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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771286/local-cortical-gyrification-is-increased-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-but-decreases-rapidly-in-adolescents
#1
Jiwandeep S Kohli, Mikaela K Kinnear, Christopher H Fong, Inna Fishman, Ruth A Carper, Ralph-Axel Müller
Extensive MRI evidence indicates early brain overgrowth in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Local gyrification may reflect the distribution and timing of aberrant cortical expansion in ASDs. We examined MRI data from (Study 1) 64 individuals with ASD and 64 typically developing (TD) controls (7-19 years), and from (Study 2) an independent sample from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (n = 31/group). Local Gyrification Index (lGI), cortical thickness (CT), and surface area (SA) were measured. In Study 1, differences in lGI (ASD > TD) were found in left parietal and temporal and right frontal and temporal regions...
May 16, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763658/event-related-potential-analysis-techniques-for-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Priyalakshmi Sheela, Subha D Puthankattil
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) comprise all pervasive neurodevelopmental diseases marked by deficits in social and communication skills, delayed cognitive development, restricted and repetitive behaviors. The core symptoms begin in early childhood, may continue life-long resulting in poor performance in adult stage. Event-related potential (ERP) is basically a time-locked electroencephalogram signal elicited by various stimuli, related to sensory and cognitive processes. The various ERP based techniques used for the study of ASD are considered in this review...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763648/autism-spectrum-disorder-classification-diagnosis-and-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Samata R Sharma, Xenia Gonda, Frank I Tarazi
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Hereditary factors, parental history of psychiatric disorders, pre-term births, and fetal exposure to psychotropic drugs or insecticides have all been linked to higher risk of ASD...
May 12, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761539/-fat-is-really-a-four-letter-word-exploring-weight-related-communication-best-practices-in-children-with-and-without-disabilities-and-their-caregivers
#4
A C McPherson, T J Knibbe, M Oake, J A Swift, N Browne, G D C Ball, J Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Health care professionals play a critical role in preventing and managing childhood obesity, but the American Academy of Pediatrics recently stressed the importance of using sensitive and nonstigmatizing language when discussing weight with children and families. Although barriers to weight-related discussions are well known, there are few evidence-based recommendations around communication best practices. Disability populations in particular have previously been excluded from work in this area...
May 15, 2018: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754444/peptidome-analysis-reveals-novel-serum-biomarkers-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-china
#5
Juan Yang, Yanni Chen, Xiaofan Xiong, Xiaobo Zhou, Lin Han, Ei Ni, Wenjing Wang, Xiaofei Wang, Lingyu Zhao, Dongdong Shao, Chen Huang
PURPOSE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout one's life. Early diagnosis is essential for ASD since early treatment can enable children with ASD to make significant gains in language and social skills, but remains challenging since there are currently no specific biomarkers of ASD. The study aimed to identify serum biomarkers for ASD. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Serum of Han Chinese children with ASD (n = 68) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 80) was analyzed using magnetic bead-based separation combined with mass spectrum...
May 13, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753726/two-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-of-the-reln-gene-and-symptom-based-and-developmental-deficits-among-children-and-adolescents-with-autistic-spectrum-disorders-in-the-tianjin-china
#6
Geng-Fu Wang, Sheng Ye, Lei Gao, Yu Han, Xuan Guo, Xiao-Peng Dong, Yuan-Yuan Su, Xin Zhang
Increasing evidence has revealed that genetic variants in Reelin (RELN) gene, especially single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), correlate with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) risk; however, no consensus have been reached. This study aimed to provide additional evidence for the association between two SNPs of RELN (i.e., rs736707, rs2229864) and ASD risk, as well as the relationship between RELN gene and symptom-based and developmental deficits of ASD patients in Chinese Han children and adolescents. 157 ASD subjects and 256 typical development (TD) controls were genotyped by TaqMan® genotyping assay...
May 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742331/youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-emergency-department
#7
Sarah Lytle, Andrew Hunt, Sonal Moratschek, Marcie Hall-Mennes, Martha Sajatovic
OBJECTIVE: This comprehensive literature review summarizes reports on emergency department (ED) use by youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). DATA SOURCES: We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases (1985-2016), limited to studies published in English. The following search terms were used: autism, autistic, Asperger, emergency department/room/physician/doctor/treatment/medicine, childhood developmental disorders (pervasive), and emergencies...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736964/novel-pls3-variants-in-x-linked-osteoporosis-exploring-bone-material-properties
#8
Meena Balasubramanian, Nadja Fratzl-Zelman, Rory O'Sullivan, Mary Bull, Nicola Fa Peel, Rebecca C Pollitt, Rebecca Jones, Elizabeth Milne, Kath Smith, Paul Roschger, Klaus Klaushofer, Nicholas J Bishop
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis (IJO) refers to significantly lower than expected bone mass manifesting in childhood with no identifiable aetiology. IJO classically presents in early pubertal period with multiple fractures including metaphyseal and vertebral crush fractures, and low bone-mass. METHODS: Here we describe two patients and provide information on their clinical phenotype, genotype and bone material analysis in one of the patients. RESULTS: Patient 1: 40-year old adult male diagnosed with IJO in childhood who re-presented with a hip fracture as an adult...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731417/social-touch-and-human-development
#9
Carissa J Cascio, David Moore, Francis McGlone
Social touch is a powerful force in human development, shaping social reward, attachment, cognitive, communication, and emotional regulation from infancy and throughout life. In this review, we consider the question of how social touch is defined from both bottom-up and top-down perspectives. In the former category, there is a clear role for the C-touch (CT) system, which constitutes a unique submodality that mediates affective touch and contrasts with discriminative touch. Top-down factors such as culture, personal relationships, setting, gender, and other contextual influences are also important in defining and interpreting social touch...
April 24, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730299/plasma-oxysterol-profiling-in-children-reveals-24-hydroxycholesterol-as-a-potential-marker-for-autism-spectrum-disorders
#10
S Grayaa, C Zerbinati, M Messedi, I HadjKacem, M Chtourou, D Ben Touhemi, M Naifar, H Ayadi, F Ayedi, L Iuliano
Cholesterol and its oxygenated metabolites, such as oxysterols, are intensively investigated as potential players in the pathophysiology of brain disorder. Altered oxysterol levels have been described in patients with numerous neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, and Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome. Recent studies have shown that Autism Spectrum Disorders are associated with disruption of cholesterol metabolism...
May 3, 2018: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720545/multifocal-demyelinating-motor-neuropathy-and-hamartoma-syndrome-associated-with-a-de-novo-pten-mutation
#11
Boglarka Bansagi, Vietxuan Phan, Mark R Baker, Julia O'Sullivan, Matthew J Jennings, Roger G Whittaker, Juliane S Müller, Jennifer Duff, Helen Griffin, James A L Miller, Grainne S Gorman, Hanns Lochmüller, Patrick F Chinnery, Andreas Roos, Laura E Swan, Rita Horvath
OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient with a multifocal demyelinating motor neuropathy with onset in childhood and a mutation in phosphatase and tensin homolog ( PTEN ), a tumor suppressor gene associated with inherited tumor susceptibility conditions, macrocephaly, autism, ataxia, tremor, and epilepsy. Functional implications of this protein have been investigated in Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases. METHODS: We performed whole-exome sequencing in the patient's genomic DNA validated by Sanger sequencing...
May 2, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707425/psychosis-in-a-child-with-atypical-autism-a-case-report-and-a-brief-review-of-the-association-of-psychosis-and-autism
#12
Swapnajeet Sahoo, Susanta Kumar Padhy, Neha Singla, Aakanksha Singh
Recent studies have shown that individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at an increased risk of developing psychosis. Diagnosing psychosis in such individuals can be challenging when they present with symptoms at a young age. A careful history and thorough assessment are essential for proper diagnosis to avoid mislabeling certain behavioral problems encountered among children with ASD. We present the case of a 12-year-old child with atypical autism who developed psychotic symptoms that led to a diagnostic dilemma...
April 1, 2018: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706160/autistic-traits-and-suicidal-thoughts-plans-and-self-harm-in-late-adolescence-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Iryna Culpin, Becky Mars, Rebecca M Pearson, Jean Golding, Jon Heron, Isidora Bubak, Peter Carpenter, Cecilia Magnusson, David Gunnell, Dheeraj Rai
OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) diagnosis and traits in childhood are associated with suicidal thoughts, plans and self-harm at 16 years, and that any observed associations are explained by depression at 12 years. METHOD: We examined associations between ASD diagnosis and 4 dichotomized ASD traits (social communication, pragmatic language, repetitive behavior, and sociability) with suicidal and nonsuicidal self-harm, suicidal thoughts, and suicidal plans at age 16 years in 5,031 members of the United Kingdom-based birth cohort study the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
May 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705814/serum-cytokine-and-growth-factor-levels-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Ivo Lochman, Veronika Švachová, Kristýna Mílková Pavlíková, Hana Medřická, Vilém Novák, Lenka Trilecová, Lubomír Pavliska, Václav Procházka
BACKGROUND The immune system may have a role in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including typical and atypical autism. The aim of this study was to determine whether a cytokine and growth factor panel could be identified for the diagnosis and prognosis in children with ASD, including typical and atypical autism. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study included 26 children with ASD (typical or atypical) and 11 of their siblings who did not have ASD. A panel of ten serum cytokines and growth factors were investigated using addressable laser bead assay (ALBIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits...
April 29, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703679/a-network-neuroscience-approach-to-typical-and-atypical-brain-development
#15
REVIEW
Sarah E Morgan, Simon R White, Edward T Bullmore, Petra E Vértes
Human brain networks based on neuroimaging data have already proven useful in characterizing both normal and abnormal brain structure and function. However, many brain disorders are neurodevelopmental in origin, highlighting the need to go beyond characterizing brain organization in terms of static networks. Here, we review the fast-growing literature shedding light on developmental changes in network phenotypes. We begin with an overview of recent large-scale efforts to map healthy brain development, and we describe the key role played by longitudinal data including repeated measurements over a long period of follow-up...
March 14, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703592/personalized-intrinsic-network-topography-mapping-and-functional-connectivity-deficits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Erin W Dickie, Stephanie H Ameis, Saba Shahab, Navona Calarco, Dawn E Smith, Dayton Miranda, Joseph D Viviano, Aristotle N Voineskos
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in techniques using functional magnetic resonance imaging data demonstrate individually specific variation in brain architecture in healthy individuals. To our knowledge, the effects of individually specific variation in complex brain disorders have not been previously reported. METHODS: We developed a novel approach (Personalized Intrinsic Network Topography, PINT) for localizing individually specific resting-state networks using conventional resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans...
March 17, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701446/prenatal-organophosphate-pesticide-exposure-and-traits-related-to-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-a-population-living-in-proximity-to-agriculture
#17
Sharon K Sagiv, Maria H Harris, Robert B Gunier, Katherine R Kogut, Kim G Harley, Julianna Deardorff, Asa Bradman, Nina Holland, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides has been linked with poorer neurodevelopment and behaviors related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in previous studies, including in the Center for Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, a birth cohort living in the agricultural Salinas Valley in California. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of prenatal exposure to OP pesticides with traits related to ASD, in childhood and adolescents in CHAMACOS...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698806/identification-of-two-14q32-deletions-involving-dicer1-associated-with-the-development-of-dicer1-related-tumors
#18
John C Herriges, Sara Brown, Maria Longhurst, Jillian Ozmore, John B Moeschler, Aura Janze, Jeanne Meck, Sarah T South, Erica F Andersen
DICER1 encodes an RNase III endonuclease protein that regulates the production of small non-coding RNAs. Germline mutations in DICER1 are associated with an autosomal dominant hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome that confers an increased risk for the development of several rare childhood and adult-onset tumors, the most frequent of which include pleuropulmonary blastoma, ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, cystic nephroma, and thyroid gland neoplasia. The majority of reported germline DICER1 mutations are truncating sequence-level alterations, suggesting that a loss-of-function type mechanism drives tumor formation in DICER1 syndrome...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696526/parent-teacher-agreement-on-social-skills-and-behavior-problems-among-ethnically-diverse-preschoolers-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Brittany Thompson, Adam Winsler
Parents and teachers provide complimentary information in the assessment of preschoolers so it is important to understand parent-teacher agreement, especially for children with autism. Parents and teachers rated an ethnically diverse sample of preschoolers with autism (N = 257; 67% Latino) on the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (LeBuffe and Naglieri in Devereux Early Childhood Assessment: User's guide, Kaplan Press, Lewisville, 1999). Correlations between parent and teacher ratings were moderate and significant for social skills (r = 0...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696524/differences-between-the-childhood-autism-rating-scale-and-the-social-responsiveness-scale-in-assessing-symptoms-of-children-with-autistic-spectrum-disorder
#20
Kuan-Lin Chen, Chien-Ho Lin, Tzu-Ying Yu, Chien-Yu Huang, Ying-Dar Chen
This study aimed to compare symptoms of autism spectrum disorder using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS™-2) and to investigate their influencing factors. The diagnostic agreement was 92.7%, but with a fair Kappa value (0.247). Children's verbal comprehension was related to the CARS scores, and no variables were related to the SRS™-2 scores. Generally, significant small correlations were found between the two measures in children with normal or borderline to below average verbal comprehension (rs = 0...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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