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Autism in childhood

Harshini Manohar, Pooja Patnaik Kuppili, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder commonly associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), the prevalence ranging from 14-70%. The current study attempted to assess the impact of comorbid ADHD in children with ASD, in terms of challenges in diagnosis, treatment, intervention outcomes and parental stress and coping through a naturalistic design. METHODS: Fifty children aged 2-6 years with ASD were recruited, assessed and followed up for six months...
March 2, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Marlene Pereira Galdino, Luiz Fernando Longuim Pegoraro, Laura Olalla Saad, David Grodberg, Eloisa Helena Rubello Valler Celeri
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Autism Mental Status Examination (AMSE) in a Brazilian sample of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A sample of 260 children and adolescents, comprising 56 (21.5%) females and 204 (78.5%) males, was assessed. The participants were submitted to both the childhood autism rating scale (CARS-BR) and the AMSE. The CARS-BR was used to estimate ASD severity and the cutoff point on the AMSE. Spearman's correlation test was employed to determine the correlation between the AMSE and CARS-BR scales...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Leif Karlsson, Anna Nordenström, Tatja Hirvikoski, Svetlana Lajic
Dexamethasone (DEX) is used to prevent prenatal virilization in female fetuses with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Since treatment has to be started before the genotype of the fetus is known, 7 out of 8 fetuses will be exposed to DEX without benefit. Previously, we have observed negative effects on cognition and behavior in DEX treated children. Here we evaluated neuropsychological functions, psychopathology and autistic traits in non-CAH DEX-treated adults exposed during the first trimester of fetal life (duration 6...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Hirokazu Doi, Takashi X Fujisawa, Ryoichiro Iwanaga, Junko Matsuzaki, Chisato Kawasaki, Mamoru Tochigi, Tsukasa Sasaki, Nobumasa Kato, Kazuyuki Shinohara
BACKGROUND: Previous studies on etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have shown strong contribution of hereditary factors. On the basis the heterogeneity in ASD symptoms, it is highly possible that each independent domain of ASD symptom is linked to a different set of genetic risk factors. However, few empirical investigations have been carried out to examine this hypothesis. AIMS: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in estrogen receptor genes, which several previous studies have identified as potential risk factors of ASD, and the severity of each independent aspect of ASD symptom within an Asian clinical sample...
March 8, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Juan C Stagnaro
Since the late 19th century, Argentinean psychiatrists have been developing classifcations of psychiatric disorders. Their work has had local originality and fruitful exchange with international controversies on the subject. The thinking of some Argentinean psychiatrists transcended the borders of the country and was adopted in the South American region, as was the case with the classifcation proposed by José T. Borda. There were also historical anticipations of concepts that were not known in other latitudes: "oligotimia", a category created by Enrique Pichon-Rivière, preceded the characterization of early childhood autism by Leo Kanner...
May 2017: Vertex: Revista Argentina de Psiquiatriá
Chun-Chun Hu, Xiu Xu, Guo-Liang Xiong, Qiong Xu, Bing-Rui Zhou, Chun-Yang Li, Qi Qin, Chun-Xue Liu, Hui-Ping Li, Yun-Jun Sun, Xiang Yu
Genetic alterations, together with environmental risk factors during infancy and childhood, contribute significantly to the etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition characterized by impairments in social interaction and restricted, repetitive behaviors. Mounting evidence points to a critical contribution of immunological risk factors to the development of ASD. By affecting multiple neurodevelopmental processes, immune system dysfunction could act as a point of convergence between genetics and environmental factors in ASD...
March 9, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Meng-Ning Tsai, Ching-Lin Wu, Lei-Pin Tseng, Chih-Pei An, Hsueh-Chih Chen
Previous research has shown that individuals with autism are frequently mocked in their childhood and are consequently more anxious about being ridiculed. Research has also shown that autistic individuals have a higher level of gelotophobia (fear of being laughed at) compared to typically developed individuals. However, recent studies have also found that gelotophobia is strongly related to personality, which suggests that personality is a factor that helps to create a higher level of gelotophobia in autistic individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Amanda K Tilot, Katerina S Kucera, Arianna Vino, Julian E Asher, Simon Baron-Cohen, Simon E Fisher
Synesthesia is a rare nonpathological phenomenon where stimulation of one sense automatically provokes a secondary perception in another. Hypothesized to result from differences in cortical wiring during development, synesthetes show atypical structural and functional neural connectivity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. The trait also appears to be more common among people with autism spectrum disorder and savant abilities. Previous linkage studies searching for shared loci of large effect size across multiple families have had limited success...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Fatima Saleem, Syed W Rizvi
Transgender or gender dysphoria has been defined in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), as distress resulting from the incongruence between one's experienced gender and one's assigned gender, along with a persistent and strong desire to be of another gender, and accompanied by clinically significant distress. Adolescents referred for evaluation often want hormonal therapy and several among them also express a desire for gender reassignment surgery. Furthermore, evidence shows that adolescents and adults with gender dysphoria without a sex development disorder, before gender reassignments, are at increased risk for suicide...
December 24, 2017: Curēus
Afaf El-Ansary, John J Cannell, Geir Bjørklund, Ramesa Shafi Bhat, Abeer M Al Dbass, Hanan A Alfawaz, Salvatore Chirumbolo, Laila Al-Ayadhi
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects about 1% of the world's population. Vitamin D is thought to be essential for normal brain development and modulation of the immune system. Worldwide about 1 billion people are affected by vitamin D deficiency. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) are biomarkers related to inflammation and oxidative stress. In the present study, these biomarkers were together with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3 ) analyzed in 28 (mean age seven years) Saudi male patients with ASD...
March 1, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
John M McCarthy, Bonnie M McCann-Crosby, Megan E Rech, Jiani Yin, Chun-An Chen, May A Ali, HaiThuy N Nguyen, Jennifer L Miller, Christian P Schaaf
BACKGROUND: Nonsense and frameshift mutations in the maternally imprinted, paternally expressed gene MAGEL2, located in the Prader-Willi critical region 15q11-15q13, have been reported to cause Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS), a genetic disorder that manifests as developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, feeding difficulties and autism spectrum disorder. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterised by severe infantile hypotonia, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, early childhood onset obesity/hyperphagia, developmental delay/intellectual disability and short stature...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Genetics
David G Amaral, Matthew P Anderson, Olaf Ansorge, Steven Chance, Carolyn Hare, Patrick R Hof, Melissa Miller, Ikue Nagakura, Jane Pickett, Cynthia Schumann, Carol Tamminga
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD or autism) is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects over 1% of the population worldwide. Developing effective preventions and treatments for autism will depend on understanding the genetic perturbations and underlying neuropathology of the disorder. While evidence from magnetic resonance imaging and other noninvasive techniques points to altered development and organization of the autistic brain, these tools lack the resolution for identifying the cellular and molecular underpinnings of the disorder...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Zahra Namvarpour, Mohammad Nasehi, Abdollah Amini, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast
Aim Thimerosal, a mercury-containing preservative has been widely used in a number of biological and drug products, including many vaccines, and has been studied as a possible etiological factor for some neurodevelopmental disabilities. Here, the protective effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA), an organosulfur compound derived from Octanoic Acid, on Thimerosal-induced behavioral abnormalities in rat were examined. METHODS: 108 male Wistar rats were divided into three cohorts and treated as follows: 1) Thimerosal at different doses (30, 300, or 3000 μg Hg/kg) in four i...
February 23, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Marissa Robinson, Jessica Klusek, Michele D Poe, Deborah D Hatton, Jane E Roberts
Effortful control, or the ability to suppress a dominant response to perform a subdominant response, is an early-emerging temperament trait that is linked with positive social-emotional development. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a single-gene disorder characterized by hallmark regulatory impairments, suggesting diminished effortful control. This study compared the development of effortful control in preschool boys with FXS ( n = 97) and typical development ( n = 32). Unlike their typical peers, the boys with FXS did not exhibit growth in effortful control over time, which could not be accounted for by adaptive impairments, FMR1 molecular measures, or autism symptoms...
March 2018: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Seyhan Hidiroglu, Nimet Emel Lüleci, Melda Karavus, Ozlem Tanriover, Elif Samiye Bayar, Ahmet Karavus
OBJECTIVE: To assess the awareness of childhood autism among physicians undergoing residency training in various disciplines. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a research and training hospital in Istanbul, Turkey, in February 2013 and comprised physicians undergoing residency training in various disciplines. Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Questions about "awareness on autism" were prepared in the light of "Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers questionnaire...
February 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Tayfun Kara, İsmail Akaltun, Bedia Cakmakoglu, İlyas Kaya, Salih Zoroğlu
Objective: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a complex pathophysiology including genetic, inflammatory and neurodevelopmental components. We aim to investigate the relationship between ASD and gene polymorphisms of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4), which may affect inflammatory and neurodevelopmental processes. Methods: 101 children diagnosed with ASD aged 2-18 and their biological parents were included in the study...
February 22, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Nan B Oldereid, Ulla-Britt Wennerholm, Anja Pinborg, Anne Loft, Hannele Laivuori, Max Petzold, Liv Bente Romundstad, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Christina Bergh
BACKGROUND: Maternal factors, including increasing childbearing age and various life-style factors, are associated with poorer short- and long-term outcomes for children, whereas knowledge of paternal parameters is limited. Recently, increasing paternal age has been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, birth defects, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in children. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the influence of paternal factors on adverse short- and long-term child outcomes...
February 15, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
J Tillmann, K Ashwood, M Absoud, S Bölte, F Bonnet-Brilhault, J K Buitelaar, S Calderoni, R Calvo, R Canal-Bedia, R Canitano, A De Bildt, M Gomot, P J Hoekstra, A Kaale, H McConachie, D G Murphy, A Narzisi, I Oosterling, M Pejovic-Milovancevic, A M Persico, O Puig, H Roeyers, N Rommelse, R Sacco, V Scandurra, A C Stanfield, E Zander, T Charman
Research on sex-related differences in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been impeded by small samples. We pooled 28 datasets from 18 sites across nine European countries to examine sex differences in the ASD phenotype on the ADI-R (376 females, 1763 males) and ADOS (233 females, 1187 males). On the ADI-R, early childhood restricted and repetitive behaviours were lower in females than males, alongside comparable levels of social interaction and communication difficulties in females and males. Current ADI-R and ADOS scores showed no sex differences for ASD severity...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Michael O Ogundele
Mental health problems in children and adolescents include several types of emotional and behavioural disorders, including disruptive, depression, anxiety and pervasive developmental (autism) disorders, characterized as either internalizing or externalizing problems. Disruptive behavioural problems such as temper tantrums, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional, defiant or conduct disorders are the commonest behavioural problems in preschool and school age children. The routine Paediatric clinic or Family Medicine/General Practitioner surgery presents with several desirable characteristics that make them ideal for providing effective mental health services to children and adolescents...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
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