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The New England Journal of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515198/post-authorisation-passive-enhanced-safety-surveillance-of-seasonal-influenza-vaccines-protocol-of-a-pilot-study-in-england
#1
Simon de Lusignan, Gaël Dos Santos, Ana Correa, François Haguinet, Ivelina Yonova, Florence Lair, Rachel Byford, Filipa Ferreira, Karen Stuttard, Tom Chan
AIM: To pilot enhanced safety surveillance of seasonal influenza vaccine meeting the European Medicines Agency (EMA) requirement to rapidly detect a significant increase in the frequency or severity of adverse events of interest (AEIs), which may indicate risk from the new season's vaccine. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective passive enhanced safety surveillance combining data collection from adverse drug reaction (ADR) cards with automated collection of pseudonymised routinely collected electronic health record (EHR) data...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493948/gender-bias-in-clinical-case-reports-a-cross-sectional-study-of-the-big-five-medical-journals
#2
Pascale Allotey, Caitlin Allotey-Reidpath, Daniel D Reidpath
BACKGROUND: Gender bias in medical journals can affect the science and the benefit to patients. It has never been investigated in clinical case reports. The oversight is important because of the role clinical case reports play in hypothesis generation and medical education. We investigated contemporary gender bias in case reports for the highest ranked journals in general and internal medicine. METHODS: PubMed case reports data from 2011 to 2016 were extracted for the Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, the Journal of the American Medical Association, The Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475407/diagnosis-staging-and-risk-stratification-in-prostate-cancer-utilizing-diagnostic-tools-to-avoid-unnecessary-therapies-and-side-effects
#3
Louis Rodgers, Cody J Peer, William D Figg
A lack of appropriate diagnostic tools for prostate cancer has led to overdiagnosis and over treatment. In a recent publication in the New England Journal of Medicine, Hamdy et al showed no difference in the outcomes of patients that had undergone either radical prostatectomy, radiotherapy, or active monitoring. In an effort to enhance clinical stratification, the development of improved, more accurate diagnostic tools is actively being pursued. Herein, we explore recent advances in prostate cancer screening, including biomarker assays, genetic testing, and specialized fields, such as mathematical oncology...
May 5, 2017: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435812/scientometrics-on-public-health-research-in-iran-increase-of-area-studies-despite-embargoes-a-review-article
#4
REVIEW
Brice Poreau
BACKGROUND: Due to embargoes and sanctions from 1979 until 2015, impact on scientific research in Iran may be critical. Public health is the main example of this burning point. In this paper, the aim was to map the scientific research in public health in Iran until 2014 with area studies as well as networks of countries involved. METHODS: We used bibliographic analyses using VOS viewer software for network analysis during the period 1975-2014. Two databases were used: Web of Science and PubMed...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425136/molecularisation-and-metaphor
#5
David Armstrong
This article explores the molecularisation of medicine thesis by investigating reports on genetics and molecular medicine in the New England Journal of Medicine. While there has indeed been a large increase in the number of references to molecules in the context of genetics over the last few decades these are mostly embedded in a framework of explanatory metaphors, namely (gene) expressivity, penetrance, regulation and pathways. As most of these metaphors are drawn from the social world it would appear that the molecularisation thesis - that social life is becoming dominated by the molecular - needs to be tempered by the ways in which understanding of that molecular world is itself a reflection of social life...
April 20, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421497/chapter-13-human-ovarian-tissue-vitrification
#6
Sherman Silber
Ovarian freezing and transplantation has garnered increasing interest as a potential way of preserving fertility in cancer patients as well as for women who just wish to delay childbearing. This chapter spells out our techniques of ovarian cortex vitrification and results for frozen compared to fresh ovarian cortex transplantation (in one single series from one center for the sake of consistency), as well as potentially provides insight into the mechanism behind ovarian follicle recruitment. This represents an effort to simplify and popularize an approach that has yielded favorable results (all cases recovered ovulation and 75% had successful spontaneous pregnancy) in one single, disciplined study...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401819/-a-plea-for-selective-use-of-the-mammaprint-test
#7
M de Boer, A C Voogd, V C G Tjan-Heijnen
Recently, the results of the MINDACT study were published in The New England Journal of Medicine. The authors conclude that the MammaPrint test can prevent the use of chemotherapy in about 50% of breast cancer patients with a high-risk clinical profile because of the presence of a genomic low risk MammaPrint. We believe that the decision to use chemotherapy should not be based solely on the outcome of the MammaPrint test, as is suggested by the authors, but also on clinical factors, such as tumour size, nodal status and grade...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400294/the-distribution-of-p-values-in-medical-research-articles-suggested-selective-reporting-associated-with-statistical-significance
#8
Thomas V Perneger, Christophe Combescure
OBJECTIVES: Published P-values provide a window into the global enterprise of medical research. The aim of this study was to use the distribution of published P-values to estimate the relative frequencies of null and alternative hypotheses and to seek irregularities suggestive of publication bias. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: This cross-sectional study included P-values published in 120 medical research articles in 2016 (30 each from the BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine)...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375483/esophageal-cancer-s-100-most-influential-manuscripts-a-bibliometric-analysis
#9
A G M T Powell, D L Hughes, J Brown, M Larsen, J Witherspoon, W G Lewis
Bibliometric analysis highlights key topics and publications that have shaped the understanding and management of esophageal cancer (EC). Here, the 100 most cited manuscripts in the field of EC are analyzed. The Thomson Reuters Web of Science database with the search terms 'esophageal cancer' or 'esophageal carcinoma' or 'oesophageal cancer' or 'oesophageal carcinoma' or 'gastroscopy' was used to identify all English language full manuscripts for the study. The 100 most cited papers were further analyzed by topic, journal, author, year, and institution...
April 1, 2017: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367203/the-50-most-cited-articles-in-gastroenterology-and-hepatology-from-mainland-china
#10
Sun-Kuan Hu, Jie Huang, Wan-Dong Hong, Xiao-Jing Du, Rong Jin, Tie-Su Lin
OBJECTIVE: To identify and analyze the 50 most-cited gastroenterology and hepatology articles originating from mainland China. METHODS: We utilized the 2015 edition of Journal Citation Reports and PubMed to determine the 50 most-cited gastroenterology and hepatology articles from 75 professional journals and four leading journals in clinical medicine, which are The New England Journal of Medicine, The Lancet, The Journal of the American Medical Association, and The British Medical Journal...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349275/the-100-most-influential-papers-in-the-field-of-thrombolytic-therapy-a-bibliometric-analysis
#11
Tariq Jamal Siddiqi, Muhammad Shariq Usman, Muhammad Shahzeb Khan, Kaneez Fatima, Alexander Norbash, Adnan Iqbal Qureshi, Abdur Rahman Khan, Faisal Khosa
BACKGROUND: Bibliometric analyses are used by researchers and research funding agencies to help determine areas of greatest interest, and consequently which topics and domains warrant increased research attention. Bibliometric analyses have similarly been published in a number of clinical subspecialties concerning areas of specific medical interest; however, a thorough literature search revealed that such a study has been absent in the field of thrombolytics to date. To bridge this gap, we conducted a citation analysis of the 100 most influential articles on thrombolytics...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325713/two-decades-of-cardiovascular-trials-with-primary-surrogate-endpoints-1990-2011
#12
Behnood Bikdeli, Natdanai Punnanithinont, Yasir Akram, Ike Lee, Nihar R Desai, Joseph S Ross, Harlan M Krumholz
BACKGROUND: Surrogate endpoint trials test strategies more efficiently but are accompanied by uncertainty about the relationship between changes in surrogate markers and clinical outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified cardiovascular trials with primary surrogate endpoints published in the New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, and JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association from 1990 to 2011 and determined the trends in publication of surrogate endpoint trials and the success of the trials in meeting their primary endpoints...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292317/the-association-of-funding-source-on-effect-size-in-randomized-controlled-trials-2013-2015-a-cross-sectional-survey-and-meta-analysis
#13
Alberto Falk Delgado, Anna Falk Delgado
BACKGROUND: Trials financed by for-profit organizations have been associated with favorable outcomes of new treatments, although the effect size of funding source impact on outcome is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect size for a favorable outcome in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), stratified by funding source, that have been published in general medical journals. METHODS: Parallel-group RCTs published in The Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine, and JAMA between 2013 and 2015 were identified...
March 14, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289452/hot-topics-from-the-assemblies
#14
(no author information available yet)
Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness typically due to cerebral hypoperfusion with many causes, including pulmonary embolism. The prevalence of pulmonary embolism in patients with syncope is unknown; hence, in a prospective study, Prandoni et al. and the PESIT investigators report in the New England Journal of Medicine the prevalence of pulmonary embolism in 560 patients admitted for a first episode of syncope at 11 medical centres in Italy.
March 2017: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210564/more-misinformation-on-breast-cancer-screening
#15
COMMENT
Daniel B Kopans
Unfortunately, a great deal of misinformation has accumulated in the breast cancer screening literature that is based on flawed analyses in an effort to reduce access to screening. Quite remarkably, much of this has come from publications in previously highly respected medical journals. In several papers the intervention (mammography screening) is faulted yet the analyses provided no data on who participated in mammography screening, and which cancers were detected by mammography screening. It is remarkable that a highly respected journal can fault an intervention with no data on the intervention...
February 2017: Gland Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107475/review-and-analysis-of-publication-trends-over-three-decades-in-three-high-impact-medicine-journals
#16
Alexander Ivanov, Beata A Kaczkowska, Saadat A Khan, Jean Ho, Morteza Tavakol, Ashok Prasad, Geetha Bhumireddy, Allan F Beall, Igor Klem, Parag Mehta, William M Briggs, Terrence J Sacchi, John F Heitner
CONTEXT: Over the past three decades, industry sponsored research expanded in the United States. Financial incentives can lead to potential conflicts of interest (COI) resulting in underreporting of negative study results. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that over the three decades, there would be an increase in: a) reporting of conflict of interest and source of funding; b) percentage of randomized control trials c) number of patients per study and d) industry funding...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103591/searching-the-footprints-of-pioneers-on-neurology-a-bibliometric-analysis
#17
Kang Min Park, Jee-Eun Kim, Yerim Kim, Si Eun Kim, Dae Young Yoon, Jong Seok Bae
BACKGROUND: We identify the most cited articles that have influenced the clinical practices of neurologists. METHODS: We first analyzed the top 100 cited articles published in 50 neurology journals with high impact factors. We collected all of the original articles on clinical neurology published in all 554 medical journals. The Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science search tools were used to identify the top 100 cited articles in the database of Journal Citation Reports since 1950, which were then manually reviewed to discover their contents...
2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093443/impact-of-advanced-autonomous-non-medical-practitioners-in-emergency-care-protocol-for-a-scoping-study
#18
Mark Sujan, Hannah Howard-Franks, Garry Swann, Kirsti Soanes, Catherine Pope, Robert Crouch, Sophie Staniszewska, Elaine Maxwell, Huayi Huang, Matthew Cooke
INTRODUCTION: Emergency care services are looking for new models of care delivery to deal with changing patient demographics and increased pressures. It has been suggested that advanced non-medical practitioners might be valuable for delivering such new models of care. However, it is not clear what the impact of the deployment of advanced non-medical practitioners in emergency care is. This scoping study addresses the following research question: What is known from the literature about the different types of impact of the deployment of advanced (autonomous) non-medical practitioners in emergency care? METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A scoping study will be undertaken to examine and map the impact of the deployment of advanced non-medical practitioners in emergency care...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050393/metronomic-chemotherapy-seems-prowess-to-battle-against-cancer-in-current-scenario
#19
Prema Muthusamy, Krishnan Vengadaragava Chary, G K Nalini
INTRODUCTION: Metronomic chemotherapy is an emerging method of chemotherapy. Metronomic 'lowdose' chemotherapy regimen induces tumour dormancy and reduces cancer resistance against anticancer drugs. It tends to improve overall success rate of cancer chemotherapy than conventional cyclical regimen. AIM: The aim of this systemic review was to provide comprehensive data of metronomic chemotherapy trials, regimens used and it's outcome in cancer therapeutics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty chemotherapy trial data were searched sequentially from web...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011448/statistical-controversies-in-clinical-research-comparison-of-primary-outcomes-in-protocols-public-clinical-trial-registries-and-publications-the-example-of-oncology-trials
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
A S Perlmutter, V-T Tran, A Dechartres, P Ravaud
Background: Protocols are often unavailable to peer-reviewers and readers. To detect outcome reporting bias (ORB), readers usually have to resort to publicly available descriptions of study design such as public clinical trial registries. We compared primary outcomes in protocols, ClinicalTrials.gov and publications of oncology trials and evaluated the use of ClinicalTrials.gov as compared with protocols in detecting discrepancies between planned and published outcomes. Method: We searched for phase III oncology trials registered in ClinicalTrials...
April 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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