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citrate synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924409/antioxidants-reverse-the-changes-in-energy-metabolism-of-rat-brain-after-chronic-administration-of-l-tyrosine
#1
Brena P Teodorak, Giselli Scaini, Milena Carvalho-Silva, Lara M Gomes, Letícia J Teixeira, Joyce Rebelo, Samira D T De Prá, Neila Zeni, Patrícia F Schuck, Gustavo C Ferreira, Emilio L Streck
Tyrosinemia type II is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by deficiency of hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase and is associated with neurologic and development difficulties in numerous patients. Considering that the mechanisms underlying the neurological dysfunction in hypertyrosinemic patients are poorly known and that high concentrations of tyrosine provoke mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, in the present study we investigated the in vivo influence of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine, NAC; and deferoxamine, DFX) administration on the inhibitory effects on parameters of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum of rats, provoked by chronic administration of L...
December 6, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923980/humanin-skeletal-muscle-protein-levels-increase-after-resistance-training-in-men-with-impaired-glucose-metabolism
#2
Eva-Karin Gidlund, Ferdinand von Walden, Mika Venojärvi, Ulf Risérus, Olli J Heinonen, Jessica Norrbom, Carl Johan Sundberg
Humanin (HN) is a mitochondrially encoded and secreted peptide linked to glucose metabolism and tissue protecting mechanisms. Whether skeletal muscle HN gene or protein expression is influenced by exercise remains unknown. In this intervention study we show, for the first time, that HN protein levels increase in human skeletal muscle following 12 weeks of resistance training in persons with prediabetes. Male subjects (n = 55) with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) were recruited and randomly assigned to resistance training, Nordic walking or a control group...
December 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920436/a-statistical-algorithm-showing-coenzyme-q10-and-citrate-synthase-as-biomarkers-for-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-enzyme-activities
#3
D Yubero, A Adin, R Montero, C Jou, C Jiménez-Mallebrera, A García-Cazorla, A Nascimento, M M O'Callaghan, J Montoya, L Gort, P Navas, A Ribes, M D Ugarte, R Artuch
Laboratory data interpretation for the assessment of complex biological systems remains a great challenge, as occurs in mitochondrial function research studies. The classical biochemical data interpretation of patients versus reference values may be insufficient, and in fact the current classifications of mitochondrial patients are still done on basis of probability criteria. We have developed and applied a mathematic agglomerative algorithm to search for correlations among the different biochemical variables of the mitochondrial respiratory chain in order to identify populations displaying correlation coefficients >0...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918086/combined-therapy-with-swimming-exercise-and-a-diet-supplemented-with-diphenyl-diselenide-is-effective-against-age-related-changes-in-the-hepatic-metabolism-of-rats
#4
Suélen O Heck, Bruna C W Fulco, Caroline B Quines, Carla E S Oliveira, Marlon R Leite, José L Cechella, Cristina W Nogueira
Aging is characterized by a widespread loss of homeostasis in biological systems and is accompanied by pathophysiological changes including the liver injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the combined therapy with swimming exercise (20 min session, five days/week during four weeks) and a diet supplemented with 1 ppm of (PhSe)2 on the hepatic metabolic alterations caused by aging in rats. In this study, male old Wistar rats had an increase in the epididymal fat relative weight, disturbances in the activities of hepatic enzymes associated to the glucose homeostasis, higher hepatic triglyceride content and higher activity of the plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915495/placental-respiratory-chain-complex-activities-in-high-risk-pregnancies
#5
Mojtaba Beyramzadeh, Zeliha Gunnur Dikmen, Nergiz K Erturk, Zafer Selcuk Tuncer, Filiz Akbiyik
OBJECTIVES: Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is the key energy source for placental functions and fetal growth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the function of placenta in high risk pregnancies by measuring mitochondrial respiratory chain complex (RCC) activities, and to evaluate the correlation between double test risk ratio and RCC activities. METHODS: The placenta samples were collected from 50 pregnant women. The controls consisted of 20 normal uncomplicated pregnancies and the study group (n = 30) consisted of preeclampsia (PE), intrauterin growth restriction (IUGR), advanced maternal age (AMA), twins and preterm deliveries...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906063/characterization-of-a-multiprotein-complex-involved-in-excitation-transcription-coupling-of-skeletal-muscle
#6
Manuel Arias-Calderón, Gonzalo Almarza, Alexis Díaz-Vegas, Ariel Contreras-Ferrat, Denisse Valladares, Mariana Casas, Héctor Toledo, Enrique Jaimovich, Sonja Buvinic
BACKGROUND: Electrical activity regulates the expression of skeletal muscle genes by a process known as "excitation-transcription" (E-T) coupling. We have demonstrated that release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) during depolarization activates membrane P2X/P2Y receptors, being the fundamental mediators between electrical stimulation, slow intracellular calcium transients, and gene expression. We propose that this signaling pathway would require the proper coordination between the voltage sensor (dihydropyridine receptor, DHPR), pannexin 1 channels (Panx1, ATP release conduit), nucleotide receptors, and other signaling molecules...
April 11, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889640/inhibition-of-autophagy-with-bafilomycin-and-chloroquine-decreases-mitochondrial-quality-and-bioenergetic-function-in-primary-neurons
#7
Matthew Redmann, Gloria A Benavides, Taylor F Berryhill, Willayat Y Wani, Xiaosen Ouyang, Michelle S Johnson, Saranya Ravi, Stephen Barnes, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Jianhua Zhang
Autophagy is an important cell recycling program responsible for the clearance of damaged or long-lived proteins and organelles. Pharmacological modulators of this pathway have been extensively utilized in a wide range of basic research and pre-clinical studies. Bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine are commonly used compounds that inhibit autophagy by targeting the lysosomes but through distinct mechanisms. Since it is now clear that mitochondrial quality control, particularly in neurons, is dependent on autophagy, it is important to determine whether these compounds modify cellular bioenergetics...
November 18, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888113/circadian-urinary-citrate-excretion-in-a-rat-model-of-exercise
#8
Paula Nuñez, Irene Diaz, Carmen Perillan, Juan Arguelles, Elena Diaz
AIMS: Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24h biological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. Circadian rhythms unquestionably play critical roles in metabolic homeostasis and the exercise has emerged as a strong non-photic time cue or zeitgeber in animal models and humans. Numerous studies on the effects of exercise on the citrate synthase activity have been published. Citrate is used to assess energy production or expenditure because it is a substrate of the Krebs Cycle, a cycle for oxidative energy production...
November 22, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887640/functional-and-regulatory-profiling-of-energy-metabolism-in-fission-yeast
#9
Michal Malecki, Danny A Bitton, Maria Rodríguez-López, Charalampos Rallis, Noelia Garcia Calavia, Graeme C Smith, Jürg Bähler
BACKGROUND: The control of energy metabolism is fundamental for cell growth and function and anomalies in it are implicated in complex diseases and ageing. Metabolism in yeast cells can be manipulated by supplying different carbon sources: yeast grown on glucose rapidly proliferates by fermentation, analogous to tumour cells growing by aerobic glycolysis, whereas on non-fermentable carbon sources metabolism shifts towards respiration. RESULTS: We screened deletion libraries of fission yeast to identify over 200 genes required for respiratory growth...
November 25, 2016: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884170/first-report-of-rickettsia-raoultii-and-r-slovaca-in-melophagus-ovinus-the-sheep-ked
#10
Dan Liu, Yuan-Zhi Wang, Huan Zhang, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Ha-Zi Wureli, Shi-Wei Wang, Chang-Chun Tu, Chuang-Fu Chen
BACKGROUND: Melophagus ovinus (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), a hematophagous ectoparasite, is mainly found in Europe, Northwestern Africa, and Asia. This wingless fly infests sheep, rabbits, and red foxes, and causes inflammation, wool loss and skin damage. Furthermore, this parasite has been shown to transmit diseases, and plays a role as a vector. Herein, we investigated the presence of various Rickettsia species in M. ovinus. METHODS: In this study, a total of 95 sheep keds were collected in Kuqa County and Alaer City southern region of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China...
November 25, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872961/boosting-anaplerotic-reactions-by-pyruvate-kinase-gene-deletion-and-phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxylase-desensitization-for-glutamic-acid-and-lysine-production-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum
#11
Atsushi Yokota, Kazunori Sawada, Masaru Wada
In the 1980s, Shiio and coworkers demonstrated using random mutagenesis that the following three phenotypes were effective for boosting lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum: (1) low-activity-level citrate synthase (CS(L)), (2) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) resistant to feedback inhibition by aspartic acid (PEPC(R)), and (3) pyruvate kinase (PYK) deficiency. Here, we reevaluated these phenotypes and their interrelationship in lysine production using recombinant DNA techniques.The pyk deletion and PEPC(R) (D299N in ppc) independently showed marginal effects on lysine production, but both phenotypes synergistically increased lysine yield, demonstrating the importance of PEPC as an anaplerotic enzyme in lysine production...
November 22, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868330/structural-and-functional-analysis-of-cyclophilin-ppib-mutants-supports-an-in%C3%A2-vivo-function-not-limited-to-prolyl-isomerization-activity
#12
Aggeliki Skagia, Eleni Vezyri, Markezina Sigala, Areti Kokkinou, Michael Karpusas, Anastasia Venieraki, Panagiotis Katinakis, Maria Dimou
Escherichia coli cyclophilin PpiB is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase, EC: 5.2.1.8), involved in the negative modulation of various bacterial processes, such as swimming and swarming motility and biofilm formation ability. In this study, we show that PpiB possesses also a chaperone function as it can prevent the thermal denaturation of citrate synthase even with essentially eliminated PPIase activity. We demonstrate, using active site mutations, that the PPIase activity of PpiB is required in all processes, except for the negative effect on swimming, indicating a possible isomerase-independent function...
November 21, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853460/pre-sowing-seed-treatment-with-24-epibrassinolide-ameliorates-pesticide-stress-in-brassica-juncea-l-through-the-modulation-of-stress-markers
#13
Anket Sharma, Sharad Thakur, Vinod Kumar, Mukesh K Kanwar, Anup K Kesavan, Ashwani K Thukral, Renu Bhardwaj, Pravej Alam, Parvaiz Ahmad
The present experiment was designed to assess the effects of seed soaking with 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) on the physiology of Brassica juncea L. seedlings grown under imidacloprid (IMI) toxicity. Application of EBR increased the length of seedlings, dry weight, and pigment contents, polyphenols, total phenols, and organic acids under IMI toxicity. The expression of genes coding key enzymes of pigment, phenols, polyphenols, and organic acid biosynthetic pathways was also studied including CHLASE (chlorophyllase), PSY (phytoene synthase), CHS (chalcone synthase) and PAL (phenylalanine ammonialyase), CS (citrate synthase), SUCLG1 (succinyl Co-A ligase,), SDH (succinate dehydrogenase), FH (fumarate hydratase), MS (malate synthase)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852753/thermal-sensitivity-and-phenotypic-plasticity-of-cardiac-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-european-perch-perca-fluviatilis
#14
Andreas Ekström, Erik Sandblom, Pierre U Blier, Bernard-Antonin Dupont Cyr, Jeroen Brijs, Nicolas Pichaud
Cellular and mitochondrial metabolic capacity of the heart has been suggested to limit performance of fish at warm temperatures. We investigated this hypothesis by studying the effects of acute temperature increases (16, 23, 30, 32.5 and 36°C) on the thermal sensitivity of 10 key enzymes governing cardiac oxidative and glycolytic metabolism in two populations of European perch (Perca fluviatilis) field-acclimated to 15.5 and 22.5°C, as well as the effects of acclimation on cardiac lipid composition. In both populations of perch, the activity of glycolytic (pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) and tricarboxylic acid cycle (pyruvate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase) enzymes increased with acute warming...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844288/methylphenidate-decreases-atp-levels-and-impairs-glutamate-uptake-and-na-k-atpase-activity-in-juvenile-rat-hippocampus
#15
Felipe Schmitz, Paula Pierozan, André F Rodrigues, Helena Biasibetti, Mateus Grings, Bruna Zanotto, Daniella M Coelho, Carmen R Vargas, Guilhian Leipnitz, Angela T S Wyse
The study of the long-term neurological consequences of early exposure with methylphenidate (MPH) is very important since this psychostimulant has been widely misused by children and adolescents who do not meet full diagnostic criteria for ADHD. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of early chronic exposure with MPH on amino acids profile, glutamatergic and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase homeostasis, as well as redox and energy status in the hippocampus of juvenile rats. Wistar male rats received intraperitoneal injections of MPH (2...
November 14, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842593/easy-regulation-of-metabolic-flux-in-escherichia-coli-using-an-endogenous-type-i-e-crispr-cas-system
#16
Yizhao Chang, Tianyuan Su, Qingsheng Qi, Quanfeng Liang
BACKGROUND: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi) is a recently developed powerful tool for gene regulation. In Escherichia coli, the type I CRISPR system expressed endogenously shall be easy for internal regulation without causing metabolic burden in compared with the widely used type II system, which expressed dCas9 as an additional plasmid. RESULTS: By knocking out cas3 and activating the expression of CRISPR-associated complex for antiviral defense (Cascade), we constructed a native CRISPRi system in E...
November 15, 2016: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836895/lifelong-quercetin-enrichment-and-cardioprotection-in-mdx-utrn-ice
#17
Christopher Ballmann, Thomas Denney, Ronald J Beyers, Tiffany S Quindry, Matthew Romero, Rajesh H Amin, Joshua T Selsby, John C Quindry
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is associated with progressive cardiac pathology, however, the SIRT1/PGC1-α activator quercetin may cardioprotect dystrophic hearts. We tested the extent to which long term 0.2% dietary quercetin enrichment attenuates dystrophic cardiopathology in Mdx/Utrn(+/-) mice. At 2 months, Mdx/Utrn(+/-) mice were fed quercetin enriched (Mdx/Utrn(+/-)-Q) or control diet (Mdx/Utrn(+/-)) for 8 months. Control C57BL/10 (C57) animals were fed a control diet for 10 months. Cardiac function was quantified by MRI at 2 and 10 months...
November 11, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833749/endocrine-and-metabolic-impacts-of-warming-aquatic-habitats-differential-responses-between-recently-isolated-populations-of-a-eurythermal-desert-pupfish
#18
Sean C Lema, Michelle I Chow, Emily J Resner, Alex A Westman, Darran May, Andrew H Dittman, Kristin M Hardy
Temperatures of inland aquatic habitats are increasing with climate change, and understanding how fishes respond physiologically to thermal stress will be crucial for identifying species most susceptible to these changes. Desert fishes may be particularly vulnerable to rising temperatures because many species occupy only a fraction of their historical range and occur in habitats with already high temperatures. Here, we examined endocrine and metabolic responses to elevated temperature in Amargosa pupfish, Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae...
2016: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822028/effect-of-endurance-versus-resistance-training-on-quadriceps-muscle-dysfunction-in-copd-a-pilot-study
#19
Ulrik Winning Iepsen, Gregers Druedal Wibe Munch, Mette Rugbjerg, Anders Rasmussen Rinnov, Morten Zacho, Stefan Peter Mortensen, Niels H Secher, Thomas Ringbaek, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Ylva Hellsten, Peter Lange, Pia Thaning
INTRODUCTION: Exercise is an important countermeasure to limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. The two major training modalities in COPD rehabilitation, endurance training (ET) and resistance training (RT), may both be efficient in improving muscle strength, exercise capacity, and health-related quality of life, but the effects on quadriceps muscle characteristics have not been thoroughly described. METHODS: Thirty COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 56% of predicted, standard deviation [SD] 14) were randomized to 8 weeks of ET or RT...
2016: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800513/preconditioning-with-ethyl-3-4-dihydroxybenzoate-augments-aerobic-respiration-in-rat-skeletal-muscle
#20
Charu Nimker, Deependra Pratap Singh, Deepika Saraswat, Anju Bansal
Muscle respiratory capacity decides the amount of exertion one's skeletal muscle can undergo, and endurance exercise is believed to increase it. There are also certain preconditioning methods by which muscle respiratory and exercise performance can be enhanced. In this study, preconditioning with ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB), a prolyl hydroxylase domain enzyme inhibitor, has been investigated to determine its effect on aerobic metabolism and bioenergetics in skeletal muscle, thus facilitating boost in physical performance in a rat model...
2016: Hypoxia
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