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Autism in childhood

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229395/transcranial-magnetic-and-direct-current-stimulation-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Mustafa Q Hameed, Sameer C Dhamne, Roman Gersner, Harper L Kaye, Lindsay M Oberman, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Alexander Rotenberg
Promising results in adult neurologic and psychiatric disorders are driving active research into transcranial brain stimulation techniques, particularly transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in childhood and adolescent syndromes. TMS has realistic utility as an experimental tool tested in a range of pediatric neuropathologies such as perinatal stroke, depression, Tourette syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). tDCS has also been tested as a treatment for a number of pediatric neurologic conditions, including ASD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, epilepsy, and cerebral palsy...
February 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228185/knowledge-of-childhood-materiality-text-and-the-history-of-science-an-interdisciplinary-round-table-discussion
#2
Felix Rietmann, Mareike Schildmann, Caroline Arni, Daniel Thomas Cook, Davide Giuriato, Novina Göhlsdorf, Wangui Muigai
This round table discussion takes the diversity of discourse and practice shaping modern knowledge about childhood as an opportunity to engage with recent historiographical approaches in the history of science. It draws attention to symmetries and references among scientific, material, literary and artistic cultures and their respective forms of knowledge. The five participating scholars come from various fields in the humanities and social sciences and allude to historiographical and methodological questions through a range of examples...
February 23, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219082/growth-of-expressive-syntax-in-children-with-fragile-x-syndrome
#3
Rouzana Komesidou, Nancy C Brady, Kandace Fleming, Amy Esplund, Steven F Warren
Purpose: This research explored syntactic growth in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) over a 5-year period, and variability in growth in relation to autism symptoms, nonverbal cognition, maternal responsivity, and gender. Method: Language samples at 4 time points from 39 children with FXS, 31 boys and 8 girls, were analyzed using the Index of Productive Syntax (Scarborough, 1990) and mean length of utterance (Brown, 1973). The degree of autism symptoms was evaluated using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (Schopler, Reichler, & Renner, 1988) at the first time point...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217829/vitamin-d-and-autism-what-s-new
#4
REVIEW
John Jacob Cannell
An increasing amount of evidence points to the possibility that gestational and early childhood vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 40 ng/ml] cause some cases of autism. Vitamin D is metabolized into a seco-steroid hormone that regulates about 3% of the 26,000 genes in the coding human genome. It is also a neurosteroid that is active in brain development, having effects on cellular proliferation, differentiation, calcium signaling, neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions; it also appears to have an effect on neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity...
February 20, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198067/verbal-spatial-iq-discrepancies-impact-brain-activation-associated-with-the-resolution-of-cognitive-conflict-in-children-and-adolescents
#5
Amy E Margolis, Katie S Davis, Lisa S Pao, Amy Lewis, Xiao Yang, Gregory Tau, Guihu Zhao, Zhishun Wang, Rachel Marsh
Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control...
February 15, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187187/widespread-signatures-of-positive-selection-in-common-risk-alleles-associated-to-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Renato Polimanti, Joel Gelernter
The human brain is the outcome of innumerable evolutionary processes; the systems genetics of psychiatric disorders could bear their signatures. On this basis, we analyzed five psychiatric disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia (SCZ), using GWAS summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Machine learning-derived scores were used to investigate two natural-selection scenarios: complete selection (loci where a selected allele reached fixation) and incomplete selection (loci where a selected allele has not yet reached fixation)...
February 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181411/infant-muscle-tone-and-childhood-autistic-traits-a-longitudinal-study-in-the-general-population
#7
Fadila Serdarevic, Akhgar Ghassabian, Tamara van Batenburg-Eddes, Tonya White, Laura M E Blanken, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier
In a longitudinal population-based study of 2,905 children, we investigated if infants' neuromotor development was associated with autistic traits in childhood. Overall motor development and muscle tone were examined by trained research assistants with an adapted version of Touwen's Neurodevelopmental Examination between ages 2 and 5 months. Tone was assessed in several positions and items were scored as normal, low, or high tone. Parents rated their children's autistic traits with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Pervasive Developmental Problems (PDP) subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist at 6 years...
February 9, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163161/zebrafish-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Daria A Meshalkina, Marina N Kizlyk, Elana V Kysil, Adam D Collier, David J Echevarria, Murilo S Abreu, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Cai Song, Jason E Warnick, Evan J Kyzar, Allan V Kalueff
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by motor, social and cognitive deficits that develop early during childhood. The pathogenesis of ASD is not well characterized and involves a multifaceted interaction between genetic, neurobiological and environmental factors. Animal (experimental) models possess evolutionarily conserved behaviors and molecular pathways that are highly relevant for studying ASD. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a relatively new animal model with promise for understanding the pathogenesis of complex brain disorders and discovering novel treatments...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159942/dysmorphism-in-non-syndromic-autism-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Susan Mary Zachariah, Samuel Philip Oommen, Caroline Sanjeev Padankatti, Hannah Grace, Lincy Glory
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of association of dysembryogenesis (manifested by presence of dysmorphic markers) on the developmental profile of autistic children. METHODS: 26 autistic children were classified into complex autism (if they had specific dysmorphic markers) or essential autism (in the absence of dysmorphic markers) using the Miles Autism Dysmorphology Measure (ADM). The developmental abilities (Griffith's Mental Development Scales) and the clinical severity (Childhood Autism Rating Scale) of both groups were compared...
February 2, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154539/temporal-association-of-certain-neuropsychiatric-disorders-following-vaccination-of-children-and-adolescents-a-pilot-case-control-study
#10
Douglas L Leslie, Robert A Kobre, Brian J Richmand, Selin Aktan Guloksuz, James F Leckman
BACKGROUND: Although the association of the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine with autism spectrum disorder has been convincingly disproven, the onset of certain brain-related autoimmune and inflammatory disorders has been found to be temporally associated with the antecedent administration of various vaccines. This study examines whether antecedent vaccinations are associated with increased incidence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anorexia nervosa (AN), anxiety disorder, chronic tic disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder in a national sample of privately insured children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141716/apraxia-autism-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-do-we-have-a-new-spectrum
#11
Jayna Schumacher, Kristine E Strand, Marilyn Augustyn
Gio is a bilingual 6-year 10-month-old boy new to your practice who presents for an unscheduled visit with concerns for speech and language delay. He was born in Portugal, and his native language is Portuguese. When he was 21 months old, his family moved to Italy and then moved to the United States 3 years later. He had very little contact with other children while living in Italy, but his parents report that he has made friends quickly in the United States. His family speaks Portuguese at home, although his father is fluent in English...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119035/autism-spectrum-and-psychosis-risk-in-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-findings-from-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#12
A M Fiksinski, E J Breetvelt, S N Duijff, A S Bassett, R S Kahn, J A S Vorstman
BACKGROUND: Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) have a 25% risk for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Some have hypothesized that Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) diagnosed in children with 22q11DS may actually represent the social-communicative defects often observed during the early developmental stages of schizophrenia. METHODS: We prospectively studied 89 children with 22q11DS to test this hypothesis. At baseline, the Autism Diagnostic Interview was used to assess ASD, evaluating both current and early childhood behaviors...
January 21, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114601/risk-of-psychiatric-disorders-among-individuals-with-the-22q11-2-deletion-or-duplication-a-danish-nationwide-register-based-study
#13
Louise K Hoeffding, Betina B Trabjerg, Line Olsen, Wiktor Mazin, Thomas Sparsø, Anders Vangkilde, Preben B Mortensen, Carsten B Pedersen, Thomas Werge
Importance: Microdeletions and duplications have been described at the 22q11.2 locus. However, little is known about the clinical and epidemiologic consequences at the population level. Objective: To identify indicators of deletions or duplications at the 22q11.2 locus and estimate the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and absolute risk for psychiatric disorders in clinically identified individuals with 22q11.2 deletion or duplication. Design, Setting, and Participants: A Danish nationwide register study including all individuals recorded in the Danish Cytogenetic Central Register with a 22q11...
January 18, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101530/integrative-analysis-of-disease-signatures-shows-inflammation-disrupts-juvenile-experience-dependent-cortical-plasticity
#14
Milo R Smith, Poromendro Burman, Masato Sadahiro, Brian A Kidd, Joel T Dudley, Hirofumi Morishita
Throughout childhood and adolescence, periods of heightened neuroplasticity are critical for the development of healthy brain function and behavior. Given the high prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, identifying disruptors of developmental plasticity represents an essential step for developing strategies for prevention and intervention. Applying a novel computational approach that systematically assessed connections between 436 transcriptional signatures of disease and multiple signatures of neuroplasticity, we identified inflammation as a common pathological process central to a diverse set of diseases predicted to dysregulate plasticity signatures...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099628/elevated-plasma-concentrations-of-s100-calcium-binding-protein-b-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Selin Aktan Guloksuz, Osman Abali, Esin Aktas Cetin, Sema Bilgic Gazioglu, Gunnur Deniz, Abdurrahman Yildirim, Ivana Kawikova, Sinan Guloksuz, James F Leckman
Objective: To investigate plasma concentrations of S100B (a calcium-binding protein derived primarily from the glia) and inflammatory cytokines in children with autism and the relationship between S100B and cytokine concentrations. Methods: Plasma levels of S100B, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17A were measured in 40 unmedicated children with autism and 35 normally developing healthy children...
January 12, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094432/maltreatment-associated-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-co-twin-control-analysis
#16
Lisa Dinkler, Sebastian Lundström, Ruchika Gajwani, Paul Lichtenstein, Christopher Gillberg, Helen Minnis
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment (CM) is strongly associated with psychiatric disorders in childhood and adulthood. Previous findings suggest that the association between CM and psychiatric disorders is partly causal and partly due to familial confounding, but few studies have investigated the mechanisms behind the association between CM and neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Our objective was to determine whether maltreated children have an elevated number of NDDs and whether CM is a risk factor for an increased NDD 'load' and increased NDD symptoms when controlling for familial effects...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093239/application-of-technology-to-social-communication-impairment-in-childhood-and-adolescence
#17
REVIEW
Andrea Trubanova Wieckowski, Susan W White
Social communication impairment has been implicated in various mental health disorders. The primary aim of this review paper is to summarize the extant research on the development and application of technologies to address social communication deficits, conceptualized according to the four constructs outlined by the NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), transdiagnostically in children and adolescents. An exhaustive and systematic search yielded 69 peer-reviewed articles meeting all inclusion criteria (i.e...
January 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088366/serum-levels-of-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-in-chinese-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#18
Jingwei Wang, Qiuyan Zou, Renfeng Han, Yupeng Li, Yulin Wang
OBJECTIVE: Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) has been studied in many neurological diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential role of GFAP in Chinese children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) by measuring serum circulating levels of GFAP and comparing them with age and gender-matched typical development children. METHODS: A total of one hundred and fifty 2-6 years old Chinese children (75 confirmed autism cases and 75 their age-gender matched typical development children) participated in this study...
April 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077936/redox-proteomic-identification-of-carbonylated-proteins-in-autism-plasma-insight-into-oxidative-stress-and-its-related-biomarkers-in-autism
#19
Chengyun Feng, Youjiao Chen, Jintao Pan, Aochu Yang, Li Niu, Jie Min, Xianling Meng, Liping Liao, Kaoyuan Zhang, Liming Shen
BACKGROUND: Autism is a severe childhood neurological disorder with poorly understood etiology and pathology. Currently, there is no authentic laboratory test to confirm the diagnosis of autism. Oxidative damage may play a central role in the pathogenesis of autism. Present study is an effort to search for possible biomarkers of autism and further clarify the molecular changes associated with oxidative stress that occurs in the plasma of autistic children. METHODS: We performed redox proteomics analysis to compare carbonylated proteins in the plasma of autistic subjects and healthy controls...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075089/autism-spectrum-disorder-primary-care-principles
#20
Kristian E Sanchack, Craig A Thomas
Autism spectrum disorder is characterized by difficulty with social communication and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interest, or activities. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed., created an umbrella diagnosis that includes several previously separate conditions: autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for autism spectrum disorder in children 18 to 30 months of age in whom the disorder is not suspected; however, there is a growing body of evidence that early intensive behavioral intervention based on applied behavior analysis improves cognitive ability, language, and adaptive skills...
December 15, 2016: American Family Physician
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