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Sterile barrier

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902188/reproductive-interference-and-fecundity-affect-competitive-interactions-of-sibling-species-with-low-mating-barriers-experimental-and-theoretical-evidence
#1
M Gebiola, S E Kelly, L Velten, R Zug, P Hammerstein, M Giorgini, M S Hunter
When allopatric species with incomplete prezygotic isolation come into secondary contact, the outcome of their interaction is not easily predicted. The parasitoid wasp Encarsia suzannae (iES), infected by Cardinium inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), and its sibling species E. gennaroi (EG), not infected by bacterial endosymbionts, may have diverged because of the complementary action of CI and asymmetric hybrid incompatibilities. Whereas postzygotic isolation is now complete because of sterility of F1 hybrid progeny, prezygotic isolation is still incipient...
September 13, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879818/high-prevalence-of-voluntary-sterilization-among-american-women-explained-by-trade-offs-resulting-from-male-parental-commitment
#2
Kermyt G Anderson
Tubal ligation is the modal form of family planning among American women aged 30 and older. As the preference for tubal ligation over cheaper, lower risk and more reliable methods, such as vasectomy, has puzzled experts, a theoretical approach that explains this preference would be useful. The present study investigates the high prevalence of voluntary sterilization among American women from the perspective of life history theory, arguing that the trade-offs between investing in current and future offspring will favour tubal ligation when women cannot obtain reliable male commitment to future parental investment...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870724/tubal-sterilization-in-women-under-30-case-series-and-ethical-implications
#3
Dylan Ehman, Dustin Costescu
OBJECTIVE: According to the SOGC Contraception Consensus, it is recommended that permanent contraception be offered to women regardless of age or parity. Many women who desire sterilization at a young age experience barriers from physicians who decline to facilitate the request. METHODS: As part of a quality assurance project, we performed a review of cases where tubal sterilization was performed in women under 30 over a 42-month period (September 2013-March 2017)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845032/streptococcus-pyogenes-translocates-across-an-epithelial-barrier
#4
Tomoko Sumitomo
Streptococcus pyogenes is a β-hemolytic organism responsible for a wide variety of human diseases that commonly occur as self-limiting purulent diseases of the pharynx and skin. Although the occurrence of invasive infections by S. pyogenes is rare, mortality rates remain high even with progressive medical therapy. As a prerequisite for causing the severe invasive disease, S. pyogenes must invade underlying sterile tissues by translocating across the epithelial barrier. In this study, streptolysin S and SpeB were identified as the novel factors that facilitate bacterial translocation via degradation of intercellular junctions...
2017: Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805257/three-representative-inter-and-intra-subspecific-crosses-reveal-the-genetic-architecture-of-reproductive-isolation-in-rice
#5
Guangwei Li, Xiaoting Li, Yuan Wang, Jiaming Mi, Feng Xing, Dahan Zhang, Qiyan Dong, Xianghua Li, Jinghua Xiao, Qifa Zhang, Yidan Ouyang
Systematic characterization of genetic and molecular mechanisms in formation of hybrid sterility is of fundamental importance in understanding reproductive isolation and speciation. Using ultra-high-density genetic maps, 43 single-locus QTLs and 223 digenic interactions for embryo-sac, pollen, and spikelet fertility are depicted from three crosses between representative varieties of japonica and two varietal groups of indica, which provide an extensive archive for investigating the genetic basis of reproductive isolation in rice...
August 14, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782335/elimination-of-hcv-as-a-public-health-concern-among-people-who-inject-drugs-by-2030-what-will-it-take-to-get-there
#6
REVIEW
Jason Grebely, Gregory J Dore, Sébastien Morin, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Marina B Klein
INTRODUCTION: Globally, there is a considerable burden of HCV and HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) and transmission of both infections continues. Needle and syringe programme (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) coverage remains low, despite evidence demonstrating their prevention benefit. Direct-acting antiviral therapies (DAA) with HCV cure >95% among PWID provide an opportunity to reverse rising trends in HCV-related morbidity and mortality and reduce incidence...
July 28, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776899/an-alternative-sterility-assessment-for-parenteral-drug-products-using-isothermal-microcalorimetry
#7
D Brueckner, S Krähenbühl, U Zuber, G Bonkat, O Braissant
AIMS: Production and release of injectable drug solutions are highly regulated since the administration of injectables bypasses natural body barriers. The sterility test is the last opportunity of product quality assessment. However, sterility is currently assessed by visual inspection (VI) that is time consuming and somewhat subjective. Therefore, we assessed isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) as a replacement for the VI of the filtration based state-of-the-art sterility control. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used ATCC strains and house isolates to artificially contaminate frequently produced monoclonal antibodies (Avastin, Mabthera, Herceptin)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768499/simultaneous-primary-invasive-cutaneous-aspergillosis-in-two-preterm-twins-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Floriane Gallais, Julie Denis, Olfa Koobar, Laurence Dillenseger, Dominique Astruc, Raoul Herbrecht, Ermanno Candolfi, Valérie Letscher-Bru, Marcela Sabou
BACKGROUND: Primary invasive cutaneous aspergillosis is a rare fungal infection that occurs mostly in immunocompromised patients. Newborns of very low birth weight present a high risk for this type of infection due to an immaturity of the cutaneous barrier and of the immune system. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe here a case of simultaneous invasive cutaneous aspergillosis in two preterm twins. Two male preterm bichorionic biamniotic twins (A & B) were born at a general hospital by spontaneous normal delivery at 24 weeks and 6 days of gestation...
August 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740850/the-role-of-dog-population-management-in-rabies-elimination-a-review-of-current-approaches-and-future-opportunities
#9
REVIEW
Louise H Taylor, Ryan M Wallace, Deepashree Balaram, Joann M Lindenmayer, Douglas C Eckery, Beryl Mutonono-Watkiss, Ellie Parravani, Louis H Nel
Free-roaming dogs and rabies transmission are integrally linked across many low-income countries, and large unmanaged dog populations can be daunting to rabies control program planners. Dog population management (DPM) is a multifaceted concept that aims to improve the health and well-being of free-roaming dogs, reduce problems they may cause, and may also aim to reduce dog population size. In theory, DPM can facilitate more effective rabies control. Community engagement focused on promoting responsible dog ownership and better veterinary care could improve the health of individual animals and dog vaccination coverage, thus reducing rabies transmission...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728967/impact-of-the-microbiota-on-bacterial-infections-during-cancer-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Jessica Galloway-Peña, Chelcy Brumlow, Samuel Shelburne
Patients being treated for cancer are at high risk for infectious complications, generally due to colonizing organisms that gain access to sterile sites via disrupted epithelial barriers. There is an emerging understanding that the ability of bacterial pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms, to colonize and subsequently infect humans is largely dependent on protective bacterial species present in the microbiome. Thus, herein we review recent studies demonstrating strong correlations between the microbiome of the oncology patient and infections occurring during chemotherapy...
July 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715646/l-form-bacteria-cohabitants-in-human-blood-significance-for-health-and-diseases
#11
Nadya D Markova
From a historical perspective, intriguing assumptions about unknown "live units" in human blood have attracted the attention of researchers, reflecting their desire to define a new class of microorganisms. Thus, the concept of "blood microbiota" brings about many questions about the nature, origin, and biological significance of the "unusual microbial cohabitants" in human blood. In contrast to current views that bloodstream in healthy humans is sterile, the hypothesis about the existence of microbes as L-forms (cell wall deficient bacteria) in human blood has evolved on the basis of known facts about their unique biology, as observed in our studies and those of other authors...
May 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697112/contraception-after-delivery-among-publicly-insured-women-in-texas-use-compared-with-preference
#12
Joseph E Potter, Kate Coleman-Minahan, Kari White, Daniel A Powers, Chloe Dillaway, Amanda J Stevenson, Kristine Hopkins, Daniel Grossman
OBJECTIVE: To assess women's preferences for contraception after delivery and to compare use with preferences. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study of women aged 18-44 years who wanted to delay childbearing for at least 2 years, we interviewed 1,700 participants from eight hospitals in Texas immediately postpartum and at 3 and 6 months after delivery. At 3 months, we assessed contraceptive preferences by asking what method women would like to be using at 6 months...
August 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674278/genetic-characterization-and-fine-mapping-of-s25-a-hybrid-male-sterility-gene-on-rice-chromosome-12
#13
Takahiko Kubo, Atsushi Yoshimura, Nori Kurata
Hybrid male sterility genes are important factors in creating postzygotic reproductive isolation barriers in plants. One such gene, S25, is known to cause severe transmission ratio distortion in inter-subspecific progeny of cultivated rice Oryza sativa ssp. indica and japonica. To further characterize the S25 gene, we fine-mapped and genetically characterized the S25 gene using near-isogenic lines with reciprocal genetic backgrounds. We mapped the S25 locus within a 0.67-1.02 Mb region on rice chromosome 12...
June 30, 2017: Genes & Genetic Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663896/evaluation-of-non-thermal-plasma-induced-anticancer-effects-on-human-colon-cancer-cells
#14
Jae-Sun Choi, Jeongho Kim, Young-Jun Hong, Woom-Yee Bae, Eun Ha Choi, Joo-Won Jeong, Hun-Kuk Park
Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma has been introduced in various applications such as sterilization, wound healing, blood coagulation, and other biomedical applications. The most attractive application of non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma is in cancer treatment, where the plasma is used to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) to facilitate cell apoptosis. We investigate the effects of different durations of exposure to dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) plasma on colon cancer cells using measurement of cell viability and ROS levels, western blot, immunocytochemistry, and Raman spectroscopy...
May 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657614/genetic-analysis-of-a-hybrid-sterility-gene-that-causes-both-pollen-and-embryo-sac-sterility-in-hybrids-between-oryza-sativa-l-and-oryza-longistaminata
#15
H Chen, Z Zhao, L Liu, W Kong, Y Lin, S You, W Bai, Y Xiao, H Zheng, L Jiang, J Li, J Zhou, D Tao, J Wan
Oryza longistaminata originates from African wild rice and contains valuable traits conferring tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. However, interspecific crosses between O. longistaminata and Oryza sativa cultivars are hindered by reproductive barriers. To dissect the mechanism of interspecific hybrid sterility, we developed a near-isogenic line (NIL) using indica variety RD23 as the recipient parent and O. longistaminata as the donor parent. Both pollen and embryo sac semi-sterility were observed in F1 hybrids between RD23 and NIL...
September 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648865/self-assembled-amphiphilic-core-shell-nanocarriers-in-line-with-the-modern-strategies-for-brain-delivery
#16
REVIEW
Reham S Elezaby, Heba A Gad, Abdelkader A Metwally, Ahmed S Geneidi, Gehanne A Awad
Disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) represent increasing social and economic problems all over the world which makes the effective transport of drugs to the brain a crucial need. In the last decade, many strategies were introduced to deliver drugs to the brain trying to overcome the challenge of the blood brain barrier (BBB) using both invasive and non-invasive methods. Non-invasive strategy represented in the application of nanocarriers became very common. One of the most hopeful nanoscopic carriers for brain delivery is core-shell nanocarriers or polymeric micelles (PMs)...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636095/suppression-or-knockout-of-saf-sam-overcomes-the-sa-mediated-hybrid-male-sterility-in-rice
#17
Yongyao Xie, Baixiao Niu, Yunming Long, Gousi Li, Jintao Tang, Yaling Zhang, Ding Ren, Yao-Guang Liu, Letian Chen
Hybrids between the indica and japonica subspecies of rice (Oryza sativa) are usually sterile, which hinders utilization of heterosis in the inter-subspecific hybrid breeding. The complex locus Sa comprises two adjacently located genes, SaF and SaM, which interact to cause abortion of pollen grains carrying the japonica allele in japonica-indica hybrids. Here we showed that silencing of SaF or SaM by RNA interference restored male fertility in indica-japonica hybrids with heterozygous Sa. We further used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9-based genome editing to knockout the SaF and SaM alleles, respectively, of an indica rice line to create hybrid-compatible lines...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633998/changes-in-risk-behaviours-during-and-following-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-among-people-who-inject-drugs-the-activate-study
#18
Håvard Midgard, Behzad Hajarizadeh, Evan B Cunningham, Brian Conway, Markus Backmund, Philip Bruggmann, Julie Bruneau, Stefan Bourgeois, Adrian Dunlop, Graham R Foster, Margaret Hellard, Geert Robaeys, Maria C Thurnheer, Martin Weltman, Janaki Amin, Philippa S Marks, Sophie Quiene, Gregory J Dore, Olav Dalgard, Jason Grebely
BACKGROUND: The risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection due to continued injecting risk behaviours might remain a barrier to HCV treatment among people who inject drugs. We aimed to evaluate changes in risk behaviours during and following HCV treatment among people with ongoing injecting drug use or receiving opioid substitution treatment (OST). METHODS: ACTIVATE was an international multicentre clinical trial conducted between 2012 and 2014. Participants with HCV genotypes 2/3 infection were treated with peg-interferon/ribavirin for 12 or 24 weeks and completed a self-administered behavioural questionnaire at each study visit...
September 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632532/postpartum-tubal-sterilization-making-the-case-for-urgency
#19
Michael G Richardson, Sarah J Hall, Lisa C Zuckerwise
The parturient who requests postpartum sterilization has given consideration to and has made decisions regarding this aspect of her medical care long before her delivery. She arrives at parturition expecting the postpartum procedure to be performed as intended. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists has reaffirmed its opinion that postpartum sterilization is an urgent procedure, owing to the safety and superior effectiveness of tubal sterilization via minilaparotomy in the immediate postpartum period, and the adverse consequences for mothers, babies, and society when the procedure is not actualized as desired and intended...
June 17, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630163/measuring-the-potential-energy-barrier-to-lipid-bilayer-electroporation
#20
Jason T Sengel, Mark I Wallace
Electroporation is a common tool for gene transfection, tumour ablation, sterilization and drug delivery. Using experimental methods, we explore the temperature dependence of electropore formation in a model membrane system (droplet-interface bilayers), using optical single-channel recording to image the real-time gating of individual electropores. We investigate the influence of the agarose substrate on electropores formed in this system. Furthermore, by examining the temperature-dependent kinetics of pore opening and closure we are able to estimate a barrier to pore opening in 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPhPC) membranes to be 25...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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