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Autism in childhood

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814540/autism-spectrum-disorder-in-fragile-x-syndrome-cooccurring-conditions-and-current-treatment
#1
Walter E Kaufmann, Sharon A Kidd, Howard F Andrews, Dejan B Budimirovic, Amy Esler, Barbara Haas-Givler, Tracy Stackhouse, Catharine Riley, Georgina Peacock, Stephanie L Sherman, W Ted Brown, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) are frequently codiagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Most of our current knowledge about ASD in FXS comes from family surveys and small studies. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the ASD diagnosis in a large clinic-based FXS population to better inform the care of people with FXS. METHODS: The study employed a data set populated by data from individuals with FXS seen at specialty clinics across the country...
June 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812273/a-precision-medicine-approach-to-oxytocin%C3%A2-trials
#2
Elissar Andari, Rene Hurlemann, Larry J Young
In this chapter, we introduce a new area of social pharmacology that encompasses the study of the role of neuromodulators in modulating a wide range of social behaviors and brain function, with the interplay of genetic and epigenetic factors. There are increasing evidences for the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin in modulating a wide range of social behaviors, in reducing anxiety, and in impacting the social brain network. Oxytocin also promotes social functions in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism and reduces anxiety and fear in anxiety disorders...
August 16, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811173/prenatal-exposure-to-pyrethroid-pesticides-and-childhood-behavior-and-executive-functioning
#3
Melissa A Furlong, Dana Boyd Barr, Mary S Wolff, Stephanie M Engel
Several previous studies of pyrethroid biomarkers and behavior have reported associations between concurrent pyrethroid levels and adverse behavioral problems in children. One geospatial study reported associations between prenatal exposure to pyrethroids and autism. However, the association between prenatal pyrethroid biomarkers and childhood behavior is unknown. The Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Center is a prospective birth cohort with urinary pyrethroid biomarkers during pregnancy and behavioral measurements at 4, 6, and 7-9 years of age...
August 12, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808839/individuals-with-autism-have-higher-8-iso-pgf2%C3%AE-levels-than-controls-but-no-correlation-with-quantitative-assay-of-paraoxonase-1-serum-levels
#4
Bianca Pop, Alexandru-Ștefan Niculae, Tudor Lucian Pop, Andreea Liana Răchișan
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represents a very large set of neurodevelopmental issues with diverse clinical outcomes. Various hypotheses have been put forth for the etiology of autism spectrum disorder, including issues pertaining to oxidative stress. In this study, we conducted measurements of serum 8-Iso-Prostaglanding F2 α (8-iso-PGF2α, which is the results of non-enzimatically mediated polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation) in a population of individuals with autism and a control group of age and sex matched controls...
August 14, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808808/ketogenic-diet-versus-gluten-free-casein-free-diet-in-autistic-children-a-case-control-study
#5
Omnia El-Rashidy, Farida El-Baz, Yasmin El-Gendy, Randa Khalaf, Dina Reda, Khaled Saad
Many diet regimens were studied for patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) over the past few years. Ketogenic diet is gaining attention due to its proven effect on neurological conditions like epilepsy in children. Forty-five children aged 3-8 years diagnosed with ASD based on DSM-5 criteria were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally divided into 3 groups, first group received ketogenic diet as modified Atkins diet (MAD), second group received gluten free casein free (GFCF) diet and the third group received balanced nutrition and served as a control group...
August 14, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802860/upregulation-of-il-9-and-jak-stat-signaling-pathway-in-children-with-autism
#6
Sheikh F Ahmad, Ahmed Nadeem, Mushtaq A Ansari, Saleh A Bakheet, Laila Yousef Al-Ayadhi, Sabry M Attia
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) gradually develops predominantly neurodevelopmental disorders, which are socially diagnosed in early childhood. Though the etiopathology of ASD is not clear, immune alteration has been suggested as autism's pathophysiological mechanism. Previous studies found that several cytokines and transcription factor activation pathways were significantly increased in ASD. IL-9 has been confirmed to play a significant role in the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the understudied role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway in ASD...
August 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798541/animal-assisted-therapies-for-youth-with-or-at-risk-for-mental-health-problems-a-systematic-review
#7
Kimberly Eaton Hoagwood, Mary Acri, Meghan Morrissey, Robin Peth-Pierce
To systematically review experimental evidence about animal-assisted therapies (AAT) for children or adolescents with or at risk for mental health conditions, we reviewed all experimental AAT studies published between 2000-2015, and compared studies by animal type, intervention, and outcomes. METHODS: Studies were included if used therapeutically for children and adolescents (≤21 years) with or at risk for a mental health problem; used random assignment or a waitlist comparison/control group; and included child-specific outcome data...
2017: Applied Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774670/exploring-a-method-for-evaluation-of-preschool-and-school-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-through-checking-their-understanding-of-the-speaker-s-emotions-with-the-help-of-prosody-of-the-voice
#8
Mayumi Horie, Hitoshi Okamura
PURPOSE: We attempted to evaluate the ability of 125 preschool and school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD children) to understand the intentions of those speaking to them using prosody of the voice, by comparing it with that of 119 typically developing children (TDC) and 51 development-age-matched children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD children), and to explore, based on the results, a method for objective evaluation of children with ASD in the early and later periods of childhood...
July 31, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761206/comparative-dermatoglyphic-study-between-autistic-patients-and-normal-people-in-iran
#9
Mansoureh Kazemi, Mohammad Reza Fayyazi-Bordbar, Nasser Mahdavi-Shahri
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder originating from early childhood; nevertheless, its diagnosis is in older ages. In addition to heredity, environmental factors are also of great significance in the etiology of the disease. Dermatoglyphic patterns, albeit varied, remain stable for a lifetime and yield a large number of patterns upon examination. Studies have shown a significant association between dermatoglyphics and some diseases, especially genetic ones. We compared fingerprints between patients with autism and normal individuals in a Fars population living in Khorasan-Razavi Province, Iran, in 2015...
July 2017: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754226/febrile-seizures-and-epilepsy-association-with-autism-and-other-neurodevelopmental-disorders-in-the-child-and-adolescent-twin-study-in-sweden
#10
Christopher Gillberg, Sebastian Lundström, Elisabeth Fernell, Gill Nilsson, Brian Neville
BACKGROUND: There is a recently well-documented association between childhood epilepsy and earlysymptomaticsyndromeselicitingneurodevelopmentalclinicalexaminations (ESSENCE) including autism spectrum disorder, but the relationship between febrile seizures and ESSENCE is less clear. METHODS: The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS) is an ongoing population-based study targeting twins born in Sweden since July 1, 1992. Parents of 27,092 twins were interviewed using a validated DSM-IV-based interview for ESSENCE, in connection with the twins' ninth or twelfth birthday...
June 8, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750214/childhood-trauma-is-not-a-confounder-of-the-overlap-between-autistic-and-schizotypal-traits-a-study-in-a-non-clinical-adult-sample
#11
Jing-Bo Gong, Ya Wang, Simon S Y Lui, Eric F C Cheung, Raymond C K Chan
Childhood trauma has been shown to be a robust risk factor for mental disorders, and may exacerbate schizotypal traits or contribute to autistic trait severity. However, little is known whether childhood trauma confounds the overlap between schizotypal traits and autistic traits. This study examined whether childhood trauma acts as a confounding variable in the overlap between autistic and schizotypal traits in a large non-clinical adult sample. A total of 2469 participants completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form...
July 17, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749236/are-males-and-females-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-more-similar-than-we-thought
#12
Joanna L Mussey, Nicole C Ginn, Laura G Klinger
Differences in behavioral and cognitive profiles have been suggested to potentially impact the presentation of social and communication symptoms in females with autism spectrum disorder. This study examined gender differences in age of diagnosis, cognitive profiles, social communication symptomatology, and autism spectrum disorder symptom severity in a community-based sample of 566 males and 113 females with autism spectrum disorder ranging in age from 1 year, 9 months to 56 years, 4 months. Results suggest either very small or no gender differences in age at diagnosis, intelligence quotient, cognitive profiles, or autism spectrum disorder symptom severity...
August 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744969/abnormal-functional-activation-and-maturation-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-and-cerebellum-during-temporal-discounting-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, Eileen M Daly, Christine Ecker, Patrick Johnston, Debbie Spain, Dene M Robertson, Declan G Murphy, Katya Rubia
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poor decision-making and temporal foresight. This may adversely impact on their everyday life, mental health, and productivity. However, the neural substrates underlying poor choice behavior in people with ASD, or its' neurofunctional development from childhood to adulthood, are unknown. Despite evidence of atypical structural brain development in ASD, investigation of functional brain maturation in people with ASD is lacking. This cross-sectional developmental fMRI study investigated the neural substrates underlying performance on a temporal discounting (TD) task in 38 healthy (11-35 years old) male adolescents and adults with ASD and 40 age, sex, and IQ-matched typically developing healthy controls...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739359/prevalence-of-sleep-abnormalities-in-indian-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-cross-sectional-study
#14
Ravindranath Aathira, Sheffali Gulati, Manjari Tripathi, Garima Shukla, Biswaroop Chakrabarty, Savita Sapra, Nitika Dang, Anupama Gupta, Madhulika Kabra, Ravindra Mohan Pandey
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is on the rise. Apart from the core behavioral issues of impaired communication, impaired social interaction, and restricted and/or repeated behavioral phenotype, comorbidities like sleep problems are increasingly getting recognized as important determinants of management and overall quality of life. METHODS: This study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in northern India over a two year period...
May 31, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738753/genetic-predictors-of-celiac-disease-lactose-intolerance-and-vitamin-d-function-and-presence-of-peptide-morphins-in-urine-of-children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#15
Katarina Bojović, Biljana Stanković, Nikola Kotur, Dijana Krstić-Milošević, Vladimir Gašić, Sonja Pavlović, Branka Zukić, Đurđica Ignjatović
Gastrointestinal disturbances, nutritional deficiencies, and food intolerances are frequently observed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). To reveal possible association of celiac disease risk variants (HLA-DQ), lactose intolerance associated variant (LCT-13910C>T) as well as variant associated with vitamin D function (VDR FokI) with NDD, polymerase chain reaction-based methodology was used. Additionally, intestinal peptide permeability was estimated in NDD patients and healthy children by measuring the level of peptides in urine using high-performance liquid chromatography...
July 24, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736618/a-15q14-microdeletion-involving-meis2-identified-in-a-patient-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Keiko Shimojima, Yumiko Ondo, Nobuhiko Okamoto, Toshiyuki Yamamoto
We describe a 9-year-old male patient with a 15q14 microdeletion including MEIS2. The patient was born with a ventricular septal defect and submucosal cleft. Mild developmental disability and autism spectrum disorder diagnosed in childhood were also considered to be consequences of MEIS2 haploinsufficiency. The relatively mild developmental delay and lack of additional phenotypic features in this patient indicate that only MEIS2 plays an important role in the observed phenotypic features in the heterozygous state...
2017: Human Genome Variation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735150/inverse-relationship-between-urban-green-space-and-childhood-autism-in-california-elementary-school-districts
#17
Jianyong Wu, Laura Jackson
Green space has a variety of health benefits. However, little is known about its impact on autism, the fastest-growing neurodevelopmental disorder in children. This study examined the relationship between green space and childhood autism prevalence. Autism count data in 2010 were obtained for 543 of ~560 public elementary school districts in California. Multiple types of green space were measured in each school district, including percentages of forest, grassland, and average tree canopy and near-road tree canopy...
July 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734240/decreased-levels-of-serum-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#18
Erman Esnafoglu, Sema Nur Ayyıldız
The neurodevelopment and functioning of the central nervous system, and especially the cerebral cortex, have basic importance to understand neuropsychiatric disorders like autism. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) plays a very important role in the development and functioning of the cortex. FGF-2 is related to developmental processes in the central nervous system such as neurogenesis, migration, differentiation and survival. This study researched the serum FGF-2 levels in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
July 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734238/decreased-levels-of-g-protein-coupled-estrogen-receptor-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Hatice Altun, Ergül Belge Kurutaş, Nilfer Şahin, Hayati Sınır, Ebru Fındıklı
Sex hormones, specially estrogen, and ıt is receptors plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ASD and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), a recently discovered estrogen receptors, and also to study the relation of serum GPER levels with the severity of autistic symptoms. The present study included 45 children with drug naive ASD diagnosed by DSM-V criteria, aged between 3 and 12 years and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls...
June 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725136/sex-specific-effect-of-recalled-parenting-on-affective-and-cognitive-empathy-in-adulthood
#20
Minna T Lyons, Gayle Brewer, Emily J Bethell
Previous research has demonstrated the influence of parenting on the development of children's empathy. However, few studies have considered the impact of parents on empathy in adulthood, specific components of empathy, or the importance of parent and child biological sex. In the present study, 226 participants (71 men) completed online versions of the Parental Bonding Instrument (Parker et al. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1-10 1979), Empathy Quotient (Baron-Cohen and Wheelwright Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 163-175 2004), and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology, 10, 85 1980)...
2017: Current Psychology
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