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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107516/liver-amp-activated-protein-kinase-is-unnecessary-for-gluconeogenesis-but-protects-energy-state-during-nutrient-deprivation
#1
Clinton M Hasenour, D Emerson Ridley, Freyja D James, Curtis C Hughey, E Patrick Donahue, Benoit Viollet, Marc Foretz, Jamey D Young, David H Wasserman
AMPK is an energy sensor that protects cellular energy state by attenuating anabolic and promoting catabolic processes. AMPK signaling is purported to regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and substrate oxidation; coordination of these processes is vital during nutrient deprivation or pathogenic during overnutrition. Here we directly test hepatic AMPK function in regulating metabolic fluxes that converge to produce glucose and energy in vivo. Flux analysis was applied in mice with a liver-specific deletion of AMPK (L-KO) or floxed control littermates to assess rates of hepatic glucose producing and citric acid cycle (CAC) fluxes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103427/repeated-maximal-intensity-hypoxic-exercise-superimposed-to-hypoxic-residence-boosts-skeletal-muscle-transcriptional-responses-in-elite-team-sport-athletes
#2
Franck Brocherie, Grégoire P Millet, Gommaar D'Hulst, Ruud Van Thienen, Louise Deldicque, Olivier Girard
AIM: To determine whether repeated maximal-intensity hypoxic exercise induces larger beneficial adaptations on the hypoxia inducible factor-1α pathway and its target genes than similar normoxic exercise, when combined with chronic hypoxic exposure. METHODS: Lowland elite male team-sport athletes underwent 14 days of passive normobaric hypoxic exposure (≥14 h.day(-1) at Fi O2 14.5-14.2%) with the addition of six maximal-intensity exercise sessions either in normobaric hypoxia (Fi O2 ~14...
January 19, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097715/c-di-amp-modulates-listeria-monocytogenes-central-metabolism-to-regulate-growth-antibiotic-resistance-and-osmoregulation
#3
Aaron T Whiteley, Nicholas E Garelis, Bret N Peterson, Philip H Choi, Liang Tong, Joshua J Woodward, Daniel A Portnoy
Cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a conserved nucleotide second messenger critical for bacterial growth and resistance to cell wall-active antibiotics. In Listeria monocytogenes, the sole diadenylate cyclase, DacA, is essential in rich, but not synthetic media and ΔdacA mutants are highly sensitive to the β-lactam antibiotic cefuroxime. In this study, loss of function mutations in the oligopeptide importer (oppABCDF) and glycine betaine importer (gbuABC) allowed ΔdacA mutants to grow in rich medium...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096432/effects-of-activity-genetic-selection-and-their-interaction-on-muscle-metabolic-capacities-and-organ-masses-in-mice
#4
Scott A Kelly, Fernando R Gomes, Erik M Kolb, Jessica L Malisch, Theodore Garland
Chronic voluntary exercise elevates total daily energy expenditure (DEE) and food consumption, potentially resulting in organ compensation supporting nutrient extraction/utilization. Additionally, species with naturally higher DEE often have larger processing organs, which may represent genetic differences and/or phenotypic plasticity. We tested for possible adaptive changes in organ masses of 4 replicate lines of house mice selected (37 generations) for high running (HR lines) compared with 4 non-selected control (C) lines...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087734/increased-mitophagy-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-spinal-and-bulbar-muscular-atrophy-patients
#5
Doriana Borgia, Adriana Malena, Marco Spinazzi, Maria Andrea Desbats, Leonardo Salviati, Aaron P Russell, Giovanni Miotto, Laura Tosatto, Elena Pegoraro, Gianni Sorarù, Maria Pennuto, Lodovica Vergani
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) and characterized by the loss of lower motor neurons. Here we investigated pathological processes occurring in muscle biopsy specimens derived from SBMA patients and, as controls, age-matched healthy subjects and patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neurogenic atrophy. We detected atrophic fibers in the muscle of SBMA, ALS and neurogenic atrophy patients...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076776/ptc7p-dephosphorylates-select-mitochondrial-proteins-to-enhance-metabolic-function
#6
Xiao Guo, Natalie M Niemi, Paul D Hutchins, Samson G F Condon, Adam Jochem, Arne Ulbrich, Alan J Higbee, Jason D Russell, Alessandro Senes, Joshua J Coon, David J Pagliarini
Proper maintenance of mitochondrial activity is essential for metabolic homeostasis. Widespread phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins may be an important element of this process; yet, little is known about which enzymes control mitochondrial phosphorylation or which phosphosites have functional impact. We investigate these issues by disrupting Ptc7p, a conserved but largely uncharacterized mitochondrial matrix PP2C-type phosphatase. Loss of Ptc7p causes respiratory growth defects concomitant with elevated phosphorylation of select matrix proteins...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076404/combined-inhibition-of-the-renin-angiotensin-system-and-neprilysin-positively-influences-complex-mitochondrial-adaptations-in-progressive-experimental-heart-failure
#7
Laura Grois, Julian Hupf, Jörg Reinders, Josef Schröder, Alexander Dietl, Peter M Schmid, Carsten Jungbauer, Markus Resch, Lars S Maier, Andreas Luchner, Christoph Birner
BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of the renin angiotensin system and neprilysin (RAS-/NEP-inhibitors) proved to be extraordinarily beneficial in systolic heart failure. Furthermore, compelling evidence exists that impaired mitochondrial pathways are causatively involved in progressive left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Consequently, we aimed to assess whether RAS-/NEP-inhibition can attenuate mitochondrial adaptations in experimental heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: By progressive right ventricular pacing, distinct HF stages were induced in 15 rabbits, and 6 animals served as controls (CTRL)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063249/effects-of-feeding-frequency-on-meat-quality-traits-and-longissimus-muscle-proteome-in-finishing-pigs
#8
J B Liu, X Cai, H Xiong, H F Zhang
Sixty-four barrows with an initial body weight of 59.8 ± 2.1 kg were allocated to one of the two feeding frequency regimes (had free access to diet and fed two meals per day). Pigs had free access (FA) to feed were fed on an ad libitum basis during the 8-week experimental period. Pigs fed twice daily (M2) were allowed to consume their meals in 2 h. Pigs fed twice daily had lower average daily feed intake (p < 0.01) and average daily gain (p < 0.1), but a greater G:F (p < 0.05) than FA pigs...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061324/oral-corticosterone-administration-reduces-insulitis-but-promotes-insulin-resistance-and-hyperglycemia-in-male-nonobese-diabetic-mice
#9
Susan J Burke, Heidi M Batdorf, Adrianna E Eder, Michael D Karlstad, David H Burk, Robert C Noland, Z Elizabeth Floyd, J Jason Collier
Steroid-induced diabetes is the most common form of drug-induced hyperglycemia. Therefore, metabolic and immunological alterations associated with chronic oral corticosterone were investigated using male nonobese diabetic mice. Three weeks after corticosterone delivery, there was reduced sensitivity to insulin action measured by insulin tolerance test. Body composition measurements revealed increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. Overt hyperglycemia (>250 mg/dL) manifested 6 weeks after the start of glucocorticoid administration, whereas 100% of the mice receiving the vehicle control remained normoglycemic...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058638/functional-analysis-of-the-two-cyclophilin-isoforms-of-sinorhizobium-meliloti
#10
Eirini-Evangelia Thomloudi, Aggeliki Skagia, Anastasia Venieraki, Panagiotis Katinakis, Maria Dimou
The nitrogen fixing Sinorhizobium meliloti possesses two genes, ppiA and ppiB, encoding two cyclophilin isoforms which belong to the superfamily of peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIase, EC: 5.2.1.8). Here, we functionally characterize the two proteins and we demonstrate that both recombinant cyclophilins are able to isomerise the Suc-AAPF-pNA synthetic peptide but neither of them displays chaperone function in the citrate synthase thermal aggregation assay. Furthermore, we observe that the expression of both enzymes increases the viability of E...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055179/a-non-natural-protein-rescues-cells-deleted-for-a-key-enzyme-in-central-metabolism
#11
Katherine M Digianantonio, Maria Korolev, Michael H Hecht
An important goal of synthetic biology is to create novel proteins that provide life-sustaining functions in living organisms. Recent attempts to produce novel proteins have focused largely on rational design involving significant computational efforts. In contrast, nature does not design sequences a priori. Instead, nature relies on Darwinian evolution to select biologically functional sequences from nondesigned sequence space. To mimic natural selection in the laboratory, we combed through libraries of novel sequences and selected proteins that rescue E...
January 19, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049732/nadph-oxidase-4-nox4-suppresses-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-bioenergetics-in-lung-fibroblasts-via-a-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-nrf2-dependent-pathway
#12
Karen Bernard, Naomi J Logsdon, Veronica Miguel, Gloria A Benavides, Jianhua Zhang, A Brent Carter, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Victor J Thannickal
Mitochondrial bioenergetics are critical for cellular homeostasis and stress responses. The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating enzyme, NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), regulates a number of physiological and pathological processes, including cellular differentiation, host defense and tissue fibrosis. In this study, we explored the role of constitutive Nox4 activity in regulating mitochondrial function. An increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and reserve capacity was observed in murine and human lung fibroblasts with genetic deficiency (or silencing) of Nox4...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013386/potentiation-of-the-no-cgmp-pathway-and-blood-flow-responses-during-dynamic-exercise-in-healthy-humans
#13
Jacqueline K Limberg, Katherine R Malterer, J Mikhail Kellawan, William G Schrage, Brad W Wilkins, Wayne T Nicholson, John H Eisenach, Michael J Joyner, Timothy B Curry
PURPOSE: Previous work has shown nitric oxide (NO) contributes to ~15% of the hyperemic response to dynamic exercise in healthy humans. This NO-mediated vasodilation occurs, in part, via increases in intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which is catabolized by phosphodiesterase. We sought to examine the effect of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibition on forearm blood flow (FBF) responses to dynamic handgrip exercise in healthy humans and the role of NO. We hypothesized exercise hyperemia would be augmented by sildenafil citrate (SDF, PDE-5 inhibitor)...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000342/a-new-model-of-short-acceleration-based-training-improves-exercise-performance-in-old-mice
#14
R Niel, M Ayachi, L Mille-Hamard, L Le Moyec, P Savarin, M-J Clement, S Besse, T Launay, V L Billat, I Momken
In order to identify a more appealing exercise strategy for the elderly, we studied a mouse model to determine whether a less time-consuming training program would improve exercise performance, enzyme activities, mitochondrial respiration, and metabolomic parameters. We compared the effects of short-session (acceleration-based) training with those of long-session endurance training in 23-month-old mice. The short-session training consisted of five acceleration-based treadmill running sessions over 2 weeks (the acceleration group), whereas the endurance training consisted of five-one-hour treadmill sessions per week for 4 weeks (the endurance group)...
December 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989818/the-binuclear-form-of-dinitrosyl-iron-complexes-with-thiol-containing-ligands-in-animal-tissues
#15
Vasak D Mikoyan, Evgeniya N Burgova, Rostislav R Borodulin, Anatoly F Vanin
It has been established that treatment of mice with sodium nitrite, S-nitrosoglutathione and the water-soluble nitroglycerine derivative isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) as NO donors initiates in vivo synthesis of significant amounts of EPR-silent binuclear dinitrosyl iron complexes (B-DNIC) with thiol-containing ligands in the liver and other tissues of experimental mice. This effect is especially apparent if NO donors are administered to mice simultaneously with the Fe(2+)-citrate complex. Similar results were obtained in experiments on isolated liver and other mouse tissues treated with gaseous NО in vitro and during stimulation of endogenous NO synthesis in the presence of inducible NO synthase...
January 30, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989804/metabolic-engineering-of-cyanobacteria-for-the-photosynthetic-production-of-succinate
#16
Ethan I Lan, Crystal T Wei
Succinate is an important commodity chemical currently used in the food, pharmaceutical, and polymer industries. It can also be chemically converted into other major industrial chemicals such as 1,4-butanediol, butadiene, and tetrahydrofuran. Here we metabolically engineered a model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to photosynthetically produce succinate. We expressed the genes encoding for α-ketoglutarate decarboxylase and succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase in S. elongatus PCC 7942, resulting in a strain capable of producing 120mg/L of succinate...
October 27, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981906/locomotor-training-and-factors-associated-with-blood-glucose-regulation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Philip D Chilibeck, Pierre A Guertin
BACKGROUND: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) have increased rates of glucose intolerance, insulin insensitivity, and type II diabetes caused mainly by the deconditioning of paralyzed muscle. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of locomotor training in individuals with SCI on blood glucose control. METHODS: We searched studies on locomotor training for individuals with SCI with outcomes of glucose, insulin, or outcomes that could change glucose handling (i...
December 16, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980125/warm-preconditioning-protects-against-acute-heat-induced-respiratory-dysfunction-and-delays-bleaching-in-a-symbiotic-sea-anemone
#18
Thomas D Hawkins, Mark E Warner
Preconditioning to non-stressful warming can protect some symbiotic cnidarians against the high temperature-induced collapse of their mutualistic endosymbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.), a process known as bleaching. Here, we sought to determine if such preconditioning is underpinned by differential regulation of aerobic respiration. We quantified in vivo metabolism and mitochondrial respiratory enzyme activity in the naturally symbiotic sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida preconditioned to 30°C for>7 weeks as well as anemones kept at 26°C...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964759/voluntary-resistance-wheel-exercise-from-mid-life-prevents-sarcopenia-and-increases-markers-of-mitochondrial-function-and-autophagy-in-muscles-of-old-male-and-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#19
Zoe White, Jessica Terrill, Robert B White, Christopher McMahon, Phillip Sheard, Miranda D Grounds, Tea Shavlakadze
BACKGROUND: There is much interest in the capacity of resistance exercise to prevent the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, known as sarcopenia. This study investigates the molecular basis underlying the benefits of resistance exercise in aging C57BL/6J mice of both sexes. RESULTS: This study is the first to demonstrate that long-term (34 weeks) voluntary resistance wheel exercise (RWE) initiated at middle age, from 15 months, prevents sarcopenia in selected hindlimb muscles and causes hypertrophy in soleus, by 23 months of age in both male and female C57BL/6J mice...
December 13, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938033/long-term-leucine-supplementation-improves-metabolic-but-not-molecular-responses-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-trained-rats-submitted-to-exhaustive-exercise
#20
Gustavo Barbosa Dos Santos, André Gustavo de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes Marcondes, Miguel Arcanjo Areas
AIM: Although there is some evidence of an ergogenic effect of leucine supplementation on acute response to exercise, there is a paucity of information on whether long-term leucine supplementation influences the adaptive response to chronic endurance training and performance. The main aim of our study was to assess the role of long-term leucine supplementation on molecular and metabolic response in skeletal muscle of trained rats after an exhaustion test. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 4 groups...
December 12, 2016: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
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