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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441628/potassium-deficiency-affects-the-carbon-nitrogen-balance-in-cotton-leaves
#1
Wei Hu, Taylor D Coomer, Dimitra A Loka, Derrick M Oosterhuis, Zhiguo Zhou
Potassium (K) plays important roles in the metabolism of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), but studies of K deficiency affecting C-N balance are lacking. This study explored the influence of K deficiency on C-N interaction in cotton leaves by conducting a field experiment with cotton cultivar DP0912 under two K rates (K0: 0 kg K2O ha(-1) and K67: 67 kg K2O ha(-1)) and a controlled environment experiment with K-deficient solution (K1: 0 mM K(+)) and K-sufficient solution (K2: 6 mM K(+)). The results showed that leaf K content, leaf number, leaf area, boll number, reproductive dry weight and total dry weight were significant lower under K deficiency (K0 or K1)...
April 6, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433582/effects-of-twenty-standard-amino-acids-on-biochemical-constituents-docosahexaenoic-acid-production-and-metabolic-activity-changes-of-crypthecodinium-cohnii
#2
Waseem Safdar, Xinyi Zan, Muhammad Shamoon, Hafiz Rizwan Sharif, Omar Mukama, Xin Tang, Yuanda Song
The influence of 20 standard amino acids was investigated on growth, lipid accumulation, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production and cell biochemical composition of Crypthecodinium cohnii. C. cohnii efficiently utilize organic nitrogen (predominantly threonine and to a lesser extent tyrosine and serine) as compared to inorganic nitrogen (NH4)2SO4. However, No significant effect was observed on major biochemical composition of C. cohnii (lipids, carbohydrates and proteins) under N limitation or supplementation with different N-sources...
April 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429991/effects-of-medium-chain-triglycerides-on-intestinal-morphology-and-energy-metabolism-of-intrauterine-growth-retarded-weanling-piglets
#3
Li-Li Zhang, Hao Zhang, Yue Li, Tian Wang
It has been shown that there is a relationship between intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and postnatal intestinal damage involved in energy deficits. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on the intestinal morphology, intestinal function and energy metabolism of piglets with IUGR. At weaning (21 ± 1.1 d of age), 24 IUGR piglets and 24 normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were selected according to their birth weights (BW) (IUGR: 0.95 ± 0...
June 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429330/growth-kinetics-fatty-acid-composition-and-metabolic-activity-changes-of-crypthecodinium-cohnii-under-different-nitrogen-source-and-concentration
#4
Waseem Safdar, Muhammad Shamoon, Xinyi Zan, Junaid Haider, Hafiz Rizwan Sharif, Muhammad Shoaib, Yuanda Song
The effect of varying concentrations of the nitrogen source on the growth kinetics, lipid accumulation, lipid and DHA productivity, and fatty acid composition of C. cohnii was elucidated. Growth of C. cohnii was in three distinct growth stages: cell growth, lipid accumulation and a final lipid turnover stage. Most of lipids were accumulated in lipid accumulation stage (48-120 h) though, slow growth rate was observed during this stage. NaNO3 supported significantly higher lipid content (26.9% of DCW), DHA content (0...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411028/extensive-diversity-of-rickettsiales-bacteria-in-ticks-from-wuhan-china
#5
Miao Lu, Jun-Hua Tian, Bin Yu, Wen-Ping Guo, Edward C Holmes, Yong-Zhen Zhang
Rickettsiales bacteria are important agents of (re)emerging infectious diseases, with ticks playing a key role in their evolution and transmission. We collected 1079 hard ticks belonging to five species (Ixodes sinensis, Rhipicephalus microplus, Haemaphysalis flava, Haemaphysalis hystricis and Haemaphysalis longicornis) from cattle and goats in Wuhan city, Hubei province, China. The dominant tick species was H. longicornis (578, 53.57%), followed by R. microplus (354, 32.81%), H. hystricis (62, 5.75%), H. flava (57, 5...
March 24, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406926/high-resolution-respirometry-of-fine-needle-muscle-biopsies-in-pre-manifest-huntington-s-disease-expansion-mutation-carriers-shows-normal-mitochondrial-respiratory-function
#6
Eva Buck, Martina Zügel, Uwe Schumann, Tamara Merz, Anja M Gumpp, Anke Witting, Jürgen M Steinacker, G Bernhard Landwehrmeyer, Patrick Weydt, Enrico Calzia, Katrin S Lindenberg
Alterations in mitochondrial respiration are an important hallmark of Huntington's disease (HD), one of the most common monogenetic causes of neurodegeneration. The ubiquitous expression of the disease causing mutant huntingtin gene raises the prospect that mitochondrial respiratory deficits can be detected in skeletal muscle. While this tissue is readily accessible in humans, transgenic animal models offer the opportunity to cross-validate findings and allow for comparisons across organs, including the brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404582/histone-deacetylase-activity-modulates-exercise-induced-skeletal-muscle-plasticity-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#7
Alec Izaac Marcus Simmonds, Frank Seebacher
Aerobic exercise has a positive impact on animals by enhancing skeletal muscle function and locomotor performance. Responses of skeletal muscle to exercise involve changes in energy metabolism, calcium handling, and the composition of contractile protein isoforms, which together influence contractile properties. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) can cause short-term changes in gene expression, and may thereby mediate plasticity in contractile properties of skeletal muscle in response to exercise. The aim of this project was to determine (in zebrafish, Danio rerio) the traits that mediate inter-individual differences in sustained and sprint performance, and to determine whether inhibiting class I and II HDACs mediates exercise-induced changes in these traits...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393918/inhibition-of-expression-of-the-circadian-clock-gene-period-causes-metabolic-abnormalities-including-repression-of-glycometabolism-in-bombyx-mori-cells
#8
Hui Tao, Xue Li, Jian-Feng Qiu, Wen-Zhao Cui, Yang-Hu Sima, Shi-Qing Xu
Abnormalities in the circadian clock system are known to affect the body's metabolic functions, though the molecular mechanisms responsible remain uncertain. In this study, we achieved continuous knockdown of B. mori Period (BmPer) gene expression in the B. mori ovary cell line (BmN), and generated a Per-KD B. mori model with developmental disorders including small individual cells and slow growth. We conducted cell metabolomics assays by gas chromatography/liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and showed that knockdown of BmPer gene expression resulted in significant inhibition of glycometabolism...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386385/effects-of-dietary-leucine-supplementation-on-the-hepatic-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-energy-metabolism-in-normal-birth-weight-and-intrauterine-growth-retarded-weanling-piglets
#9
Weipeng Su, Wen Xu, Hao Zhang, Zhixiong Ying, Le Zhou, Lili Zhang, Tian Wang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary leucine supplementation on mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism in the liver of normal birth weight (NBW) and intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) weanling piglets. MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of sixteen pairs of NBW and IUGR piglets from sixteen sows were selected according to their birth weight. At postnatal day 14, all piglets were weaned and fed either a control diet or a leucine-supplemented diet for 21 d...
April 2017: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382530/the-interactive-effect-of-digesting-a-meal-and-thermal-acclimation-on-maximal-enzyme-activities-in-the-gill-kidney-and-intestine-of-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#10
Leah A Turner, Carol Bucking
Surrounding environmental temperatures affect many aspects of ectotherm physiology. Generally, organisms can compensate at one or more biological levels, or allow temperature to dictate processes such as enzyme activities through kinetic effects on reaction rates. As digestion also alters physiological processes such as enzyme activities, this study determined the interacting effect of thermal acclimation (8 and 20 °C) and digesting a single meal on maximal enzyme activities in three tissues of the goldfish (Carrassius auratus)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381263/engineering-halomonas-species-td01-for-enhanced-polyhydroxyalkanoates-synthesis-via-crispri
#11
Wei Tao, Li Lv, Guo-Qiang Chen
BACKGROUND: Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi) has provided an efficient approach for targeted gene inhibition. A non-model microorganism Halomonas species TD01 has been developed as a promising industrial producer of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), a family of biodegradable polyesters accumulated by bacteria as a carbon and energy reserve compound. A controllable gene repression system, such as CRISPRi, is needed for Halomonas sp. TD01 to regulate its gene expression levels...
April 6, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361965/transcriptomics-and-proteomic-studies-reveal-acaricidal-mechanism-of-octadecanoic-acid-3-4-tetrahydrofuran-diester-against-sarcoptes-scabiei-var-cuniculi
#12
Xu Song, Zhenzhen Chen, Renyong Jia, Mei Cao, Yuanfeng Zou, Lixia Li, Xiaoxia Liang, Lizi Yin, Changliang He, Guizhou Yue, Zhongqiong Yin
In our previous study, a new compound, octadecanoic acid-3, 4-tetrahydrofuran diester, possessing potent acaricidal activity was obtained from neem oil. This study performed RNA-seq transcriptomics and iTRAQ proteomics to uncover the acaricidal mechanism of the compound against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi. The results of transcriptomics indicated that after treatment with octadecanoic acid-3, 4-tetrahydrofuran diester, genes related to "Energy metabolism" were significantly up-/down-regulated, including citrate cycle, oxidative phosphorylation pathway and fatty acid metabolism...
March 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357334/the-transcription-factors-adr1-or-cat8-are-required-for-rtg-pathway-activation-and-evasion-from-yeast-acetic-acid-induced-programmed-cell-death-in-raffinose
#13
Luna Laera, Nicoletta Guaragnella, Maša Ždralević, Domenico Marzulli, Zhengchang Liu, Sergio Giannattasio
Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on glucose undergoes programmed cell death (PCD) induced by acetic acid (AA-PCD), but evades PCD when grown in raffinose. This is due to concomitant relief of carbon catabolite repression (CCR) and activation of mitochondrial retrograde signaling, a mitochondria-to-nucleus communication pathway causing up-regulation of various nuclear target genes, such as CIT2, encoding peroxisomal citrate synthase, dependent on the positive regulator RTG2 in response to mitochondrial dysfunction...
December 2, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339706/differential-proliferation-and-metabolic-activity-of-sertoli-cells-in-the-testes-of-broiler-and-layer-breeder-chickens
#14
Mélanie Faure, Edith Guibert, Sabine Crochet, Pascal Chartrin, Jean-Pierre Brillard, Anne Collin, Pascal Froment
Decades of genetic selection have generated 2 different, highly specialized types of chickens in which 1 type, known as the layer-type chicken, expresses high laying performance while the other type, known as the broiler-type chicken, is dedicated to the production of fast-growing birds. Selected lines for the latter type often express disorders in their reproductive performance including early sexual maturation and accelerated, non-reversible seasonal decline of their semen production and mating behavior. The aim of the present study was to characterize some metabolic markers of the Sertoli cell populations...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337177/diversity-and-abundance-of-ice-nucleating-strains-of-pseudomonas-syringae-in-a-freshwater-lake-in-virginia-usa
#15
Renée B Pietsch, Boris A Vinatzer, David G Schmale
The bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is found in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic environments. Some strains of P. syringae express an ice nucleation protein (hereafter referred to as Ice+) allowing them to catalyze the heterogeneous freezing of water. Though P. syringae has been sampled intensively from freshwater sources in France, little is known about the genetic diversity of P. syringae in natural aquatic habitats in North America. We collected samples of freshwater from three different depths in Claytor Lake, Virginia, USA between November 2015 and June 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337027/obesity-induced-decreases-in-muscle-performance-are-not-reversed-by-weight-loss
#16
F Seebacher, J Tallis, K McShea, R S James
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity can affect muscle phenotypes, and may thereby constrain movement and energy expenditure. Weight loss is a common and intuitive intervention for obesity, but it is not known whether the effects of obesity on muscle function are reversible by weight loss. Here we tested whether obesity-induced changes in muscle metabolic and contractile phenotypes are reversible by weight loss. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a factorial design to compare energy metabolism, locomotor capacity, muscle isometric force and work-loop power output, and myosin heavy chain composition between lean fish, diet-induced obese fish, and fish that were obese and then returned to lean body mass following diet restriction...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336261/methane-rescues-retinal-ganglion-cells-and-limits-retinal-mitochondrial-dysfunction-following-optic-nerve-crush
#17
Ruobing Wang, Qinglei Sun, Fangzhou Xia, Zeli Chen, Jiangchun Wu, Yuelu Zhang, Jiajun Xu, Lin Liu
Secondary degeneration is a common event in traumatic central nervous system disorders, which involves neuronal apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Exogenous methane exerts the therapeutic effects in many organ injury. Our study aims to investigate the potential neuroprotection of methane in a rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ONC and administrated intraperitoneally with methane-saturated or normal saline (10 ml/kg) once per day for one week after ONC...
March 20, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321925/effects-of-6-month-aerobic-interval-training-on-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-in-middle-aged-metabolic-syndrome-patients
#18
A Guadalupe-Grau, V E Fernández-Elías, J F Ortega, F Dela, J W Helge, R Mora-Rodriguez
Aerobic interval training (AIT) improves the health of metabolic syndrome patients (MetS) more than moderate intensity continuous training. However, AIT has not been shown to reverse all metabolic syndrome risk factors, possibly due to the limited duration of the training programs. Thus, we assessed the effects of 6 months of AIT on cardio-metabolic health and muscle metabolism in middle-aged MetS. Eleven MetS (54.5±0.7 years old) underwent 6 months of 3 days a week supervised AIT program on a cycle ergometer...
March 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320896/estrogen-maintains-mitochondrial-content-and-function-in-the-right-ventricle-of-rats-with-pulmonary-hypertension
#19
Aiping Liu, Jennifer Philip, Kalyan C Vinnakota, Francoise Van den Bergh, Diana M Tabima, Timothy Hacker, Daniel A Beard, Naomi C Chesler
The typical cause of death in pulmonary hypertension (PH) is right ventricular (RV) failure, with females showing better survival rates than males. Recently, metabolic shift and mitochondrial dysfunction have been demonstrated in RV failure secondary to PH In light of evidence showing that estrogen protects mitochondrial function and biogenesis in noncardiovascular systems, we hypothesized that the mechanism by which estrogen preserves RV function is via protection of mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity in PH We used a well-established model of PH (Sugen+Hypoxia) in ovariectomized female rats with/without estrogen treatment...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319140/role-of-muscle-il-6-in-gender-specific-metabolism-in-mice
#20
Amalia Molinero, Antonio Fernandez-Perez, Aina Mogas, Mercedes Giralt, Gemma Comes, Olaya Fernandez-Gayol, Mario Vallejo, Juan Hidalgo
The aim of the present work was to further explore the physiological roles of muscle-derived IL-6. Adult-floxed and conditional skeletal muscle IL-6 knock out male and female mice were used to study energy expenditure (indirect calorimetry at rest and during treadmill exercise, and body temperature cycle during the light phase) and energy intake (response to fast/refeeding). We also evaluated the responses to leptin and the activity of the insulin signalling pathway in skeletal muscle and liver by phosphorylation of Akt at Ser 473...
2017: PloS One
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