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Obesity and hypertension in children

Elizabeth Hisle-Gorman, Apryl Susi, Theophil Stokes, Gregory Gorman, Christine Erdie-Lalena, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: We explored the association of 29 previously reported neonatal, perinatal and prenatal conditions and exposures with later diagnosis of ASD in a large sample of children followed over multiple years. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case-cohort study was formed using the Military Health System database. Cases were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for ASD between 2000 and 2013 and were matched 3:1 with controls on sex, date of birth, and enrollment time-frame...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Research
Roberta Ricotti, Giulia Genoni, Enza Giglione, Alice Monzani, Martina Nugnes, Sara Zanetta, Matteo Castagno, Agostina Marolda, Giorgio Bellomo, Gianni Bona, Simonetta Bellone, Flavia Prodam
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity represents a major health concern worldwide due to its well established detrimental effect on cardiovascular and its potential negative effect on kidney functions. However, biomarkers that can help diagnose early stages of kidney damage in obese children represent an unmet clinical need. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we asked whether the prevalence of microalbuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or hyperuricemia recorded in a wide cohort of obese children and adolescents would positively correlate with cardiometabolic dysfunction in these subjects...
2018: PloS One
Ufuk Ates, Ergun Ergun, Gulnur Gollu, Sumeyye Sozduyar, Ozlem Selvi Can, Aydin Yagmurlu
BACKGROUND: Obesity is one of the most rapidly increasing health problems in children. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy(LSG) can be consideredto be one of the best treatment options as a feasible and safe method for children. We aim to present the short term results of alaparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy series in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children who underwent LSG between 2014-2017 were included in the study. Charts of the children were investigated retrospectively and short term weight losses were analyzed...
March 3, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Juliana Araujo Teixeira, Teresa Gontijo Castro, Cameron C Grant, Clare R Wall, Ana Lúcia da Silva Castro, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco, Sandra Elisabete Vieira, Silvia Regina Dias Medici Saldiva, Dirce Maria Marchioni
BACKGROUND: Women's health during their reproductive years and whilst pregnant has implications for their children's health, both in utero and during childhood. Associations of women's pre-pregnancy dietary patterns (DP) with maternal socio-demographic characteristics and nutrient intake were investigated in ProcriAr cohort study in São Paulo/Brazil, 2012. METHODS: The DPs of 454 women were investigated by principal component factor analysis, using dietary information from a validated 110-item food frequency questionnaire...
March 1, 2018: BMC Public Health
John W Honour, E Conway, R Hodkinson, F Lam
The metabolites of cortisol, and the intermediates in the pathways from cholesterol to cortisol and the adrenal sex steroids can be analysed in a single separation of steroids by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to MS to give a urinary steroid profile (USP). Steroids individually and in profile are now commonly measured in plasma by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with MS/MS. The steroid conjugates in urine can be determined after hydrolysis and derivative formation and for the first time without hydrolysis using GC-MS, GC-MS/MS and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Jerzy Wójtowicz, Aleksandra Łempicka, Włodzimierz Łuczyński, Wojciech Szczepański, Aleksandra Zomerfeld, Kornel Semeran, Artur Bossowski
BACKGROUND: A non-invasive estimation of central aortic pressure and echocardiographic parameters, and appropriate interpretation thereof make it possible to determine the status of the vascular wall and myocardium. These parameters are early markers of unfavorable remodeling of the cardiovascular system. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the central aortic pressure and echocardiographic parameters of overweight/obese children (with or without concomitant arterial hypertension)...
December 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Yazdan Ghandi, Mehrzad Sharifi, Danial Habibi, Fatemeh Dorreh, Mojtaba Hashemi
Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Obese children without hypertension are becoming an important health challenge. Aims: Complications of obesity in adults are well established, but in obese children, cardiac dysfunction has not been reported clinically. Settings and Design: The present crosssectional study investigates subclinical systolic and diastolic dysfunction using echocardiographic modalities. Materials and Methods: Twentyfive youngsters with body mass index (BMI) >30 and 25 healthy children with BMI <25 were assigned into case and control group, respectively...
January 2018: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
Alfa J Muhihi, Marina A Njelekela, Rose N M Mpembeni, Bikolimana G Muhihi, Amani Anaeli, Omary Chillo, Sulende Kubhoja, Benjamin Lujani, Mwanamkuu Maghembe, Davis Ngarashi
BACKGROUND: Whilst the burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in developing countries, little data is available on blood pressure among Tanzanian children. This study aimed at determining the blood pressure profiles and risk factors associated with elevated blood pressure among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional survey among 446 children aged 6-17 years from 9 randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam...
February 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Griselle Leon, Elizabeth de Klerk, Josephine Ho, Michelle Jackman, Raylene A Reimer, Kimberly E Connors, Paola Luca
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity places individuals at risk for a multitude of physical and mental health problems. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of obesity related comorbidities diagnosed prior to and after attending a tertiary care pediatric weight management clinic. METHODS: A cross sectional retrospective chart review of patients 2-17 years old seen in the weight management clinic at Alberta Children's Hospital from May 2012 to May 2014. RESULTS: A total of 199 patients were included in the review...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Bianca Borchert-Mörlins, Nima Memaran, Martin Sauer, Britta Maecker-Kolhoff, Karl-Walter Sykora, Ricarda Blöte, Elena Bauer, Bernhard M W Schmidt, Anette Melk, Rita Beier
Advances in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in malignant and non-malignant diseases result in more long-term survivors, in whom cardiovascular (CV) disease is one leading non-cancer cause of death. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors and subclinical CV organ damage in survivors after HSCT in pediatric age. We enrolled 64 children in a cross-sectional approach 3.3 ± 3.1 years after HSCT. Anthropometric data, laboratory values, office and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) were evaluated, showing a high prevalence of obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia...
February 9, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
George Moschonis, Kalliopi Karatzi, Odysseas Androutsos, Christos Lionis, George P Chrousos, Yannis Manios
Excess body weight and fat mass levels in children have previously been associated with childhood hypertension. The aim of the current study was to identify anthropometric and body composition indices most strongly associated with hypertension and to propose relevant cut-off values for these indices, above which the likelihood of hypertension in schoolchildren aged 9-13 years old is increased. A sample of 2,665 children participated in a cross-sectional epidemiological study, the Healthy Growth Study. The current study enrolled 1,315 children with full data on blood pressure, anthropometric, and body composition indices...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Human Hypertension
Peixu Zhang, Dongqing Li, Yanzhuo Su, Xiaona Wang, Jianping Sun, Yang Xu, Jinghui Sun
BACKGROUND: The known risk factors for atherosclerosis such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and fasting hyperglycemia are associated with subclinical myocardial dysfunction. We assessed myocardial strain in children who had risk factors for atherosclerosis with use of 3D speckle tracking echocardiography (3DSTE). METHODS: A total of 340 eligible children (mean age [±SD]: 9.5 [±1.9] years; range, 7.1-12.2; 189 males, 151 females). Levels of serum cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and body mass index (BMI) were investigated...
February 4, 2018: Echocardiography
Valeria Hirschler, Claudia Molinari, Claudio Gonzalez, Gustavo Maccallini, Luis A Castano
BACKGROUND: Exposure to hypoxia at high altitude is increasingly being recognized as a risk factor for hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of hypertension in Indigenous Argentinean children living at high altitude with that reported in the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) of US children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 811 (400 females) Argentinean Indigenous school children (8-14 years) from San Antonio de los Cobres (SAC) was performed between 2011-2014...
February 2, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Sangshin Park, Nam-Kyong Choi
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relationship between breastfeeding and hypertension. We performed this study to identify whether breastfeeding itself influenced maternal hypertension and whether degree of obesity or insulin sensitivity would contribute to the relationship between breastfeeding and hypertension in postmenopausal women. METHODS: Our study population comprised 3,119 nonsmoking postmenopausal women aged 50 years or above in the 2010-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
January 25, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Sandra Shenouda, Khaled Al-Farawi, Jenna Dolan, Susan L Flesher
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a diagnosis of exclusion defined by elevated intracranial pressure without mass lesions or hydrocephalus. Causes of idiopathic intracranial hypertension include obesity, vitamin derangements, antibiotics, corticosteroids, and autoimmune disorders. Cushing's disease and Addison's disease have been associated with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Secondary adrenal insufficiency following withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids has been found to be a relatively common phenomenon...
2018: SAGE open medical case reports
Jonathan I Silverberg, Lauren Kwa, Michael C Kwa, Anne E Laumann, Kaveh Ardalan
Objective: JDM is associated with multiple potential risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including reduced heart rate variability, systolic/diastolic cardiac dysfunction, abnormal brachial artery reactivity and metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about cardiovascular risk in JDM. We sought to examine the association between JDM and cardiovascular risk factors and disease in US children. Methods: Data from the 2002-12 National Inpatient Sample was analysed, including ∼20% of all US hospitalizations (n = 14 535 620 paediatric hospitalizations)...
January 24, 2018: Rheumatology
Jane Hinkle, Heidi V Connolly, Heather R Adams, Marc B Lande
The objective was to determine the prevalence of habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a cohort of children referred for elevated blood pressure (BP), and to determine the association between OSA and BP elevation, learning difficulties, and behavioral problems. We performed a retrospective review of 446 consecutive new patients referred for elevated BP. One hundred four (23%) had habitual snoring. Patients with habitual snoring were more likely to be obese (86.5 vs. 55.6%, P < .001) and to have Medicaid insurance (52...
January 3, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Sarah Jane Schwarzenberg, Michael K Georgieff
Maternal prenatal nutrition and the child's nutrition in the first 2 years of life (1000 days) are crucial factors in a child's neurodevelopment and lifelong mental health. Child and adult health risks, including obesity, hypertension, and diabetes, may be programmed by nutritional status during this period. Calories are essential for growth of both fetus and child but are not sufficient for normal brain development. Although all nutrients are necessary for brain growth, key nutrients that support neurodevelopment include protein; zinc; iron; choline; folate; iodine; vitamins A, D, B6 , and B12 ; and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids...
February 2018: Pediatrics
Emmanuel Kiyana Muyumba, Dophra Ngoy Nkulu, Clarence Kaut Mukeng, Jacques Mbaz Musung, Placide Kambola Kakoma, Christian Ngama Kakisingi, Oscar Numbi Luboya, Françoise Kaj Malonga, Justin Kalungwe Kizonde, Olivier Mukuku, Weili Yan
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of hypertension in children is complex because based on normative values by sex, age and height, and these values vary depending on the environment. Available BP references used, because of the absence of local data, do not correspond to our pediatric population. Accordingly, our study aimed to provide the BP threshold for children and adolescents in Lubumbashi (DRC) and to compare them with German (KIGGS study), Polish (OLAF study) and Chinese (CHNS study) references...
January 19, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Simona Zampetti, Giuseppe Campagna, Federica Lucantoni, Lidia Marandola, Luca D'Onofrio, Claudio Chiesa, Lucia Pacifico, Andrea Vania, Raffaella Buzzetti, Gaetano Leto
Wrist circumference is a clinical marker for insulin-resistance in overweight/obese children and adolescents. Insulin resistance is considered a major determinant of increased vascular resistance and hypertension. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between wrist circumference and systolic (S) and diastolic (D) blood pressure (BP) in a population of overweight/obese children and adolescents. A population of 1133 overweight/obese children and adolescents (n = 1133) were consecutively enrolled...
January 15, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
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