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epilepsy status in pregnancy

Doodipala Samba Reddy
Epilepsy affects people of all ages and both genders. Sex differences are well known in epilepsy. Seizure susceptibility and the incidence of epilepsy are generally higher in men than women. In addition, there are gender-specific epilepsies such as catamenial epilepsy, a neuroendocrine condition in which seizures are most often clustered around the perimenstrual or periovulatory period in adult women with epilepsy. Changes in seizure sensitivity are also evident at puberty, pregnancy, and menopause. Sex differences in seizure susceptibility and resistance to antiseizure drugs can be studied in experimental models...
July 13, 2016: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Rachel R Fabris, Teresa Griffin Cascino, Jay Mandrekar, W Richard Marsh, Frederic B Meyer, Gregory D Cascino
OBJECTIVE: Women with epilepsy (WWE) have lower birth rates than expected. The reasons for this are multifactorial and involve a complex interaction between reproductive endocrine and psychosocial factors. The effect of epilepsy surgery on reproduction in women with drug-resistant focal epilepsy has not previously been studied. METHODS: Adult women of childbearing age (18-45years old) with drug-resistant focal epilepsy who had undergone a focal cortical resection between 1997 and 2008 at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN were included in the study...
July 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Yan-Ting Lu, Che-Wei Hsu, Wan-Chen Tsai, Mei-Yun Cheng, Fu-Yuan Shih, Ting-Ying Fu, Yao-Chung Chuang, Meng-Han Tsai
BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency associated with a high mortality rate and long-term cognitive sequelae. Status epilepticus in pregnancy poses a tremendous threat to both mother and fetus, making a correct diagnosis and treatment a challenging task for clinicians. The prevalence, underlying etiology, and outcomes of pregnancy-related SE remain largely unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all SE episodes (n=366) in patients admitted to our neurological ICU over a period of 8...
June 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
James Washington, Udaya Kumar, Jesus-Servando Medel-Matus, Don Shin, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
Maternal immune activation (MIA) results in the development of autism in the offspring via hyperactivation of IL-6 signaling. Furthermore, experimental studies showed that the MIA-associated activation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concurrently with IL-6 increases the rate and the severity of hippocampal kindling in mice, thus, offering an explanation for autism-epilepsy comorbidity. We examined whether epileptic phenotype triggered by prenatal exposure to IL-6 and IL-1β combination is restricted to kindling or whether it is reproducible in another model of epilepsy, whereby spontaneous seizures develop following kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus...
September 2015: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Amanda G Wood, Caroline Nadebaum, Vicki Anderson, David Reutens, Sarah Barton, Terence J O'Brien, Frank Vajda
PURPOSE: The association between autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and prenatal anticonvulsant exposure is increasingly investigated, but comprehensive, blinded assessment using a validated instrument for autism within a well-characterized prospective cohort has not been conducted. Thus, existing studies may represent an underestimate of the true risk. Herein we present a prospective cohort study in children exposed to anticonvulsants during pregnancy, with all assessments conducted by examiners who were blinded to drug-exposure status...
July 2015: Epilepsia
Wilhelmine Hadler Meeraus, Irene Petersen, Ruth Gilbert
BACKGROUND: Between 19%-44% pregnant women are prescribed antibiotics during pregnancy. A single, large randomised-controlled-trial (ORACLE Childhood Study II) found an increased risk of childhood cerebral palsy and possibly epilepsy following prophylactic antibiotic use in pregnant women with spontaneous preterm labour. We ascertained whether this outcome could be reproduced across the population of babies delivered at term and prospectively followed in primary-care using data from The Health Improvement Network...
2015: PloS One
Barbara A Dworetzky, Daniel S Weisholtz, David L Perez, Gaston Baslet
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) can present emergently and are often mistaken for epileptic seizures. PNES emergencies have not been well studied, and yet there are associated serious morbidities, particularly when patients are seen in an emergency setting and are misdiagnosed. PNES may be prolonged, mimicking status epilepticus, a condition we refer to as nonepileptic psychogenic status (NEPS), and patients may receive aggressive and unnecessary medical treatments that can lead to serious iatrogenic complications, including death...
January 2015: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Line Sveberg, Sigrid Svalheim, Erik Taubøll
PURPOSE AND METHODS: The treatment of women with epilepsy during pregnancy is known to increase the risk of teratogenic effects. Whether seizures during pregnancy have a deleterious effect on the developing child is difficult to determine, but recent animal studies, case studies, cohort studies and population studies have provided useful insights. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Seizures before pregnancy are a predictor for seizures during pregnancy, and catamenial epilepsy may also predict the course of seizures during pregnancy...
May 2015: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Ozlem Akman, Solomon L Moshé, Aristea S Galanopoulou
AIMS: Neonatal status epilepticus (SE) is often associated with adverse cognitive and epilepsy outcomes. We investigate the effects of three episodes of kainic acid-induced SE (3KA-SE) and maternal separation in immature rats on subsequent learning, seizure susceptibility, and consequences, and the anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital, according to sex, type, and age at early life (EL) event. METHODS: 3KA-SE or maternal separation was induced on postnatal days (PN) 4-6 or 14-16...
February 2015: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
I I Poletaeva, N M Surina, V V Ashapkin, I B Fedotova, I B Merzalov, O V Perepelkina, G V Pavlova
Audiogenic epilepsy proneness was analyzed in the progeny of rats from two strains (audiogenic seizure prone-strain "4"-and audiogenic seizure non-prone, strain "0"). Females were fed by a diet which contained substances enriched with methyl-groups during 1week before mating (MED), during pregnancy period and 1week after the delivery. This MED treatment resulted in a decrease of audiogenic seizure fit intensity, which was more evident in rats of strain "0". Control rats of strain "4" displayed intense seizures (tonic seizure, 3...
December 2014: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Ineke R Postma, Sjoerdtje Slager, Hubertus P H Kremer, Jan Cees de Groot, Gerda G Zeeman
This review summarizes the long-term consequences of the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) that have been described in the obstetric literature (eclampsia and preeclampsia) and compares these with data from the nonobstetric literature. Preeclampsia is characterized by new-onset hypertension and proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy. Neurological symptoms include headache; visual deficits; confusion; seizures; and, in the most severe cases, intracranial hemorrhage. Eclampsia is an acute cerebral complication of preeclampsia, defined as the occurrence of tonic-clonic seizures in pregnant or recently postpartum women...
May 2014: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
M E Gilbert, R L Ramos, D P McCloskey, J H Goodman
Thyroid hormones (TH) play crucial roles in brain maturation and are important for neuronal migration and neocortical lamination. Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) represent a class of neuronal migration errors in humans that are often associated with childhood epilepsy. We have previously reported the presence of SBH in a rodent model of low level hypothyroidism induced by maternal exposure to the goitrogen, propylthiouracil (PTU). In the present study, we report the dose-response characteristics of this developmental malformation and the connectivity of heterotopic neurones with other brain regions, as well as their functionality...
August 2014: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Francesco Nicita, Alberto Verrotti, Dario Pruna, Pasquale Striano, Giuseppe Capovilla, Salvatore Savasta, Maria Valentina Spartà, Pasquale Parisi, Giovanni Parlapiano, Luigi Tarani, Alberto Spalice
Seizures are observed with a frequency of 3-21% in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). However, clinical, neuroradiologic, and electroencephalography (EEG) features are poorly described. In this study, 13 patients with FASD and epilepsy or seizures were identified retrospectively from the databases of seven Italian pediatric neurology divisions. Eleven children were affected by epilepsy, and two had at least one documented seizure. Both generalized and focal seizures were observed. EEG showed diffuse or focal epileptic activity; two children developed electric status epilepticus during sleep (ESES)...
June 2014: Epilepsia
K Bala Krishna, P Krishnam Raju, Radha Raani Chitturi, G Smitha, S Vijai, B V V Srinivas
BACKGROUND: Periodontal diseases affect more people all over the world than dental caries. Increase in size of gingiva is known as gingival hyperplasia or gingival enlargement. Gingival swelling is almost universally the result of Fluid accumulation within the tissues. Enlargement and even aesthetically disfiguring over growth of the gingival tissue, is also a common finding of leukemia, scurvy and subjects undergoing the hormonal changes of puberty, pregnancy, menopause and drugs. MATERIALS & METHODS: A sample size of 1500 was taken...
February 2014: Journal of International Oral Health: JIOH
Francesca Colciaghi, Adele Finardi, Paola Nobili, Denise Locatelli, Giada Spigolon, Giorgio Stefano Battaglia
Whether severe epilepsy could be a progressive disorder remains as yet unresolved. We previously demonstrated in a rat model of acquired focal cortical dysplasia, the methylazoxymethanol/pilocarpine - MAM/pilocarpine - rats, that the occurrence of status epilepticus (SE) and subsequent seizures fostered a pathologic process capable of modifying the morphology of cortical pyramidal neurons and NMDA receptor expression/localization. We have here extended our analysis by evaluating neocortical and hippocampal changes in MAM/pilocarpine rats at different epilepsy stages, from few days after onset up to six months of chronic epilepsy...
2014: PloS One
Dieter Schmidt, Steven C Schachter
Epilepsy is a serious, potentially life shortening brain disorder, the symptoms of which can be successfully treated in most patients with one or more antiepileptic drug. About two in three adults with new onset epilepsy will achieve lasting seizure remission on or off these drugs, although around half will experience mild to moderately severe adverse effects. Patients with epilepsy, especially the 20-30% whose seizures are not fully controlled with available drugs (drug resistant epilepsy), have a significantly increased risk of death, as well as psychiatric and somatic comorbidities, and adverse effects from antiepileptic drugs...
2014: BMJ: British Medical Journal
K L Black, A Obayan, R D Zafonte, N R Mann, F Hammond, D Wood
Post-traumatic seizures can be a cause of multiple clinical and behavioral abnormalities. We present an unusual case of post-traumatic epilepsy resulting in blindness. The patient was a 35-year-old female with a past history of toxemia of pregnancy who was assaulted, sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Glasgow Coma Score upon presentation to the emergency department was 10. Initial CAT scan was negative. Subsequent MRI revealed occipital edema. On examination, she was found to be blind in both eyes. Consistent with cortical blindness, extra-ocular movements, pupillary reflexes and fundoscopic examination were normal...
1996: NeuroRehabilitation
Laura A Jansen, Robert F Hevner, William H Roden, Si Houn Hahn, Sunhee Jung, Sidney M Gospe
OBJECTIVE: A high incidence of structural brain abnormalities has been reported in individuals with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (PDE). PDE is caused by mutations in ALDH7A1, also known as antiquitin. How antiquitin dysfunction leads to cerebral dysgenesis is unknown. In this study, we analyzed tissue from a child with PDE as well as control human and murine brain to determine the normal distribution of antiquitin, its distribution in PDE, and associated brain malformations. METHODS: Formalin-fixed human brain sections were subjected to histopathology and fluorescence immunohistochemistry studies...
January 2014: Annals of Neurology
Simone Frizell Reiter, Gyri Veiby, Anne-Kjersti Daltveit, Bernt A Engelsen, Nils Erik Gilhus
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate psychiatric disease and social aspects in young women with epilepsy before and during pregnancy. METHOD: The study included self-reported data from 106,935 pregnancies. RESULTS: Seven hundred eleven women reported having epilepsy, and 45.9% of them were using antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Compared to the reference group, self-reported eating disorders and depression were increased in the untreated epilepsy group before pregnancy...
November 2013: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Gyri Veiby, Bernt A Engelsen, Nils Erik Gilhus
IMPORTANCE: Exposure to antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy is associated with adverse effects on psychomotor development. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether signs of impaired development appear already during the first months of life in children exposed prenatally to antiepileptic drugs, and to explore potential adverse effects of antiepileptic drug exposure through breastfeeding. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Mothers at 13 to 17 weeks of pregnancy were recruited in the population-based, prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study from 1999 to 2009...
November 2013: JAMA Neurology
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