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citrate synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773073/metabolome-analysis-based-design-and-engineering-of-a-metabolic-pathway-in-corynebacterium-glutamicum-to-match-rates-of-simultaneous-utilization-of-d-glucose-and-l-arabinose
#1
Hideo Kawaguchi, Kumiko Yoshihara, Kiyotaka Y Hara, Tomohisa Hasunuma, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo
BACKGROUND: L-Arabinose is the second most abundant component of hemicellulose in lignocellulosic biomass, next to D-xylose. However, few microorganisms are capable of utilizing pentoses, and catabolic genes and operons enabling bacterial utilization of pentoses are typically subject to carbon catabolite repression by more-preferred carbon sources, such as D-glucose, leading to a preferential utilization of D-glucose over pentoses. In order to simultaneously utilize both D-glucose and L-arabinose at the same rate, a modified metabolic pathway was rationally designed based on metabolome analysis...
May 17, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750574/exercise-training-during-chemotherapy-preserves-skeletal-muscle-fiber-area-capillarization-and-mitochondrial-content-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#2
Sara Mijwel, Daniele A Cardinale, Jessica Norrbom, Mark Chapman, Niklas Ivarsson, Yvonne Wengström, Carl Johan Sundberg, Helene Rundqvist
Exercise has been suggested to ameliorate the detrimental effects of chemotherapy on skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different exercise regimens with usual care on skeletal muscle morphology and mitochondrial markers in patients being treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer. Specifically, we compared moderate-intensity aerobic combined with high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT) and resistance combined with high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT) with usual care (UC)...
May 11, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748131/underlying-mechanism-of-the-contractile-dysfunction-in-atrophied-ventricular-myocytes-from-a-murine-model-of-hypothyroidism
#3
Dolores Montalvo, Perla Pérez-Treviño, Katheryne Madrazo-Aguirre, Fabio A González-Mondellini, Hipólito O Miranda-Roblero, Diego Ramonfaur-Gracia, Mariana Jacobo-Antonio, Maritza Mayorga-Luna, Norma L Gómez-Víquez, Noemí García, Julio Altamirano
Hypothyroidism (Hypo) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure. Hypo rapidly induces Ca2+ mishandling and contractile dysfunction (CD), as well as atrophy and ventricular myocytes (VM) remodeling. Hypo decreases SERCA-to-phospholamban ratio (SERCA/PLB), and thereby contributes to CD. Nevertheless, detailed spatial and temporal Ca2+ cycling characterization in VM is missing, and contribution of other structural and functional changes to the mechanism underlying Ca2+ mishandling and CD, as transverse tubules (T-T) remodeling, mitochondrial density (Dmit ) and energy availability, is unclear...
February 5, 2018: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735634/evaluation-of-sildenafil-and-tadalafil-for-reversing-constriction-of-fetal-arteries-in-a-human-placenta-perfusion-model
#4
Robert B Walton, Luckey C Reed, Sarah M Estrada, Stacey S Schmiedecke, Diana L Villazana-Kretzer, Peter G Napolitano, Nicholas Ieronimakis
Fetal growth restriction resulting from reduced placental blood perfusion is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Aside from intense surveillance and early delivery, there is no treatment for fetal growth restriction. A potential treatment associated with placental vasoconstriction is the class of PDE5 (phosphodiesterase type 5) inhibitors such as sildenafil, which is known to cross the placenta. In contrast, tadalafil, a more potent and selective PDE5 inhibitor has not been studied in pregnancy or experimental models of fetal growth restriction...
May 7, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733694/contribution-of-central-and-peripheral-adaptations-to-changes-in-vo-sub-2-sub-max-following-four-weeks-of-sprint-interval-training
#5
James P Raleigh, Matthew D Giles, Hashim Islam, Matthew William Nelms, Robert F Bentley, Joshua H Jones, J Alberto Neder, Kristen Boonstra, Joe Quadrilatero, Craig A Simpson, Michael E Tschakovsky, Brendon J Gurd
The current study examined the contribution of central and peripheral adaptations to changes in maximal oxygen uptake (VO<sub>2</sub>max) following sprint interval training (SIT). Twenty-three males completed four weekly SIT sessions (8 x 20 second cycling bouts at ~170% of work rate at VO<sub>2</sub>max, 10 second recovery) for four weeks. Following completion of training, the relationship between changes in VO<sub>2</sub>max and changes in central (cardiac output) and peripheral (a-vO<sub>2</sub>diff, muscle capillary density, oxidative capacity, fibre-type distribution) adaptations was determined in all participants using correlation analysis...
May 7, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722617/cheap-labor-myosin-fiber-type-expression-and-enzyme-activity-in-the-forelimb-musculature-of-sloths-pilosa-xenarthra
#6
Kyle B Spainhower, Rebecca N Cliffe, Allan K Metz, Ernest M Barkett, Paije M Kiraly, Dylan R Thomas, Sarah J Kennedy, Judy Avey-Arroyo, Michael T Butcher
Sloths are canopy-dwelling inhabitants of American neotropical rainforests that exhibit suspensory behaviors. These abilities require both strength and muscular endurance to hang for extended periods of time; however, the skeletal muscle mass of sloths is reduced, thus requiring modifications to muscle architecture and leverage for large joint torque. We hypothesize that intrinsic muscle properties also are modified for fatigue resistance and predict a heterogeneous expression of slow/fast myosin heavy chain (MHC) fibers that utilize oxidative metabolic pathways for economic force production...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721175/the-decrease-of-glycolytic-enzyme-hexokinase-1-accelerates-tumor-malignancy-via-deregulating-energy-metabolism-but-sensitizes-cancer-cells-to-2-deoxyglucose-inhibition
#7
Po-Lin Tseng, Chih-Wei Chen, Keng-Hsun Hu, Hung-Chi Cheng, Yuan-Ho Lin, Wen-Hui Tsai, Tain-Junn Cheng, Wei-Hsuan Wu, Chin-Wei Yeh, Chin-Chih Lin, Hui-Ju Tsai, Hao-Chun Chang, Jiin-Haur Chuang, Yan-Shen Shan, Wen-Tsan Chang
Malignant tumors often display an aberrant energy metabolism that relies primarily on glycolysis to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) the so-called Warburg effect or aerobic glycolysis. Thus, the elucidation of this energetic alteration in malignant tumors is important in the search for more effective therapeutics against malignant cancers, the most deadly human disease. To investigate whether attenuated glycolytic activity modulates tumor progression, the effects of silencing the first and rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme hexokinase (HK) isozymes HK1 and HK2 were examined...
April 10, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719513/adaptive-changes-after-2-weeks-of-10-s-sprint-interval-training-with-various-recovery-times
#8
Robert A Olek, Sylwester Kujach, Ewa Ziemann, Wieslaw Ziolkowski, Piotr Waz, Radoslaw Laskowski
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of applying two different rest recovery times in a 10-s sprint interval training session on aerobic and anaerobic capacities as well as skeletal muscle enzyme activities. Methods: Fourteen physically active but not highly trained male subjects (mean maximal oxygen uptake 50.5 ± 1.0 mlO2 ·kg-1 ·min-1 ) participated in the study. The training protocol involved a series of 10-s sprints separated by either 1-min (SIT10:1) or 4-min (SIT10:4) of recovery...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705109/proteomic-analysis-and-food-grade-enzymes-of-moringa-oleifer-lam-a-lam-flower
#9
Yanan Shi, Xuefeng Wang, Aixiang Huang
Moringa oleifer Lam. flower contain high-proteins and function nutrients. Many advances have been made to it, but there is still no proteomic information of this species. Total protein from the flowers applied shotgun 2DLC-MS/MS proteomic identified 9443 peptides corresponding to 4004 high-confidence proteins by Proteome Discoverer™ Software 2.1. These proteins were mostly distributed ranging between 40 and 70 kDa. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the largest of the proteins were cytoplasm 72...
April 26, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683400/molecular-evidence-of-rickettsia-in-human-and-dog-blood-in-bangkok
#10
Nanthanida Mongkol, Yupin Suputtamongkol, Piyanan Taweethavonsawat, Suporn Foongladda
Rickettsia spp. has been detected in dog fleas in Bangkok, Thailand. With the intent of collecting evidence to confirm the presence of rickettsioses in dogs and to assess the level of associated potential for accidental human infection, human buffy coat from patients with fever of unknown origin (n = 168), whole blood samples from dogs (n = 353), and 19 flea groups from our dog sample population were studied during the 2012 to 2014 study period. The presence of Rickettsia was investigated by molecular detection of 23S rRNA gene of Rickettsia genus, citrate synthase (gltA) gene, and 17-kDa outer membrane gene...
April 23, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680869/metabolic-analyses-of-the-improved-%C3%AE%C2%B5-poly-l-lysine-productivity-using-a-glucose-glycerol-mixed-carbon-source-in-chemostat-cultures
#11
Jian-Hua Zhang, Xin Zeng, Xu-Sheng Chen, Zhong-Gui Mao
The glucose-glycerol mixed carbon source remarkably reduced the batch fermentation time of ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) production, leading to higher productivity of both biomass and ε-PL, which was of great significance in industrial microbial fermentation. Our previous study confirmed the positive influence of fast cell growth on the ε-PL biosynthesis, while the direct influence of mixed carbon source on ε-PL production was still unknown. In this work, chemostat culture was employed to study the capacity of ε-PL biosynthesis in different carbon sources at a same dilution rate of 0...
April 21, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678764/relation-of-nnos-isoforms-to-mitochondrial-density-and-pgc-1alpha-expression-in-striated-muscles-of-mice
#12
Oliver Baum, Dea Aaldijk, Anna Lena Engeli, Matthias Spree, Serge Summermatter, Christoph Handschin, Andreas Zakrzewicz
The expression of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) alpha- and beta-isoforms in skeletal muscle is well documented but only little information is available about their regulation/functions. Using different mouse models, we now assessed whether the expression of nNOS-isoforms in muscle fibers is related to mitochondria content/activity and regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha). Catalytic histochemistry revealed highest nNOS-concentrations to be present in type-2 oxidative muscle fibers...
April 17, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668854/prostate-cancer-chemoprevention-by-sulforaphane-in-a-preclinical-mouse-model-is-associated-with-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-metabolism
#13
Krishna B Singh, Su-Hyeong Kim, Eun-Ryeong Hahm, Subrata K Pore, Bruce L Jacobs, Shivendra V Singh
Increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids is a rather unique and targetable mechanism of human prostate cancer. We have shown previously that oral administration of sulforaphane (SFN) significantly inhibits the incidence and/or burden of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma in TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice. The present study used cellular models of prostate cancer and archived plasma/adenocarcinoma tissues and sections from the TRAMP study to demonstrate inhibition of fatty acid synthesis by SFN treatment in vitro and in vivo...
April 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652641/molecular-detection-of-bartonella-species-in-blood-feeding-bat-flies-from-mexico
#14
Alexandra E Moskaluk, Matthew J Stuckey, David A Jaffe, Rickie W Kasten, Alvaro Aguilar-Setién, José Ignacio Olave-Leyva, Guillermo Galvez-Romero, Cirani Obregón-Morales, Mónica Salas-Rojas, María Martha García-Flores, Nidia Aréchiga-Ceballos, Anahí García-Baltazar, Bruno B Chomel
Bartonellae are emerging blood-borne bacteria that have been recovered from a wide range of mammalian species and arthropod vectors around the world. Bats are now recognized as a potential wildlife reservoir for a diverse number of Bartonella species, including the zoonotic Candidatus B. mayotimonensis. These bat-borne Bartonella species have also been detected in the obligate ectoparasites of bats, such as blood-feeding flies, which could transmit these bacteria within bat populations. To better understand this potential for transmission, we investigated the relatedness between Bartonella detected or isolated from bat hosts sampled in Mexico and their ectoparasites...
March 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625945/structural-and-functional-annotation-of-citrate-synthase-from-aspergillus-niger-anj-120
#15
Ghulam Mustafa, Rawaba Arif, Shazia Anwer Bukhari, Muhammad Ali, Sumaira Sharif, Asia Atta
Citrate synthase (CS) is involved in citric acid biosynthesis which is a well-established metabolic pathway. The condensation of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate is catalyzed by CS. Citric acid (CA) has a number of applications in pharmaceutical industry. CA in combination with bicarbonates is used as an effervescent in the preparations of tablets and powders. It has also been used as an anticoagulant and acidulant to form mild astringent. In current study, detailed structural and functional analyses of CS protein were carried out using various bioinformatics tools...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596016/chronic-interval-exercise-training-prevents-bk-ca-channel-mediated-coronary-vascular-dysfunction-in-aortic-banded-mini-swine
#16
T Dylan Olver, Jenna C Edwards, Brian S Ferguson, Jessica A Hiemstra, Pamela K Thorne, Michael A Hill, Maurice Harold Laughlin, Craig A Emter
Conventional treatments have failed to improve the prognosis of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) patients. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of chronic interval exercise training (IT) on BKCa channel-mediated coronary vascular function in heart failure. We hypothesized chronic interval exercise training would attenuate pressure overload-induced impairments to coronary BKCa channel-mediated function. A translational large animal model with cardiac features of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction was used to test this hypothesis...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588626/epistructured-catechins-egcg-and-ec-facilitate-apoptosis-induction-through-targeting-de-novo-lipogenesis-pathway-in-hepg2-cells
#17
Phuriwat Khiewkamrop, Pattamaphron Phunsomboon, Lysiane Richert, Dumrongsak Pekthong, Piyarat Srisawang
Background: Abnormally high expression of the mammalian de novo lipogenesis (DNL) pathway in various cancer cells promotes cell over-proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. Inhibition of key enzymes in the DNL pathway, namely, ATP citrate lyase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase (FASN) can increase apoptosis without cytotoxicity to non-cancerous cells, leading to the search for and presentation of novel selective and powerful targets for cancer therapy. Previous studies reported that epistructured catechins, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin (EC) exhibit different mechanisms regarding a strong inducer of apoptosis in various cancer cell lines...
2018: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576065/facilitated-citrate-dependent-iron-translocation-increases-rice-endosperm-iron-and-zinc-concentrations
#18
Ting-Ying Wu, Wilhelm Gruissem, Navreet K Bhullar
Iron deficiency affects one third of the world population. Most iron biofortification strategies have focused on genes involved in iron uptake and storage but facilitating internal long-distance iron translocation has been understudied for increasing grain iron concentrations. Citrate is a primary iron chelator, and the transporter FERRIC REDUCTASE DEFECTIVE 3 (FRD3) loads citrate into the xylem. We have expressed AtFRD3 in combination with AtNAS1 (NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE 1) and PvFER (FERRITIN) or with PvFER alone to facilitate long-distance iron transport together with efficient iron uptake and storage in the rice endosperm...
May 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573404/correlation-of-natural-autoantibodies-and-cardiovascular-disease-related-antibacterial-antibodies-in-pericardial-fluid-of-cardiac-surgery-patients
#19
D Simon, O Gilicze, N Farkas, J Najbauer, P Németh, L Lénárd, T Berki
Our previous studies showed that anti-citrate synthase (a-CS) IgM natural autoantibodies are present in healthy individuals without previous antigen stimulation, but no studies have investigated their presence in the pericardial fluid (PF). Therefore we detected the natural anti-CS IgG/M autoantibody levels in plasma and PF of cardiac surgery patients and investigated their relationship with cardiovascular disease-associated bacterial pathogens. PF and blood samples of 22 coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and 10 aortic valve replacement (AVR) patients were tested for total Ig levels, natural autoantibodies and infection-related antibodies using ELISA and Luminex methods...
March 24, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567533/high-salt-diet-induces-metabolic-alterations-in-multiple-biological-processes-of-dahl-salt-sensitive-rats
#20
Yanjun Wang, Xiangyang Liu, Chen Zhang, Zhengjun Wang
High salt induced renal disease is a condition resulting from the interactions of genetic and dietary factors causing multiple complications. To understand the metabolic alterations associated with renal disease, we comprehensively analyzed the metabonomic changes induced by high salt intake in Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats using GC-MS technology and biochemical analyses. Physiological features, serum chemistry, and histopathological data were obtained as complementary information. Our results showed that high salt (HS) intake for 16 weeks caused significant metabolic alterations in both the renal medulla and cortex involving a variety pathways involved in the metabolism of organic acids, amino acids, fatty acids, and purines...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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