suggests that many women with cancer do not feel well supported in making these decisions, but find them stressful and complex and fail to take up fertility care at this crucial time. Whilst existing reviews have all made important contributions to our understanding of the FP decision-making process, none of them examine solely and specifically these processes for women of reproductive age with a diagnosis of any cancer, leaving a gap in the knowledge base...
May 16, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505587/dietary-bacillus-subtilis-based-direct-fed-microbials-alleviate-lps-induced-intestinal-immunological-stress-and-improve-intestinal-barrier-gene-expression-in-commercial-broiler-chickens
#14
Ujvala Deepthi Gadde, Sungtaek Oh, Youngsub Lee, Ellen Davis, Noah Zimmerman, Tom Rehberger, Hyun Soon Lillehoj
This study investigated the effects of Bacillus subtilis-based probiotics on the performance, modulation of host inflammatory responses and intestinal barrier gene expression of broilers subjected to LPS challenge. Chickens were randomly allocated to one of the 3 dietary treatment groups - control, antibiotic, or probiotic. At 14days, half of the chickens in each treatment were injected with LPS (1mg/kg body weight), and the other half injected with sterile PBS. Chickens fed probiotics weighed significantly more than controls at 15days of age, irrespective of immune challenge...
May 6, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499527/contraception-menarche-to-menopause
#15
REVIEW
Erin E Tracy
Contraception services should be part of routine health care maintenance in reproductive-aged women, especially in light of the fact that approximately 50% of pregnancies in the United States remain unplanned. Barrier methods, especially condoms, may play a role in sexually transmitted disease prevention but are less efficacious for pregnancy avoidance. There are several available hormonal contraceptive options, including the combination hormonal pill, progestin-only pill, combination hormonal patches and rings, injectable progestins, implantable progestins, intrauterine devices (copper or progestin), and permanent sterilization...
June 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490373/thioredoxin-interacting-protein-links-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-to-inflammatory-brain-injury-and-apoptosis-after-subarachnoid-haemorrhage
#16
Qing Zhao, Xudong Che, Hongxia Zhang, Pianpian Fan, Guanping Tan, Liu Liu, Dengzhi Jiang, Jun Zhao, Xiang Xiang, Yidan Liang, Xiaochuan Sun, Zhaohui He
BACKGROUND: Early brain injury (EBI) is considered a major contributor to the high morbidity and mortality associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). Both of sterile inflammation and apoptosis are considered the important causes of EBI. Recently, it was confirmed that thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) not only participates in inflammatory amplification but also stimulates the apoptosis signalling cascade pathway. However, whether the effects of TXNIP influence the pathogenesis of SAH remains unclear...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483876/reproductive-barriers-in-indica-japonica-rice-hybrids-are-uncovered-by-transcriptome-analysis
#17
Yanfen Zhu, Yiming Yu, Ke Cheng, Yidan Ouyang, Jia Wang, Liang Gong, Qinghua Zhang, Xianghua Li, Jinghua Xiao, Qifa Zhang
In rice (Oryza sativa L.), hybrids between indica and japonica subspecies are usually highly sterile, which provides a model system for studying postzygotic reproductive isolation. A killer-protector system S5 composed of three adjacent genes, ORF3, ORF4 and ORF5, regulates female gamete fertility of indica-japonica hybrids. To characterize the processes underlying this system, we performed transcriptomic analyses of pistils from rice variety Balilla (BL), Balilla with transformed ORF5+ (BL5+) producing sterile female gametes, and Balilla with transformed ORF3+ and ORF5+ (BL3+5+) producing fertile gametes...
May 8, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482064/gut-liver-axis-and-sterile-signals-in-the-development-of-alcoholic-liver-disease
#18
Gyongyi Szabo, Jan Petrasek
Background: Innate immunity plays a critical role in the development of alcohol-induced liver inflammation. Understanding the inter-relationship of signals from within and outside of the liver that trigger liver inflammation is pivotal for development of novel therapeutic targets of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Aim: The aim of this paper is to review recent advances in the field of alcohol-induced liver inflammation. Methods: A detailed literature review was performed using the PubMed database published between January 1980 and December 2016...
July 1, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481089/interaction-between-physical-heterogeneity-and-microbial-processes-in-subsurface-sediments-a-laboratory-scale-column-experiment
#19
N Perujo, X Sanchez-Vila, L Proia, A M Romaní
Physical heterogeneity determines interstitial fluxes in porous media. Nutrients and organic matter distribution in depth influence physicochemical and microbial processes occurring in subsurface. Columns 50 cm long were filled with sterile silica sand following five different setups combining fine and coarse sands or a mixture of both mimicking potential water treatment barriers. Water was supplied continuously to all columns during 33 days. Hydraulic conductivity, nutrients and organic matter, biofilm biomass, and activity were analyzed in order to study the effect of spatial grain size heterogeneity on physicochemical and microbial processes and their mutual interaction...
June 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480108/fungal-brain-abscess-caused-by-black-mold-cladophialophora-bantiana-a-case-report-of-successful-treatment-with-an-emphasis-on-how-fungal-brain-abscess-may-be-different-from-bacterial-brain-abscess
#20
Zaid Aljuboori, Rob Hruska, Alae Yaseen, Forest Arnold, Barbara Wojda, Haring Nauta
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system infection with Cladophialophora bantiana (Black Mold) is rare. It carries a high mortality rate, that is more than 70%, despite multimodal therapy. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a rare case of "black mold" fungal brain abscess that was successfully treated with good patient outcome. The case is unusual because there were two fungal brain abscesses located bilaterally symmetrically in the mesial frontal lobes, and the response to different treatment strategies was well documented by over 25 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
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