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Necrotizing enterocolitis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334374/transitory-presence-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-neonates-is-critical-for-control-of-inflammation
#1
Yu-Mei He, Xing Li, Michela Perego, Yulia Nefedova, Andrew V Kossenkov, Erik A Jensen, Valerian Kagan, Yu-Feng Liu, Shu-Yu Fu, Qing-Jian Ye, Yan-Hong Zhou, Lai Wei, Dmitry I Gabrilovich, Jie Zhou
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are pathologically activated and relatively immature myeloid cells that have been implicated in the immunological regulation of many pathologic conditions. Phenotypically and morphologically, MDSCs are similar to neutrophils (PMN-MDSCs) and monocytes (M-MDSCs). However, they have potent suppressive activity and distinct gene expression profiles and biochemical characteristics. No or very few MDSCs are observed in steady-state physiological conditions. Therefore, until recently, accumulation of MDSCs was considered a consequence of pathological processes or pregnancy...
January 15, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334303/enteral-l-arginine-supplementation-for-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-premature-infants
#2
Despina D Briana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333220/outcomes-of-left-ventricular-function-according-to-treatment-response-for-a-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-preterm-infants
#3
Soo Jung Kang, Young Sun Cho, Seo Jung Hwang, Hyo Jin Kim
Background: To evaluate the outcomes of left ventricular (LV) function according to treatment response for a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) in preterm infants. Methods: Echocardiograms of 21 preterm infants born at gestational age < 31 weeks obtained at term-equivalent age were retrospectively studied. Among preterm infants with a hsPDA, 9 underwent ligation after failure of pharmacological closure (ligation group) and 6 experienced successful pharmacological closure (medication group)...
December 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324621/immediate-delivery-compared-with-expectant-management-in-late-preterm-prelabor-rupture-of-membranes-an-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#4
Johanna Quist-Nelson, Annemijn A de Ruigh, Anna Lene Seidler, David P van der Ham, Christine Willekes, Vincenzo Berghella, Eva Pajkrt, Jillian Patterson, David Espinoza, Jonathan Morris, Ben Mol, Lisa Askie
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of immediate delivery an expectant management among women whose pregnancies were complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM) in the late preterm period (from 34 0/7 weeks until 36 6/7 weeks of gestation). DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception until December 2016. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We included all randomized controlled trials with individual participant data reporting on late preterm PROM with randomization to immediate delivery or expectant management...
January 9, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316931/nutritional-adequacy-of-a-novel-human-milk-fortifier-from-donkey-milk-in-feeding-preterm-infants-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#5
Alessandra Coscia, Enrico Bertino, Paola Tonetto, Chiara Peila, Francesco Cresi, Sertac Arslanoglu, Guido E Moro, Elena Spada, Silvano Milani, Marzia Giribaldi, Sara Antoniazzi, Amedeo Conti, Laura Cavallarin
BACKGROUND: Fortification of human milk is a standard practice for feeding very low birth weight infants. However, preterm infants often still experience suboptimal growth and feeding intolerance. New fortification strategies and different commercially available fortifiers have been developed. Commercially available fortifiers are constituted by a blend of ingredients from different sources, including plant oils and bovine milk proteins, thus presenting remarkable differences in the quality of macronutrients with respect to human milk...
January 9, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311628/vascular-placental-pathology-and-the-relationship-between-hypertensive-disorders-of-pregnancy-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#6
Lisa Strouss, Neal D Goldstein, Robert Locke, David A Paul
OBJECTIVE: To investigate vascular placental pathology's effect on known associations between hypertensive disorders and four adverse neonatal outcomes-bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and death. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort of very low birth weight neonates born at a single center (n = 911). Statistical analysis included χ2, t test, modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to measure risk, and Wald test...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311572/correlative-factors-of-the-deterioration-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-small-for-gestational-age-newborns
#7
Lijuan Luo, Wenbin Dong, Lingping Zhang, Xuesong Zhai, Qingping Li, Xiaoping Lei
Small for gestational age (SGA) infants have an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), but SGA has been found to not be a risk factor for the deterioration of NEC in previous literature. Few studies have focused on correlative factors of the progression of NEC in SGA newborns. The present retrospective observational study was performed in 64 SGA infants with Bell's stage II NEC. The dependent variable was Bell's stage II NEC that progressed to stage III after diagnosis. A stepwise forward multivariate logistic regression model was used to select potential correlative factors for the progression of NEC in SGA newborns...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304519/effect-of-n-acetylserotonin-on-tlr-4-and-myd88-expression-during-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-in-a-rat-model
#8
Igor Sukhotnik, Yoav Ben Shahar, Salim Halabi, Nir Bitterman, Tatiana Dorfman, Yulia Pollak, Arnold Coran, Arie Bitterman
BACKGROUND:  Accumulating evidence indicates that changes in intestinal toll-like receptors (TLRs) precede histological injury in a rodent model of necrotizing enterocolitis. N-acetylserotonin (NAS) is a naturally occurring chemical intermediate in the biosynthesis of melatonin. A recent study has shown that treatment with NAS prevents gut mucosal damage and inhibits programmed cell death following intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of NAS on TLR-4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (Myd88), and TNF-α receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) expression in intestinal mucosa following intestinal IR in a rat...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301419/antenatal-magnesium-sulfate-is-beneficial-or-harmful-in-very-preterm-and-extremely-preterm-neonates-a-new-insight
#9
Bhawan Garg
Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is drug of choice for both prevention of eclampsia in women with severe preeclampsia and treatment of eclampsia. Antenatal MgSO4 is now emerging as popular neuroprotective agent in preterm neonates. However, recent studies reported an association of antenatal MgSO4 with feed intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis and spontaneous intestinal perforation in extremely preterm neonates. In this review article, we discuss both aspects of antenatal MgSO4 in preterm neonates.
January 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300196/mesenteric-oxygenation-changes-associated-with-necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-pneumoperitoneum-after-multiple-blood-transfusions-a-case-report
#10
Terri Marin, James E Moore
BACKGROUND: The multifactorial pathology and broad clinical presentation of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) development in premature infants make prediction of disease onset extremely challenging. Over the past decade, packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions have been temporally linked to the development of NEC in severely anemic preterm infants, although this issue is highly controversial. PURPOSE: In this case study, we describe events of an extremely low birth-weight infant who developed NEC complicated by pneumoperitoneum after receiving multiple PRBC transfusions...
January 3, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298457/predictive-value-of-a-persistent-tachycardia-to-indicate-impending-perforation-in-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#11
Francisca van der Schyff, Jan Henrik Raynor Becker
INTRODUCTION:  Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease of infancy. Full-thickness bowel wall necrosis may lead to perforation, peritonitis, and death. Timeous clinical diagnosis of impending perforation is imperative. OBJECTIVE:  The objective of this study was to determine whether a persistent tachycardia in an infant with proven NEC is indicative of full-thickness bowel wall necrosis and therefore impending perforation. STUDY DESIGN:  This study was conducted at the University of Pretoria academic hospitals...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298438/influence-of-pco2-control-on-clinical-and-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-of-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants
#12
Ulrich H Thome, Jens Dreyhaupt, Orsolya Genzel-Boroviczeny, Bettina Bohnhorst, Manuel Schmid, Hans Fuchs, Oliver Rohde, Stefan Avenarius, Hans-Georg Topf, Andrea Zimmermann, Dirk Faas, Katharina Timme, Barbara Kleinlein, Horst Buxmann, Wilfried Schenk, Hugo Segerer, Norbert Teig, Benjamin Ackermann, Roland Hentschel, Matthias Heckmann, Rolf Schlösser, Jochen Peters, Rainer Rossi, Wolfgang Rascher, Ralf Böttger, Jürgen Seidenberg, Gesine Hansen, Harald Bode, Maria Zernickel, Rainer Muche, Helmut D Hummler
BACKGROUND: Levels or fluctuations in the partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) may affect outcomes for extremely low birth weight infants. OBJECTIVES: In an exploratory analysis of a randomized trial, we hypothesized that the PCO2 values achieved could be related to significant outcomes. METHODS: On each treatment day, infants were divided into 4 groups: relative hypocapnia, normocapnia, hypercapnia, or fluctuating PCO2. Ultimate assignment to a group for the purpose of this analysis was made according to the group in which an infant spent the most days...
January 4, 2018: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297054/differences-in-morbidity-and-mortality-rates-in-black-white-and-hispanic-very-preterm-infants-among-new-york-city-hospitals
#13
Elizabeth A Howell, Teresa Janevic, Paul L Hebert, Natalia N Egorova, Amy Balbierz, Jennifer Zeitlin
Importance: Substantial quality improvements in neonatal care have occurred over the past decade yet racial and ethnic disparities in morbidity and mortality remain. It is uncertain whether disparate patterns of care by race and ethnicity contribute to disparities in neonatal outcomes. Objectives: To examine differences in neonatal morbidity and mortality rates among non-Hispanic black (black), Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white (white) very preterm infants and to determine whether these differences are explained by site of delivery...
January 2, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287294/outcomes-of-medically-indicated-preterm-births-differ-by-indication
#14
Michelle J Wang, Spencer G Kuper, Robin Steele, Rachel A Sievert, Alan T Tita, Lorie M Harper
OBJECTIVE:  We aim to examine whether outcomes of preterm birth (PTB) are further modified by the indication for delivery. STUDY DESIGN:  We performed a retrospective cohort study of all singletons delivered at 23 to 34 weeks from 2011 to 2014. Women were classified by their primary indication for delivery: maternal (preeclampsia) or fetal/obstetric (growth restriction, nonreassuring fetal status, and vaginal bleeding). The primary neonatal outcome was a composite of neonatal death, cord pH <7 or base excess < - 12, 5-minute Apgar ≤3, C-reactive protein during resuscitation, culture-proven sepsis, intraventricular hemorrhage, and necrotizing enterocolitis...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282094/nasal-high-flow-therapy-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-with-mild-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-single-center-experience
#15
Antonio Di Mauro, Manuela Capozza, Sergio Cotugno, Silvio Tafuri, Francesco Paolo Bianchi, Federico Schettini, Raffaella Panza, Nicola Laforgia
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary disorders and respiratory failure represent one of the most common morbidities of preterm newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The use of nasal high-flow therapy (nHFT) has been more recently introduced into the NICUs as a non-invasive respiratory (NIV) support. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study to evaluate safety and effectiveness of nHFT as primary support for infants born < 29 weeks of gestation and/or VLBW presenting with mild Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)...
December 28, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281615/vitamin-d-ameliorates-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis-via-suppressing-tlr4-in-a-murine-model
#16
Yongyan Shi, Tianjing Liu, Xinyi Zhao, Li Yao, Ana Hou, Jianhua Fu, Xindong Xue
BACKGROUND: The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to play an important role in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). As an established regulator of TLR4, vitamin D has been demonstrated to be intestinal-protective. This study aims at finding out whether the vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) pathway ameliorates NEC by regulating TLR4. METHODS: Serum 25(OH)D was tested and compared in 15 preterm infants with NEC, 12 preterm infants without known complications and 20 healthy term infants...
December 27, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276042/intestinal-tight-junctions-are-severely-altered-in-nec-preterm-neonates
#17
Amir Bein, Smadar Eventov-Friedman, Dan Arbell, Betty Schwartz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe inflammatory disorder of the intestine endangering the health and survival of preterm infants. It is well established that the gut barrier is severely damaged in NEC patients, nonetheless an in depth investigation of modifications at the transcriptional and translational levels of tight junction genes and proteins during NEC are still missing. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the expression of tight junctions and other associated proteins during NEC and determine their correlation to the disease severity...
December 7, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275819/stem-cell-therapy-in-necrotizing-enterocolitis-current-state-and-future-directions
#18
Natalie A Drucker, Christopher J McCulloh, Bo Li, Agostino Pierro, Gail E Besner, Troy A Markel
Stem cell therapy is a promising treatment modality for necrotizing enterocolitis. Among the many promising stem cells identified to date, it is likely that mesenchymal stem cells will be the most useful and practical cell-based therapies for this condition. Using acellular components such as exosomes or other paracrine mediators are promising as well. Multiple mechanisms are likely at play in the positive effects provided by these cells, and further research is underway to further elucidate these effects.
February 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275818/neurodevelopmental-considerations-in-surgical-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#19
Jamie R Robinson, Clark Kennedy, Kyle J van Arendonk, Alyssa Green, Camilia R Martin, Martin L Blakely
The majority of surviving infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) will have some degree of neurodevelopmental impairment. The impact of specific medial and surgical treatments for infants with severe NEC remains largely unknown but is being actively investigated. It is incumbent upon all providers caring for these infants to continue to focus on long term neurodevelopmental outcomes and to develop more widespread methods of neurodevelopmental assessment.
February 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275817/anemia-red-blood-cell-transfusions-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#20
Akhil Maheshwari, Ravi M Patel, Robert D Christensen
In the past 15 years, multiple clinical studies have identified a temporal association between red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). With some variability, most of these studies indicate that up to one-third of all cases of NEC involving very low-birth weight infants may occur within 24-48h after receiving a RBC transfusion. There is also evidence that the risk of such transfusion-associated NEC may be higher in infants transfused with the greatest severity of anemia. In this article, we summarize the clinical evidence pertaining to these issues; specifically, the contribution of RBC transfusions, and the contribution of severity of underlying anemia, to the pathogenesis of a type of NEC potentially termed, "transfusion/anemia-associated NEC...
February 2018: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
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