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Autism in childhood

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632930/long-term-follow-up-of-intra-cytoplasmic-sperm-injection-conceived-offspring-compared-with-in%C3%A2-vitro-fertilization-conceived-offspring-a-systematic-review-of-health-outcomes-beyond-the-neonatal-period
#1
REVIEW
S R Catford, R I McLachlan, M K O'Bryan, J L Halliday
The use of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has increased significantly worldwide, often chosen instead of in vitro fertilization (IVF), yet long-term health outcomes are unknown and health differences between ICSI and IVF conceptions have not been comprehensively assessed. A systematic review of health outcomes of ICSI-conceived offspring beyond the neonatal period compared to IVF-conceived offspring was carried out. PubMed, OVID Medline/Embase, Informit, Web of Science and Proquest databases were searched on 9 November 2016 for studies reporting on health outcomes in ICSI-conceived offspring beyond 28 days after birth...
June 20, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631578/the-journey-to-autism-insights-from-neuroimaging-studies-of-infants-and-toddlers
#2
Jason J Wolff, Suma Jacob, Jed T Elison
By definition, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that emerges during early childhood. It is during this time that infants and toddlers transition from appearing typical across multiple domains to exhibiting the behavioral phenotype of ASD. Neuroimaging studies focused on this period of development have provided crucial knowledge pertaining to this process, including possible mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of the disorder and offering the possibility of prodromal or presymptomatic prediction of risk...
June 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627743/polygenic-scores-for-schizophrenia-and-educational-attainment-are-associated-with-behavioural-problems-in-early-childhood-in-the-general-population
#3
Philip R Jansen, Tinca J C Polderman, Koen Bolhuis, Jan van der Ende, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Tonya White, Danielle Posthuma, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies in adults have identified numerous genetic variants related to psychiatric disorders and related traits, such as schizophrenia and educational attainment. However, the effects of these genetic variants on behaviour in the general population remain to be fully understood, particularly in younger populations. We investigated whether polygenic scores of five psychiatric disorders and educational attainment are related to emotional and behaviour problems during early childhood...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627421/hla-g%C3%A2-14bp-insertion-and-the-kir2ds1-hlac2-complex-impact-on-behavioral-impairment-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Franca R Guerini, Elisabetta Bolognesi, Matteo Chiappedi, Alessandro Ghezzo, Salvatorica Manca, Michela Zanette, Stefano Sotgiu, Maria Martina Mensi, Milena Zanzottera, Cristina Agliardi, Andrea S Costa, Umberto Balottin, Mario Clerici
Activating KIRs-HLA-C ligands complexes and HLA-G∗14bp insertion/deletion (+/-) polymorphism were associated to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and were suggested to correlate with inflammation during fetal development. We evaluated whether HLA-G∗14bp(+/-) and KIRs-HLA-C complexes are associated with cognitive and behavioral scores and EEG profile in 119 ASD children (58 from Sardinia, 61 from Peninsular Italy). KIR2DS1-C2; KIR2DS2-C1; KIR2DL1-C2; KIR2DL2-C1; KIR2DL3-C1 and HLA-G∗14bp(+/-) were molecularly genotyped by SSP and gel electrophoresis...
June 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622528/band-specific-atypical-functional-connectivity-pattern-in-childhood-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
Tetsuya Takahashi, Teruya Yamanishi, Sou Nobukawa, Shinya Kasakawa, Yuko Yoshimura, Hirotoshi Hiraishi, Chiaki Hasegawa, Takashi Ikeda, Tetsu Hirosawa, Toshio Munesue, Haruhiro Higashida, Yoshio Minabe, Mitsuru Kikuchi
OBJECTIVE: Altered brain connectivity has been theorized as a key neural underpinning of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but recent investigations have revealed conflicting patterns of connectivity, particularly hyper-connectivity and hypo-connectivity across age groups. The application of graph theory to neuroimaging data has become an effective approach for characterizing topographical patterns of large-scale functional networks. We used a graph approach to investigate alteration of functional networks in childhood ASD...
May 23, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615758/regional-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-and-its-association-with-phenotype-and-cognitive-functioning-in-patients-with-autism
#6
B N Anil Kumar, Savita Malhotra, Anish Bhattacharya, Sandeep Grover, Y K Batra
INTRODUCTION: In spite of three decades of neuroimaging, we are unable to find consistent and coherent anatomical or pathophysiological basis for autism as changes are subtle and there are no studies from India. AIM: To study the regional cerebral glucose metabolism in children with autism using positron emission tomography (PET) scan and to study the behavior and cognitive functioning among them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten subjects (8-19 years) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for autism were evaluated on Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), trail making test (TMT) A and B, Wisconsin card sorting test, Raven's progressive matrices, and PET scan...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607477/gabaa-receptor-subunit-gene-polymorphisms-predict-symptom-based-and-developmental-deficits-in-chinese-han-children-and-adolescents-with-autistic-spectrum-disorders
#7
Shuhan Yang, Xuan Guo, Xiaopeng Dong, Yu Han, Lei Gao, Yuanyuan Su, Wei Dai, Xin Zhang
GABAA receptor subunit genes GABRB3, GABRA5, and GABRG3 located on chromosome 15q11-q13 have been implicated in the etiology of autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). This study intended to investigate the possible role of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present in GABRB3 (rs2081648 and rs1426217), GABRA5 (rs35586628), and GABRG3 (rs208129) genes in ASD susceptibility and symptom-based and developmental phenotypes of ASD in Chinese Han children and adolescents. 99 ASD patients and 231 age- and gender- frequency-matched typical developing (TD) controls were tested by TaqMan® genotyping assay...
June 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596952/neurodevelopmental-delay-diagnosis-rates-are-increased-in-a-region-with-aerial-pesticide-application
#8
Steven D Hicks, Ming Wang, Katherine Fry, Vignesh Doraiswamy, Eric M Wohlford
A number of studies have implicated pesticides in childhood developmental delay (DD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The influence of the route of pesticide exposure on neurodevelopmental delay is not well defined. To study this factor, we examined ASD/DD diagnoses rates in an area near our regional medical center that employs yearly aerial pyrethroid pesticide applications to combat mosquito-borne encephalitis. The aim of this study was to determine if areas with aerial pesticide exposure had higher rates of ASD/DD diagnoses...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595786/increased-risk-for-an-atypical-autism-diagnosis-following-thimerosal-containing-vaccine-exposure-in-the-united-states-a-prospective-longitudinal-case-control-study-in-the-vaccine-safety-datalink
#9
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Mark R Geier
BACKGROUND: Thimerosal is an organic-mercury (Hg)-containing compound (49.55% Hg by weight) historically added to many multi-dose vials of vaccine as a preservative and still added to some vaccines today. Concerns about the toxic effects from Thimerosal-containing childhood vaccines and the risk of an atypical autism diagnosis were evaluated in this study. METHODS: A hypothesis-testing, prospective longitudinal, case-control study assessed exposure to Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB) among cases diagnosed with atypical autism (n=164) and controls (n=15,216)...
July 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592982/herbal-medicine-treatment-for-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Miran Bang, Sun Haeng Lee, Seung-Hun Cho, Sun-Ae Yu, Kibong Kim, Hsu Yuan Lu, Gyu Tae Chang, Sang Yeon Min
OBJECTIVE: To summarize and evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. METHODS: Thirteen electronic databases were searched from their inception to November 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the efficacy of herbal medicines alone or in combination with other Traditional Chinese Medicine treatments for ASD in children were included. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used and other data analyses were performed using RevMan (Version 5...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581542/visual-impairment-and-traits-of-autism-in-children
#11
REVIEW
Magdalena Wrzesińska, Joanna Kapias, Katarzyna Nowakowska-Domagała, Józef Kocur
Visual impairment present from birth or from an early childhood may lead to psychosocial and emotional disorders. 11-40% of children in the group with visual impairment show traits of autism. The aim of this paper was to present the selected examples of how visual impairment in children is related to the occurrence of autism and to describe the available tools for diagnosing autism in children with visual impairment. So far the relation between visual impairment in children and autism has not been sufficiently confirmed...
April 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577609/the-early-origins-of-autism
#12
REVIEW
John N Constantino, Natasha Marrus
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders whose core features of impaired social communication and atypical repetitive behaviors and/or restrictions in range of interests emerge in toddlerhood and carry significant implications at successive stages of development. The ability to reliably identify most cases of the condition far earlier than the average age of diagnosis presents a novel opportunity for early intervention, but the availability of such an intervention is disparate across US communities, and its impact is imperfectly understood...
July 2017: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567415/neurodevelopmental-disorders-and-environmental-toxicants-epigenetics-as-an-underlying-mechanism
#13
REVIEW
Nguyen Quoc Vuong Tran, Kunio Miyake
The increasing prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, especially autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), calls for more research into the identification of etiologic and risk factors. The Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesizes that the environment during fetal and childhood development affects the risk for many chronic diseases in later stages of life, including neurodevelopmental disorders. Epigenetics, a term describing mechanisms that cause changes in the chromosome state without affecting DNA sequences, is suggested to be the underlying mechanism, according to the DOHaD hypothesis...
2017: International Journal of Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562247/neurodevelopment-the-impact-of-nutrition-and-inflammation-during-preconception-and-pregnancy-in-low-resource-settings
#14
Betty R Vohr, Elysia Poggi Davis, Christine A Wanke, Nancy F Krebs
The rapid pace of fetal development by far exceeds any other stage of the life span, and thus, environmental influences can profoundly alter the developmental course. Stress during the prenatal period, including malnutrition and inflammation, impact maternal and fetal neurodevelopment with long-term consequences for physical and mental health of both the mother and her child. One primary consequence of maternal malnutrition, inflammation, and other sources of prenatal stress is a poor birth outcome, such as prematurity or growth restriction...
April 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547882/re-adjusting-the-cut-off-score-of-the-korean-version-of-the-childhood-autism-rating-scale-for-high-functioning-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Hyuk-Jin Kwon, Hee-Jeong Yoo, Joo-Hyun Kim, Dong-Hyun Noh, Hyun-Jung Sunwoo, Ye Seul Jeon, Sang-Youn Lee, Ye-Ul Jo, Gui-Young Bong
AIM: The current cut-off score of the Korean version of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale(K-CARS) does not seem sensitive enough to precisely diagnose high-functioning autism. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal cut-off score of K-CARS for diagnosing high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders(ASD). METHODS: A total of 329 participants were assessed by the Korean versions of the Autism Diagnostic Interview - Revised (K-ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (K-ADOS), and K-CARS...
May 26, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539852/abnormal-brain-connectivity-spectrum-disorders-following-thimerosal-administration-a-prospective-longitudinal-case-control-assessment-of-medical-records-in-the-vaccine-safety-datalink
#16
David A Geier, Janet K Kern, Kristin G Homme, Mark R Geier
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), tic disorder (TD), and hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood (attention deficit disorder [ADD]/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]) are disorders recently defined as abnormal connectivity spectrum disorders (ACSDs) because they show a similar pattern of abnormal brain connectivity. This study examines whether these disorders are associated with exposure to thimerosal, a mercury (Hg)-based preservative. METHODS: A hypothesis testing case-control study evaluated the Vaccine Safety Datalink for the potential dose-dependent odds ratios (ORs) for diagnoses of ASD, TD, and ADD/ADHD compared to controls, following exposure to Hg from thimerosal-containing Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines administrated within the first 15 months of life...
January 2017: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538046/general-pediatrician-staffed-behavioral-developmental-access-clinic-decreases-time-to-evaluation-of-early-childhood-developmental-disorders
#17
Meghan Harrison, Persephone Jones, Iman Sharif, Matthew D Di Guglielmo
OBJECTIVE: To describe and evaluate the effectiveness of a quality improvement project to decrease wait time to evaluation for children referred to Developmental Behavioral Pediatricians (DBPs). METHODS: The authors created a Behavioral/Developmental Access Clinic (BDAC) staffed by a general pediatrician (GP) and pediatric psychologist. Clinicians in the BDAC provided comprehensive developmental evaluations for children in a discrete age range (<5 yr old). We describe the establishment of the BDAC along with referrals, diagnoses, and recommended follow-up for patients seen by the GP...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536923/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-slc19a1-and-slc25a9-are-associated-with-childhood-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-the-chinese-han-population
#18
Jun Liu, Weiming Mo, Zengyu Zhang, Hong Yu, Aiping Yang, Fei Qu, Pingfang Hu, Zhuo Liu, Shihu Wang
Genetic variants have been implicated in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent studies suggest that solute carriers (SLCs) may play a role in the etiology of ASD. This purpose of this study was to determine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SLC19A1 and SLC25A12 genes with childhood ASD in a Chinese Han population. A total of 201 autistic children and 200 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were recruited. A TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR approach was used to determine genotypes of SNPs corresponding to rs1023159 and rs1051266 in SLC19A1, and rs2056202 and rs2292813 in SLC25A12...
June 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534237/the-buffet-program-development-of-a-cognitive-behavioral-treatment-for-selective-eating-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Emily S Kuschner, Hannah E Morton, Brenna B Maddox, Ashley de Marchena, Laura Gutermuth Anthony, Judy Reaven
Selective eating (often referred to as "picky" eating) is common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across the lifespan. Behavioral interventions are widely used to treat selective eating; however, most of these programs are time intensive, have not been evaluated for use in outpatient settings, and do not typically include youth beyond early childhood. Despite the functional impact and risk for negative outcomes associated with selective eating, there are no empirically supported treatments available for older children, adolescents, or adults, either with or without ASD...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533516/asd-restricted-and-repetitive-behaviors-associated-at-17q21-33-genes-prioritized-by-expression-in-fetal-brains
#20
R M Cantor, L Navarro, H Won, R L Walker, J K Lowe, D H Geschwind
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally defined condition that manifests in infancy or early childhood as deficits in communication skills and social interactions. Often, restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) accompany this disorder. ASD is polygenic and genetically complex, so we hypothesized that focusing analyses on intermediate core component phenotypes, such as RRBs, can reduce genetic heterogeneity and improve statistical power. Applying this approach, we mined Caucasian genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data from two of the largest ASD family cohorts, the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange and Autism Genome Project (AGP)...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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