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neuroendocrine and OSA

Deborah R Liptzin, Stephen M M Hawkins, Brandie D Wagner, Robin R Deterding
OBJECTIVES: Neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) is a children's interstitial and diffuse lung disease of unknown etiology that presents in infancy with characteristic findings of tachypnea, retractions, crackles, and hypoxemia. At the present, the mainstay of treatment is oxygen supplementation to normalize oxygen saturations and decrease work of breathing. There are characteristic pulmonary function, radiographic, and histologic findings, but polysomnography (PSG) data has not been reported...
May 15, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Yan Zhou, Bo Zhang, Caixia Hao, Xiaoting Huang, Xiaohong Li, Yanhong Huang, Ziqiang Luo
Adipokines, secreted by the adipose tissue, are extensively involved in the regulation and maintenance of various physiological and pathological processes, including insulin sensitivity, energy expenditure, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory activity, neuroendocrine activity, immunity, cancer, homeostasis, angiogenesis, cardiovascular function, breeding and bone metabolism, and all functions of the endocrine-reproductive system axis. Omentin is a recently identified adipokine, which has become a research hotspot due to its pleiotropic effects on various diseases...
December 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Erik Thunström, Karin Manhem, Tülay Yucel-Lindberg, Annika Rosengren, Caroline Lindberg, Yüksel Peker
RATIONALE: Blood pressure reduction in response to antihypertensive agents is less for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Increased sympathetic and inflammatory activity, as well as alterations in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, may play a role in this context. OBJECTIVES: To address the cardiovascular mechanisms involved in response to an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, losartan, and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) as add-on treatment for hypertension and OSA...
November 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Ronaldo D Piovezan, Julio Abucham, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli Dos Santos, Marco Tulio Mello, Sergio Tufik, Dalva Poyares
Sarcopenia is a geriatric condition that comprises declined skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, leading to the risk of multiple adverse outcomes, including death. Its pathophysiology involves neuroendocrine and inflammatory factors, unfavorable nutritional habits and low physical activity. Sleep may play a role in muscle protein metabolism, although this hypothesis has not been studied extensively. Reductions in duration and quality of sleep and increases in prevalence of circadian rhythm and sleep disorders with age favor proteolysis, modify body composition and increase the risk of insulin resistance, all of which have been associated with sarcopenia...
September 2015: Ageing Research Reviews
Christopher P Derry, Susan Duncan
The intimate relationship between sleep and epilepsy has long been recognized, yet our understanding of the relationship is incomplete. In this article we address four key issues in this area. First, we consider the reciprocal interaction between sleep and epilepsy. Sleep state clearly influences seizure onset, particularly in certain epilepsy syndromes. The converse is also true; epilepsy may disrupt sleep, either directly through seizures and epileptiform activity, or indirectly through medication-related effects...
March 2013: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Deena Raval, Lawrence P Bernstein, Randall E Williams, Tomasz J Kuzniar
Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is frequently present in heart failure (HF), and it may take the form of obstructive (OSA) and central (CSA) sleep apnea. The use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with OSA and HF is associated with an improved neuroendocrine profile and cardiac function. The degree of upper airway obstruction and the airway closing pressure (and the PAP pressure used to relieve it) may all be highly variable in a setting of uncontrolled HF, mostly due to variable airway oedema...
2011: Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska
Ahmad Salah Hersi
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), which includes obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as its most extreme variant, is characterized by intermittent episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, leading to cessation of breathing while asleep. Cardiac arrhythmias are common problems in OSA patients, although the true prevalence and clinical relevance of cardiac arrhythmias remains to be determined. The presence and complexity of tachyarrhythmias and bradyarrhythmias may influence morbidity, mortality and quality of life for patients with OSA...
January 2010: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
Fabio Lanfranco, Giovanna Motta, Marco Alessandro Minetto, Matteo Baldi, Marcella Balbo, Ezio Ghigo, Emanuela Arvat, Mauro Maccario
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a serious, prevalent condition that has significant morbidity and mortality when untreated. It is strongly associated with obesity and is characterized by changes in the serum levels or secretory patterns of several hormones. Obese patients with OSAS show a reduction of both spontaneous and stimulated growth hormone (GH) secretion coupled to reduced insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations and impaired peripheral sensitivity to GH. Hypoxemia and chronic sleep fragmentation could affect the sleep-entrained prolactin (PRL) rhythm...
2010: International Journal of Endocrinology
Pia Holland Gjørup, Jan Hedner
Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) is associated with repeated episodes of hypoxia, arousals and considerable haemodynamic changes during sleep. There is an established causal link between OSA and cardiovascular disease, in particular hypertension. The mechanisms responsible include altered autonomic activity, neuroendocrine vascular control, metabolic derangement, and vascular endothelial dysfunction. OSA is a treatable condition frequently occurring in association with other cardiovascular risk factors that should be considered in the context of hypertension...
June 15, 2009: Ugeskrift for Laeger
Steven R Schuster, Maher Tabba, Pradeep Sahota
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by cessation of air flow for a minimum of 10 seconds despite continuous respiratory effort, is a prevalent condition in our society. Recent studies demonstrate that OSA is an independent risk factor for insulin resistance and the cardiometabolic syndrome. Hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation from OSA appear to produce autonomic activation, alterations in neuroendocrine function, and increased amounts of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha)...
2006: Journal of the Cardiometabolic Syndrome
Miguel A Arias, Ana M Sánchez
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects approximately 4% of middle-aged men and 2% of middle-aged women. Cardiac arrhythmias are common problems in patients with OSA, even though the true prevalence and clinical relevance of cardiac arrhythmias remains to be determined. The presence and complexity of both tachyarrhythmias and bradyarrhythmias may influence morbidity, mortality, and the quality of life for OSA patients. Although the exact mechanisms underlying the link between OSA and cardiac arrhythmias are not well established, they could be partially the same proposed mechanisms relating OSA to different cardiovascular diseases...
September 2007: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Andrzej Sieśkiewicz, Monika Olszewska, Ewa Olszewska, Magdalena Garbowicz, Sylwia Trojan, Lech Chyczewski, Marek Rogowski
UNLABELLED: The role of neuroendocrine cells (NC) in physiology and pathology of the human's respiratory tract is not fully understood. The aim of the study was the quantitative and morphometric assessment of NC in nasal mucosa in some pathological states. PATIENTS AND METHOD: 40 patients, aged 28-63 years, with clinical signs of chronic, hypertrophic rhinosinusitis were qualified for the study. Rhinitis chronica hypertrophica coexisted with aspirin triad or asthma in 10 patients (group I), with advanced obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in 10 patients (respiratory disturbance index, RDI>40, group II)...
2007: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
E C Fletcher, G Bao
The systemic arterial blood pressure response to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in humans is usually repetitive (with each apnea) acute elevation with return to near baseline following the apnea. In addition, it is believed by most investigators that chronic diurnal elevation of systemic blood pressure may result from repetitive nightly apneas in humans, resulting in systemic hypertension in about 50-70% of sleep apnea patients. Mechanisms of the chronic elevation in blood pressure are difficult to investigate in humans because it may take many years of repetitive apneas for sustained daytime blood pressure to develop...
December 1996: Sleep
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