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Obesity and hypertension in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099129/the-association-between-obesity-hypertension-and-left-ventricular-mass-in-adolescents
#1
Saime Ergen Dibeklioglu, Berna Şaylan Çevik, Banu Acar, Zeynep Birsin Özçakar, Nermin Uncu, Nazlı Kara, Şemsa Çaycı, Nilgün Çakar
BACKGROUND: Obesity and hypertension (HT) are well known cardiac risk factors. Our goal was to show that even if arterial blood pressure (BP) measurements of obese adolescents are normal during clinical examination, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) can be high, may include cardiac involvement and can also detect left ventricular mass indices (LVMI) value for obese adolescents to diagnose left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). METHODS: This study included 130 children (57 obese hypertensive, 36 obese normotensive, 14 normal weight hypertensive and 23 normal weight normotensive)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097834/high-blood-pressure-in-school-children-and-adolescents-in-argentina-over-the-past-25-years-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#2
Alejandro Díaz, Luciana Calandra
INTRODUCTION: Over the past years, hypertension has been recognized as an important health problem in the pediatric population. A systematic review of observational studies published between 1988 and 2014 was conducted to estimate the prevalence of high blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors among children and adolescents in Argentina. POPULATION AND METHODS: A bibliographic search was done in MEDLINE, SciELO, and LILACS to look for studies on high blood pressure prevalence in school children and adolescents in Argentina...
1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095749/obese-adolescents-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-have-elevated-cardiovascular-disease-risk-markers
#3
Sonali S Patel, Uyen Truong, Martina King, Annie Ferland, Kerrie L Moreau, Jennifer Dorosz, John E Hokanson, Hong Wang, Gregory L Kinney, David M Maahs, Robert H Eckel, Kristen J Nadeau, Melanie Cree-Green
Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have evidence of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, insulin resistance, an important factor in the development of CVD in adults, is common in adolescents with PCOS, yet data in adolescents are limited. Therefore, we sought to measure insulin resistance and CVD markers in obese youth with and without PCOS. Thirty-six PCOS and 17 non-PCOS adolescent girls who were obese, sedentary, and non-hypertensive were recruited from clinics located within the Children's Hospital Colorado...
January 1, 2017: Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087553/prevalence-of-obesity-and-overweight-in-african-learners-a-protocol-for-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Theodosia Adom, Thandi Puoane, Anniza De Villiers, André Pascal Kengne
INTRODUCTION: Obesity and overweight are an emerging problem in Africa. Obese children are at increased risk of developing hypertension, high cholesterol, orthopaedic problems and type 2 diabetes as well as increased risk of adult obesity. Prevention of childhood overweight and obesity therefore needs high priority. The review approach is particularly useful in establishing whether research findings are consistent and can be generalised across populations and settings. This systematic review aims to assess the magnitude and distribution of overweight and obesity among primary school learners within populations in Africa...
January 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065514/review-of-childhood-obesity-from-epidemiology-etiology-and-comorbidities-to-clinical-assessment-and-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Seema Kumar, Aaron S Kelly
Childhood obesity has emerged as an important public health problem in the United States and other countries in the world. Currently 1 in 3 children in the United States is afflicted with overweight or obesity. The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity is associated with emergence of comorbidities previously considered to be "adult" diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and dyslipidemia. The most common cause of obesity in children is a positive energy balance due to caloric intake in excess of caloric expenditure combined with a genetic predisposition for weight gain...
January 5, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046205/dietary-advice-interventions-in-pregnancy-for-preventing-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#6
REVIEW
Joanna Tieu, Emily Shepherd, Philippa Middleton, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes occurring during pregnancy which can result in short- and long-term adverse outcomes for women and babies. With an increasing prevalence worldwide, there is a need to assess strategies, including dietary advice interventions, that might prevent GDM. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of dietary advice interventions for preventing GDM and associated adverse health outcomes for women and their babies...
January 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040466/vegf-the-underlying-factor-for-metabolic-syndrome-fact-or-fiction
#7
REVIEW
Mohsen Mazidi, Peyman Rezaie, Andre Pascal Kengne, Maria G Stathopoulou, Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad, Sophie Siest
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is currently diagnosed by the co-presence of at least three of the five following abnormalities: abdominal obesity, dysglycaemia, elevated serum triglycerides, low high-density cholesterol (HDL) and finally elevated blood pressure. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. This review is on the associations between MetS and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF induces migration and proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs), increases vascular permeability and has a role in tumor growth, adipose tissue expansion, age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy...
December 9, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031075/prenatal-phthalate-exposure-and-8-isoprostane-among-mexican-american-children-with-high-prevalence-of-obesity
#8
V Tran, G Tindula, K Huen, A Bradman, K Harley, K Kogut, A M Calafat, B Nguyen, K Parra, X Ye, B Eskenazi, N Holland
Oxidative stress has been linked to many obesity-related conditions among children including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Exposure to environmental chemicals such as phthalates, ubiquitously found in humans, may also generate reactive oxygen species and subsequent oxidative stress. We examined longitudinal changes of 8-isoprostane urinary concentrations, a validated biomarker of oxidative stress, and associations with maternal prenatal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites for 258 children at 5, 9 and 14 years of age participating in a birth cohort residing in an agricultural area in California...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027627/association-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-with-cardiovascular-disease-risk-in-children-implications-for-the-asia-pacific-region
#9
Indah K Murni, Dian C Sulistyoningrum, Vicka Oktaria
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency significantly affects cardiovascular disease risk. Cardiovascular disease is epidemic in nature. Because the prevalence of cardiovascular disease has been increasing in children, it has been changing from an adulthood disease to a childhood disease. Therefore, formulating an effective prevention strategy against cardiovascular disease development in children is crucial. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: From PubMed, we identified and reviewed studies evaluating the association of vitamin D deficiency with cardiovascular disease risk in children...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007534/fkbp5-polymorphism-is-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-children-and-adolescents-with-obesity
#10
Marta Fichna, Izabela Krzyśko-Pieczka, Magdalena Żurawek, Bogda Skowrońska, Danuta Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Piotr Fichna
OBJECTIVE: Since metabolic syndrome shares several clinical features with hypercortisolism, it was hypothesised that genes altering individual glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity might be implicated in pathogenesis of obesity and its adverse outcomes. FKBP5 gene encodes a chaperon protein in the GC receptor (GR) complex, which modulates steroid action upon target genes. Its functional variant, rs1360780, may enhance FKBP5 gene transcription, affect GR signalling and thereby influence the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis...
December 19, 2016: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992977/-measurement-of-dietary-sodium-intake-in-a-group-of-children-from-one-to-18-months-of-age-in-a-pediatric-service-in-cali-colombia
#11
Adela Isabel Herrera, Kelly Bolaños, Javier Torres, Beatriz Gracia
INTRODUCTION: The fatty streaks in an arterial wall can appear from the third year of age, and they show an association with atherogenic risk factors such as hypertension and sodium in the diet. Given the difficulty of data gathering, few studies report the intake of sodium in the diet. OBJECTIVE: To determine average sodium intake in the diet of children between one and 18 months of age through a three-day dietary survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 48 children without renal disease or diet restrictions seen in pediatric practice between January and June, 2011...
December 1, 2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992361/risk-factors-that-affect-metabolic-health-status-in-obese-children
#12
Selin Elmaogullari, Fatma Demirel, Nihal Hatipoglu
BACKGROUND: While some obese children are metabolically healthy (MHO), some have additional health problems, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatosteatosis, which increase mortality and morbidity related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) during adulthood. These children are metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) children. In this study we assessed the factors that affect metabolic health in obesity and the clinical and laboratory findings that distinguish between MHO and MUO children...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992023/educational-strategies-for-the-prevention-of-diabetes-hypertension-and-obesity
#13
Alexandre Paulo Machado, Bruno Muniz Lima, Monique Guilharducci Laureano, Pedro Henrique Bauth Silva, Giovanna Pereira Tardin, Paulo Silva Reis, Joyce Sammara Santos, Domingos Jácomo, Eliziana Ferreira D'Artibale
Objective: The main goal of this work was to produce a review of educational strategies to prevent diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Method: PubMed database was consulted using combined descriptors such as [Prevention], [Educational Activities], [Diabetes], [Hypertension], and [Obesity]. Data from randomized trials published between 2002 and 2014 were included in spreadsheets for analysis in duplicate by the reviewers. Results: A total of 8,908 articles were found, of which 1,539 were selected about diabetes mellitus (DM, n=369), arterial systemic hypertension (ASH, n=200), and obesity (OBES, n=970)...
November 2016: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927275/energy-balance-related-behaviors-are-related-to-cardiometabolic-parameters-and-predict-adiposity-in-8-14-year-old-overweight-chinese-children-one-year-later
#14
Liu Bai Li, Nan Wang, Xu Long Wu, Ling Wang, Jing Jing Li, Miao Yang, Jun Ma
To identify target energy balance-related behaviors (ERBs), baseline data from 141 overweight or obese schoolchildren (aged 8-14 years old) was used to predict adiposity [body mass index (BMI) and fat percentage] one year later. The ERBs included a modified Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet score (DASH score), leisure-time physical activity (PA, days/week), and leisure screen time (minutes/day). Several cardiometabolic variables were measured in the fasting state, including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), blood glucose (GLU), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C)...
October 2016: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908845/design-response-rates-and-population-characteristics-of-a-cross-sectional-study-in-zanzibar-tanzania
#15
Maria Adam Nyangasa, Soerge Kelm, Mohammed Ali Sheikh, Antje Hebestreit
BACKGROUND: Data on nutritional status and correlates of noncommunicable diseases are scarce for resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan countries. With the scope of a project, "Access to Food and Nutrition Status of the Zanzibari Population," data for investigating public health questions were collected using proven measurement and laboratory standards. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims at providing a descriptive overview of recruitment approaches, standardization, quality control measures, and data collection, with special attention to the design, responses, and participant characteristics of the overall project...
December 1, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903995/prevalence-of-hypertension-and-obesity-related-hypertension-in-urban-school-aged-children-in-rasht
#16
Hamidreza Badeli, Amir Hassankhani, Zahra Naeemi, Sahar Hosseinzadeh, Shima Mehrabi, Motahhareh Pourkarimi, Sajjad Hosseini, Pourya Rahbar Nikoukar, Reza Nezamdoust, Alireza Rahimi, Asemeh Pourrajabi
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is a worldwide health concern. Complications of hypertension not only affect adult patients, but also involve children. Given the importance of assessing children with hypertension in order to decrease adulthood complications, we aimed to assess the prevalence of hypertension in urban school-aged children in Rasht, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2072 school-aged children in Rasht, Iran, from January 2013 to December 2015...
November 2016: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900314/renal-and-cardiovascular-morbidities-associated-with-apol1-status-among-african-american-and-non-african-american-children-with-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#17
Robert P Woroniecki, Derek K Ng, Sophie Limou, Cheryl A Winkler, Kimberly J Reidy, Mark Mitsnefes, Matthew G Sampson, Craig S Wong, Bradley A Warady, Susan L Furth, Jeffrey B Kopp, Frederick J Kaskel
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: African-American (AA) children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) have later onset disease that progresses more rapidly than in non-AA children. It is unclear how APOL1 genotypes contribute to kidney disease risk, progression, and cardiovascular morbidity in children. DESIGN SETTING PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: We examined the prevalence of APOL1 genotypes and associated cardiovascular phenotypes among children with FSGS in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study; an ongoing multicenter prospective cohort study of children aged 1-16 years with mild to moderate kidney disease...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899001/drug-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents
#18
REVIEW
Emma Mead, Greg Atkinson, Bernd Richter, Maria-Inti Metzendorf, Louise Baur, Nicholas Finer, Eva Corpeleijn, Claire O'Malley, Louisa J Ells
BACKGROUND: Child and adolescent obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed (subsets not available on Ovid), LILACS as well as the trial registers ICTRP (WHO) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Searches were undertaken from inception to March 2016...
November 29, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887573/in-vitro-function-of-upstream-visfatin-polymorphisms-that-are-associated-with-adverse-cardiometabolic-parameters-in-obese-children
#19
Delicia Shu Qin Ooi, Siong Gim Ong, Chew Kiat Heng, Kah Yin Loke, Yung Seng Lee
BACKGROUND: Visfatin is an adipokine associated with glucose and lipid metabolism. We previously reported two visfatin upstream single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), c.-3187G > A (rs11977021) and c.-1537C > T (rs61330082), which were in perfect linkage disequilibrium, in a Singaporean cohort of severely obese children and are associated with visfatin level and adverse cardiometabolic parameters. We aim to functionally characterize the effect of c.-3187G > A and c...
November 25, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882931/plasma-sfrp5-and-adiponectin-levels-in-relation-to-blood-pressure-among-obese-children
#20
C Yin, H Chu, H Li, Y Xiao
The aim was to clarify the associations of five adipocytokines: Sfrp5, Wnt5a, adiponectin, chemerin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with blood pressure (BP), and to examine whether BP can be influenced by changes in these adipocytokines in obese children after a 6-month lifestyle intervention. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 263 obese children and performed a 6-month lifestyle intervention in a subgroup of 89 obese children with hypertension. Anthropometric data, adiponectin, chemerin, Sfrp5 and Wnt5a were assessed at baseline and after 6-month lifestyle intervention...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Human Hypertension
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