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Nazanin H Bahraini, Lindsey L Monteith, Holly R Gerber, Jeri E Forster, Trisha A Hostetter, Lisa A Brenner
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and injury perceptions (ie, consequences, emotional representations, and coherence) differs for Veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) compared with Veterans with non-TBI (ie, orthopedic). PARTICIPANTS: Eighty Veterans injured during post-9/11 deployments. DESIGN: Observational, 2×2 factorial design. MAIN MEASURES: Injury histories ascertained using the Ohio State University TBI-Identification Method and Deployment Injury Questionnaire; Injury Perception Questionnaire-Revised (injury perceptions); Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (PTSD diagnosis); and PTSD Symptom Checklist-Civilian Version (PTSD symptoms)...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Teresa J Hudson, Jacob T Painter, Bradley C Martin, Mark A Austen, James S Williams, John C Fortney, Mark D Sullivan, Mark J Edlund
There is a great deal of concern about opioid use in veterans, particularly those who served in Afghanistan (OEF) and Iraq (OIF and OND). The current study provides a detailed pharmacoepidemiologic analysis of opioid use among OEF/OIF/OND veterans from FY09 to FY12. Data from 3 data repositories from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) were used to describe demographic, clinical, and medication characteristics associated with opioid use among OEF/OIF/OND veterans and among those with TBI. Logistic regression models were used to identify risks associated with chronic opioid use in FY12...
March 25, 2017: Pain
Autumn Backhaus, Shadi Gholizadeh, Kathryn M Godfrey, James Pittman, Niloofar Afari
Previous research has demonstrated that veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at higher risk for aggression, hostility, and anger, potentially leading to problems with the law or disciplinary action while in the military. There have been calls for increased consideration of the unique aspects of the judicial system in legal matters with veterans involved. The bulk of the research so far has considered the link between PTSD, traumatic brain injury (TBI), and combat exposure, but little is known about the potential role of chronic pain and Military Sexual Trauma (MST) in a veteran's experience of anger, aggression, and discipline while in the military and legal concerns...
November 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
A Craig, N A Elbers, J Jagnoor, B Gopinath, A Kifley, M Dinh, I Pozzato, R Q Ivers, M Nicholas, I D Cameron
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the psychological impact of traffic injuries in bicyclists (cyclists) in comparison to car occupants who also sustained traffic injuries. Factors predictive of elevated psychological distress were also investigated. METHODS: An inception cohort prospective design was used. Participants included cyclists aged ≥17 years (mean age 41.7 years) who sustained a physical injury (n = 238) assessed within 28 days of the crash, following medical examination by a registered health care practitioner...
April 3, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
Adam D LaMotte, Casey T Taft, Robin P Weatherill, Melynda D Casement, Suzannah K Creech, William P Milberg, Catherine B Fortier, Regina E McGlinchey
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated sleep problems and physical pain as moderators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and aggression among returning veterans. Prior research has demonstrated associations between PTSD symptoms and aggression, but little work has sought to identify moderators of this relationship. Sleep problems and physical pain are both common clinical problems among veterans and have theoretical links to aggression. METHOD: Participants were 103 returning service members and veterans recruited from the greater Boston area and enrolled in the VA Translational Research Center for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and Stress Disorders (TRACTS)...
January 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Robert L Ruff, Kayla Blake
This article reviews possible ways that traumatic brain injury (TBI) can induce migraine-type post-traumatic headaches (PTHs) in children, adults, civilians, and military personnel. Several cerebral alterations resulting from TBI can foster the development of PTH, including neuroinflammation that can activate neural systems associated with migraine. TBI can also compromise the intrinsic pain modulation system and this would increase the level of perceived pain associated with PTH. Depression and anxiety disorders, especially post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are associated with TBI and these psychological conditions can directly intensify PTH...
2016: F1000Research
Colleen E Jackson, Jonathan D Green, Michelle J Bovin, Jennifer J Vasterling, Darren W Holowka, Gayatri Ranganathan, Raymond C Rosen, Terence M Keane, Brian P Marx
This study examined the unique and combined relationship between mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with psychosocial functioning in a cohort of 1,312 U.S. male and female veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Iraqi Freedom (OIF) enrolled in the Veterans After-Discharge Longitudinal Registry (Project VALOR). We assessed mTBI with structured screening questions reflective of current TBI classification standards and PTSD via the SCID-IV PTSD module; all other variables were assessed by self-report questionnaires...
August 2016: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Jessica Sutherland, Jason Middleton, Tisha J Ornstein, Kerry Lawson, Kristin Vickers
PURPOSE: Despite a documented prevalence of accident phobia in almost 40% of motor vehicle accident (MVA) survivors, the onset of accident phobia after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains poorly understood. There is currently a body of knowledge about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with TBI, but less is known about accident phobia following TBI, particularly in cases of mild TBI (mTBI). Accident phobia can impede safe return to driving or motor vehicle travel, inhibiting return to daily functioning...
August 2016: Rehabilitation Psychology
Maya Troyanskaya, Nicholas J Pastorek, Randall S Scheibel, Nancy J Petersen, Annette Walder, Helene K Henson, Harvey S Levin
INTRODUCTION: Research addressing deployment-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is fairly complex due to a high prevalence of comorbid conditions, multiple exposures, and the lack of acute medical records. Therefore, there is a need for a well-defined, matching comparison group. This study compared deployment-related characteristics, everyday functioning, and cognitive performance in recently deployed veterans who had not sustained any injuries with those who had orthopedic injuries during deployment, but who were without a history of TBI...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Milan P Stojanovic, Jennifer Fonda, Catherine Brawn Fortier, Diana M Higgins, James L Rudolph, William P Milberg, Regina E McGlinchey
OBJECTIVE: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common among US veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND). We postulated that these injuries may modulate pain processing in these individuals and affect their subjective pain levels. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SUBJECTS: 310 deployed service members of OEF/OIF/OND without a lifetime history of moderate or severe TBI were included in this study...
November 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Carlos A Jaramillo, Blessen C Eapen, Cindy A McGeary, Donald D McGeary, Jedediah Robinson, Megan Amuan, Mary Jo Pugh
OBJECTIVES: To describe the prevalence and persistence of headache and associated conditions in an inception cohort of U.S. veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan wars. BACKGROUND: Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans (IAV) suffer from persistent and difficult-to-treat headaches that have been found to co-occur with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other deployment related comorbidities. METHODS: This longitudinal retrospective cohort study used data from the national Veterans Health Administration (VA) data repository for IAV who first received VA care in 2008 (baseline) and also received care each year in 2009, 2010, and 2011...
March 2016: Headache
David V Nelson, Mary Lee Esty
BACKGROUND: Chronic headache following traumatic brain injury (TBI) sustained in military service, while common, is highly challenging to treat with existing pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic interventions and may be complicated by co-morbid posttraumatic stress. Recently, a novel form of brainwave-based intervention known as the Flexyx Neurotherapy System (FNS) that involves minute pulses of electromagnetic energy stimulation of brainwave activity has been suggested as a means to address symptoms of TBI...
2015: Military Medical Research
Andrew J Cook, Eric C Meyer, Lianna D Evans, Kevin E Vowles, John W Klocek, Nathan A Kimbrel, Suzy Bird Gulliver, Sandra B Morissette
War veterans are at increased risk for chronic pain and co-occurring neurobehavioral problems, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, alcohol-related problems, and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Each condition is associated with disability, particularly when co-occurring. Pain acceptance is a strong predictor of lower levels of disability in chronic pain. This study examined whether acceptance of pain predicted current and future disability beyond the effects of these co-occurring conditions in war veterans...
October 2015: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Kathryn Sawyer, Kathleen R Bell, Dawn M Ehde, Nancy Temkin, Sureyya Dikmen, Rhonda M Williams, Tiara Dillworth, Jeanne M Hoffman
OBJECTIVE: To examine headache trajectories among persons with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) in the year after injury and the relation of headache trajectory to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at 1 year postinjury. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal study. SETTING: Participants were recruited through a university medical center and participated in follow-up assessments by telephone. PARTICIPANTS: Prospectively enrolled individuals (N=212) within 1 week of MTBI who were hospitalized for observation or other system injuries...
November 2015: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Margaret A Powell, Vincent Corbo, Jennifer R Fonda, John D Otis, William P Milberg, Regina E McGlinchey
Pain, a debilitating condition, is frequently reported by U.S. veterans returning from Afghanistan and Iraq. This study investigated how commonly reported clinical factors were associated with pain and whether these associations differed for individuals with a history of chronic pain. From the Boston metropolitan area, 171 veterans enrolled in the Veterans Affairs Center of Excellence were assessed for current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, current mood and anxiety diagnoses, lifetime traumatic brain injury, combat experiences, sleep quality, and alcohol use...
August 2015: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Helene Moriarty, Laraine Winter, Keith Robinson, Gala True, Catherine Piersol, Tracey Vause-Earland, Dolores Blazer Iacovone, Laura Holbert, Brian Newhart, Deborah Fishman, Thomas H Short
BACKGROUND: Community reintegration (CR) poses a major problem for military veterans who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Factors contributing to CR after TBI are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To address the gap in knowledge, an ecological framework was used to explore individual and family factors related to CR. DESIGN: Baseline data from an intervention study with 83 veterans with primarily mild to moderate TBI were analyzed...
May 2015: Journal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
Melissa M Jenkins, Peter J Colvonen, Sonya B Norman, Niloofar Afari, Carolyn B Allard, Sean P A Drummond
STUDY OBJECTIVES: There is limited information about prevalence of insomnia in general populations of veterans of recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. No studies have examined insomnia in veterans with military sexual trauma (MST). We assess prevalence of insomnia, identify types of services sought by veterans with insomnia, and examine correlates of insomnia in veterans with and without MST. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of first-encounter veterans registering to establish care...
2015: Sleep
Carlos A Jaramillo, Douglas B Cooper, Chen-Pin Wang, David F Tate, Blessen C Eapen, Gerald E York, Mary Jo Pugh
U. S. veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan are known to have a high prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression, which are often comorbid and share many symptoms. Attempts to describe this cohort by single diagnoses have limited our understanding of the complex nature of this population. The objective of this study was to identify subgroups of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (IAVs) with distinct compositions of symptoms associated with TBI, PTSD, and depression...
September 2015: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Sara M Lippa, Jennifer R Fonda, Catherine B Fortier, Melissa A Amick, Alexandra Kenna, William P Milberg, Regina E McGlinchey
Understanding the factors that influence veterans' functional outcome after deployment is critical to provide appropriately targeted care. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been related to disability, but other psychiatric and behavioral conditions are not as well examined. We investigated the impact of deployment-related psychiatric and behavioral conditions on disability among 255 OEF/OIF/OND service members and veterans. Structured clinical interviews assessed TBI and the psychiatric conditions of depression, PTSD, anxiety, and substance use...
February 2015: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Caecilie Böck Buhmann
INTRODUCTION: Despite large numbers of traumatized refugees, little is known about effective treatment of war trauma in refugees and immigrants. Few studies evaluating treatment have been published and most studies are follow-up studies with methodological limitations and little comparability across studies. PURPOSE: The purpose of the PhD is to characterize transcultural trauma patients in Denmark needing psychiatric treatment with regards to psychopathology and predictors of mental health and to evaluate the effects of the treatment...
August 2014: Danish Medical Journal
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