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Autism in childhood

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918948/adult-autism-subthreshold-spectrum-adas-spectrum-validation-of-a-questionnaire-investigating-subthreshold-autism-spectrum
#1
L Dell'Osso, C Gesi, E Massimetti, I M Cremone, M Barbuti, G Maccariello, I Moroni, S Barlati, G Castellini, M Luciano, L Bossini, M Rocchetti, M Signorelli, E Aguglia, A Fagiolini, P Politi, V Ricca, A Vita, C Carmassi, M Maj
AIM: Increasing literature has shown the usefulness of a dimensional approach to autism. The present study aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the Adult Autism Subthreshold Spectrum (AdAS Spectrum), a new questionnaire specifically tailored to assess subthreshold forms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adulthood. METHODS: 102 adults endorsing at least one DSM-5 symptom criterion for ASD (ASDc), 143 adults diagnosed with a feeding and eating disorder (FED), and 160 subjects with no mental disorders (CTL), were recruited from 7 Italian University Departments of Psychiatry and administered the following: SCID-5, Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), Ritvo Autism and Asperger Diagnostic Scale 14-item version (RAADS-14), and AdAS Spectrum...
November 9, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898583/genetic-control-of-postnatal-human-brain-growth
#2
Laura I van Dyck, Eric M Morrow
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies investigating postnatal brain growth disorders inform the biology underlying the development of human brain circuitry. This research is becoming increasingly important for the diagnosis and treatment of childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism and related disorders. Here, we review recent research on typical and abnormal postnatal brain growth and examine potential biological mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinically, brain growth disorders are heralded by diverging head size for a given age and sex, but are more precisely characterized by brain imaging, post-mortem analysis, and animal model studies...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896942/mid-childhood-outcomes-of-infant-siblings-at-familial-high-risk-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Elizabeth Shephard, Bosiljka Milosavljevic, Greg Pasco, Emily J H Jones, Teodora Gliga, Francesca Happé, Mark H Johnson, Tony Charman
Almost one-in-five infants at high familial risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), due to having an older sibling with an ASD diagnosis, develop ASD themselves by age 3 years. Less is known about the longer-term outcomes of high-risk infants. To address this issue, we examined symptoms of ASD and associated developmental conditions (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); anxiety), language, IQ, and adaptive behaviour at age 7 years in high- and low-risk children studied from infancy. We compared outcomes between high-risk children who met criteria for ASD at age 7, high-risk children without ASD, and low-risk control children...
November 29, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889187/maternal-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-and-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-the-offspring
#4
Kyriaki Kosidou, Christina Dalman, Linnea Widman, Stefan Arver, Brian K Lee, Cecilia Magnusson, Renee M Gardner
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorder, and boys are two to three times more likely to develop ADHD. Maternal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common metabolic disorder associated with excess circulating androgens, has been associated with increased risk for autism spectrum disorder in the offspring. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether maternal PCOS increases the risk for ADHD in the offspring...
October 6, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874276/prenatal-toxoplasmosis-antibody-and-childhood-autism
#5
Marisa N Spann, Andre Sourander, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Susanna Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Alan S Brown
There is evidence that some maternal infections during the prenatal period are associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as childhood autism. However, the association between autism and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), an intracellular parasite, remains unclear. The authors examined whether serologically confirmed maternal antibodies to T. gondii are associated with odds of childhood autism in offspring. The study is based on a nested case-control design of a large national birth cohort (N = 1.2 million) and the national psychiatric registries in Finland...
November 22, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872376/the-multi-component-nature-of-statistical-learning
#6
REVIEW
Joanne Arciuli
The central argument presented in this paper is that statistical learning (SL) is an ability comprised of multiple components that operate largely implicitly. Components relating to the stimulus encoding, retention and abstraction required for SL may include, but are not limited to, certain types of attention, processing speed and memory. It is likely that individuals vary in terms of the efficiency of these underlying components, and in patterns of connectivity among these components, and that SL tasks differ from one another in how they draw on certain underlying components more than others...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868194/randomized-controlled-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Khaled Saad, Ahmed A Abdel-Rahman, Yasser M Elserogy, Abdulrahman A Al-Atram, Amira A El-Houfey, Hisham A K Othman, Geir Bjørklund, Feiyong Jia, Mauricio A Urbina, Mohamed Gamil M Abo-Elela, Faisal-Alkhateeb Ahmad, Khaled A Abd El-Baseer, Ahmed E Ahmed, Ahmad M Abdel-Salam
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a frequent developmental disorder characterized by pervasive deficits in social interaction, impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication, and stereotyped patterns of interests and activities. It has been previously reported that there is vitamin D deficiency in autistic children; however, there is a lack of randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation in ASD children. METHODS: This study is a double-blinded, randomized clinical trial (RCT) that was conducted on 109 children with ASD (85 boys and 24 girls; aged 3-10 years)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866350/changes-in-food-selectivity-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Linda G Bandini, Carol Curtin, Sarah Phillips, Sarah E Anderson, Melissa Maslin, Aviva Must
Food selectivity is a common problem in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and has an adverse impact on nutrient adequacy and family mealtimes. Despite recent research in this area, few studies have addressed whether food selectivity present in children with ASD persists into adolescence. In this study, we assessed food selectivity in 18 children with ASD at two time points (mean age = 6.8 and 13.2 years), and examined changes in food selectivity. While food refusal improved overall, we did not observe an increase in food repertoire (number of unique foods eaten)...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862704/what-happens-to-children-who-move-off-the-autism-spectrum-a-clinical-follow-up-study
#9
Nahit Motavalli Mukaddes, Tuba Mutluer, Basak Ayik, Ayla Umut
OBJECTIVES: There is controversial information on school age outcome of individuals who lose the diagnosis of autism and achieve "optimal outcome" (OO). The present study aimed to assess the autism symptoms and other psychiatric disorders in a group of children with a past history of autism. METHODS: The study includes individuals (n=26) who lost the diagnosis of autism two to eight years previously. Clinical assessment was done with both parents and children. DSM-V criteria were used for diagnosis of ASD...
November 12, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848051/continuity-and-change-in-cognition-and-autism-severity-from-toddlerhood-to-school-age
#10
Megan L E Clark, Josephine Barbaro, Cheryl Dissanayake
: This paper charted the cognitive and behavioural profiles from toddlerhood to middle childhood in 48 children diagnosed with ASD at 24-months. The Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) was administered at 24- and 48-months and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) at school age. Autism severity was derived using The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Results: Developmental Disability/Intellectual Disability (DD/ID; Developmental Quotient <70) reduced from 64% at 24-months to 8% at outcome...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846197/association-between-breastfeeding-duration-and-cognitive-development-autistic-traits-and-adhd-symptoms-a-multicenter-study-in-spain
#11
Olivier Boucher, Jordi Julvez, Mònica Guxens, Enrique Arranz, Jesús Ibarluzea, Manuel Sánchez de Miguel, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Adonina Tardon, Marisa Rebagliato, Raquel Garcia-Esteban, Giselle O'Connor, Ferran Ballester, Jordi Sunyer
BACKGROUND: Several studies have related longer breastfeeding duration to better intellectual performance in children. By contrast, few studies have investigated the potential protective effects of breastfeeding against behavioral problems such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and even fewer on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) traits. METHODS: We examined the association between breastfeeding duration and cognitive development, attention, ADHD symptoms, and autistic traits using data from the INMA Project, a Spanish multicenter birth-cohort study, and taking into account the intensity of breastfeeding...
November 15, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845779/brain-responses-to-biological-motion-predict-treatment-outcome-in-young-children-with-autism
#12
D Yang, K A Pelphrey, D G Sukhodolsky, M J Crowley, E Dayan, N C Dvornek, A Venkataraman, J Duncan, L Staib, P Ventola
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are common yet complex neurodevelopmental disorders, characterized by social, communication and behavioral deficits. Behavioral interventions have shown favorable results-however, the promise of precision medicine in ASD is hampered by a lack of sensitive, objective neurobiological markers (neurobiomarkers) to identify subgroups of young children likely to respond to specific treatments. Such neurobiomarkers are essential because early childhood provides a sensitive window of opportunity for intervention, while unsuccessful intervention is costly to children, families and society...
November 15, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843043/hyperekplexia-report-on-phenotype-and-genotype-of-16-jordanian-patients
#13
Amira Masri, Seo-Kyung Chung, Mark I Rees
BACKGROUND: Hyperekplexia, is a rare disorder characterized by excessive startle response to acoustic, visual, or other stimuli. It is inherited in autosomal recessive and dominant pattern. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and genetic features of hyperekplexia in Jordanian patients. METHODS: This retrospective study includes all patients with proved genetic diagnosis of hyperekplexia who presented to our clinic at the Jordan University Hospital from January 2001 through July 2015...
November 11, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842974/-a-longitudinal-3%C3%A2-years-study-of-the-development-of-four-children-with-autism-without-mental-retardation-after-90%C3%A2-sessions-of-social-skills-training
#14
M Liratni, C Blanchet, R Pry
INTRODUCTION: Few studies on social skills training essentially based on ABA techniques are dedicated to children with autism aged 5 to 10 years whereas autistic disorders can be diagnosed in very early childhood. Generally, the main criticisms about these social skills training are: shortness of programs (around 20 sessions), no manual with precise descriptions of sessions and used techniques, and a lack of generalization of the learned skills in everyday life. OBJECTIVES: To describe the evolution (before/after) of symptoms and sociocommunicative skills of 7 children with autism and no mental retardation (mean age=7...
November 11, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842520/assessing-an-isizulu-questionnaire-with-educators-in-primary-schools-in-pietermaritzburg-to-establish-a-baseline-of-knowledge-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Natalie K Hutton, Carol Mitchell, Mary van der Riet
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a significant childhood disorder and has a growing prevalence rate across the world. It has been identified in children from a wide range of racial groups, ethnicities and socio-economic groups, making it a globally relevant disorder. However, a lack of research on ASD in Africa makes it difficult to determine the prevalence rate, presentation and level of knowledge regarding the disorder locally. Therefore, assessing knowledge of ASD amongst professionals is a useful starting point for research in countries where research on ASD is limited...
November 14, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829119/social-perception-in-children-with-fetal-alcohol-spectrum-disorder
#16
Sara A Stevens, Hayyah Clairman, Kelly Nash, Joanne Rovet
Although the profile of social cognitive difficulties is well recognized in children with certain neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this profile is not as well established in other clinical pediatric populations. The objective of the present study is to examine patterns of social perception in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) compared to typically-developing (TD) control children. A total of 56 children between 8 and 12 years of age-35 with FASD and 21 TD-completed the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task - Children's Version (RMET-C)...
November 9, 2016: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818011/human-grin2b-variants-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Chun Hu, Wenjuan Chen, Scott J Myers, Hongjie Yuan, Stephen F Traynelis
The development of whole exome/genome sequencing technologies has given rise to an unprecedented volume of data linking patient genomic variability to brain disorder phenotypes. A surprising number of variants have been found in the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) gene family, with the GRIN2B gene encoding the GluN2B subunit being implicated in many cases of neurodevelopmental disorders, which are psychiatric conditions originating in childhood and include language, motor, and learning disorders, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental delay, epilepsy, and schizophrenia...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817174/the-pharmacists-awareness-knowledge-and-attitude-about-childhood-autism-in-istanbul
#18
Nimet Emel Luleci, Seyhan Hidiroglu, Melda Karavus, Ahmet Karavus, Furkan Fatih Sanver, Fatih Ozgur, Mehmethan Celik, Samed Cihad Celik
Background Being one of the key players in healthcare, pharmacists could have an important role in the early detection and care of children with autism, by familiarizing themselves with autism-related resources and helping families to find relevant professional resources. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the awareness of pharmacists about autism, and their knowledge and attitude towards autism. Setting İstanbul Province of Turkey. Method This descriptive study was carried out in pharmacists working in Istanbul Province of Turkey in 7 municipalities out of 39...
November 5, 2016: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807754/the-relationship-between-adverse-childhood-events-resiliency-and-health-among-children-with-autism
#19
Bethany Rigles
Previous research has shown a negative relationship between adverse childhood events (ACEs) and health and resiliency among the general population, but has not examined these associations among children with autism. Purpose To determine the prevalence of ACEs among children with autism and how ACEs are associated with resiliency and health. Methods A quantitative analysis was conducted using data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Results Children with autism experience significantly more ACEs than their peers, which is negatively associated with their health...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793223/gut-to-brain-axis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-central-role-for-the-microbiome
#20
A D Kraneveld, K Szklany, C G M de Theije, J Garssen
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders, which occur in early childhood and persist into adulthood. Although the etiology of these disorders is largely unknown, genetic and environmental factors are thought to interplay in the development of ASD. Intestinal microbial dysbiosis, in prenatal and postnatal phases, is an important example of these environmental factors, and gastrointestinal problems including adverse reactions to foods are often reported in these children. In this review, we address the clinical and preclinical findings on the role of the intestinal microbiome in ASD and suggest possible underlying mechanisms...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
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