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citrate synthase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730835/the-effect-of-very-low-calorie-diet-on-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-and-peripheral-monocytes-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
M Urbanová, M Mráz, V Ďurovcová, P Trachta, J Kloučková, P Kaválková, D Haluzíková, Z Lacinová, H Hansíková, L Wenchich, M Kršek, M Haluzík
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a potentially important player in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated the changes of mRNA expression of genes encoding main enzymatic complexes of mitochondrial respiratory chain in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and peripheral monocytes (PM) of 11 subjects with simple obesity (OB), 16 obese patients with T2DM and 17 healthy lean subjects (C) before and after very low-calorie diet (VLCD) using quantitative real time PCR...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727827/diversity-and-phylogenetic-relationships-among-bartonella-strains-from-thai-bats
#2
Clifton D McKee, Michael Y Kosoy, Ying Bai, Lynn M Osikowicz, Richard Franka, Amy T Gilbert, Sumalee Boonmar, Charles E Rupprecht, Leonard F Peruski
Bartonellae are phylogenetically diverse, intracellular bacteria commonly found in mammals. Previous studies have demonstrated that bats have a high prevalence and diversity of Bartonella infections globally. Isolates (n = 42) were obtained from five bat species in four provinces of Thailand and analyzed using sequences of the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Sequences clustered into seven distinct genogroups; four of these genogroups displayed similarity with Bartonella spp. sequences from other bats in Southeast Asia, Africa, and Eastern Europe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727056/effects-of-protein-and-fat-concentration-in-coproduct-based-growing-calf-diets-on-adipogenic-and-lipogenic-gene-expression-blood-metabolites-and-carcass-composition
#3
J R Segers, J J Loor, S J Moisá, D Gonzalez, D W Shike
Crossbred calves ( = 30; age = 95 ± 1.7 d; BW = 179 ± 18 kg) were fed 1 of 5 growing diets: 1) corn-based control, 2) low-fat, low-protein coproduct blend, 3) high-fat, low-protein coproduct blend, 4) low-fat, high-protein coproduct blend, and 5) high-fat, high-protein coproduct blend for 112 d (growing phase) followed by a common corn-based finishing diet (additional 112 d; finishing phase). Calves were biopsied at 0, 112, and 224 d for transcriptional analysis via real-time quantitative PCR of 14 genes associated with adipogenesis and lipogenesis within the muscle...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726269/previous-physical-exercise-alters-hepatic-profile-of-oxidative-inflammatory-status-and-limits-the-secondary-brain-damage-induced-by-severe-tbi-in-rats
#4
Mauro Robson Torres de Castro, Ana Paula de Oliveira Ferreira, Guilherme Lago Busanello, Luís Roberto Hart da Silva, Mauro Eduardo Porto da Silveira Junior, Fernando Fiorin, Gabriela Arrifano, Maria Elena Crespo López, Rômulo Pillon Barcelos, María J Cuevas, Guilherme Bresciani, Javier González-Gallego, Michele Rechia Fighera, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes
Although systemic responses have been described after traumatic brain injury (TBI), little is known regarding potential interactions between brain and peripheral organs after neuronal injury. In this sense, we decided to investigate whether peripheral oxidative/inflammatory response contributes to the neuronal dysfunction after TBI as well as prophylactic role of exercise training. Animals were submitted to fluid percussion injury (FPI) after 6 weeks of swimming training. Previous exercise training increased mRNA expression of X receptor alpha (LXR-α), ATP-binding cassette transporter (ABCA1), and decreased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 expression per se in liver...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723843/no-superior-adaptations-to-carbohydrate-periodization-in-elite-endurance-athletes
#5
Kasper Degn Gejl, Line Thams, Mette Hansen, Torben Rokkedal-Lausch, Peter Plomgaard, Lars Nybo, Filip J Larsen, Daniele A Cardinale, Kurt Jensen, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Kristian Vissing, Niels Ørtenblad
PURPOSE: The present study investigated the effects of periodic CHO restriction on endurance performance and metabolic markers in elite endurance athletes. METHODS: Twenty-six male elite endurance athletes (VO2max: 65.0 ml O2[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min) completed 4 weeks of regular endurance training, while matched and randomized into two groups training with (Low) or without (High) carbohydrate (CHO) manipulation three days a week. The CHO manipulation days consisted of a 1-hr high intensity bike session in the morning, recovery for 7 hrs while consuming isocaloric diets containing either high CHO (414±2...
July 19, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722676/comparative-proteomic-analysis-of-virulent-and-avirulent-strains-of-toxoplasma-gondii-reveals-strain-specific-patterns
#6
Dong-Hui Zhou, Ze-Xiang Wang, Chun-Xue Zhou, Shuai He, Hany M Elsheikha, Xing-Quan Zhu
Research exploring the proteome of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has gained momentum over the past few years. However, little is known about the oocyst's protein repertoires that contribute to differential virulence among T. gondii strains. Here, we used isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation-based proteomic analysis of oocysts of two T. gondii strains exhibiting the virulent PYS (ToxoDB#9) phenotype versus the less virulent PRU (Type II, ToxoDB#1) phenotype. Our aim was to determine protein expression patterns that contribute to the virulence of a particular phenotype...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715871/improvement-of-mitochondrial-function-by-celastrol-in-palmitate-treated-c2c12-myotubes-via-activation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#7
Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar, Joo Shun Tan
Compelling evidences posited that high level of saturated fatty acid gives rise to mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in the development of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Celastrol is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derived from the root extracts of Tripterygium wilfordii that possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties in a number of animal models with metabolic diseases. However, the cellular mechanistic action of celastrol in alleviating obesity-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown...
July 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715403/improving-strength-power-muscle-aerobic-capacity-and-glucose-tolerance-through-short-term-progressive-strength-training-among-elderly-people
#8
Eva A Andersson, Per Frank, Marjan Pontén, Björn Ekblom, Maria Ekblom, Marcus Moberg, Kent Sahlin
This protocol describes the simultaneous use of a broad span of methods to examine muscle aerobic capacity, glucose tolerance, strength, and power in elderly people performing short-term resistance training (RET). Supervised progressive resistance training for 1 h three times a week over 8 weeks was performed by RET participants (71±1 years, range 65-80). Compared to a control group without training, the RET showed improvements on the measures used to indicate strength, power, glucose tolerance, and several parameters of muscle aerobic capacity...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712868/salicylates-promote-mitochondrial-biogenesis-by-regulating-the-expression-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-in-murine-3t3-l1-pre-adipocytes
#9
Yimin Yan, Xiaohong Yang, Tao Zhao, Yi Zou, Rui Li, Yancheng Xu
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Decreased mitochondrial density and mitochondrial copy numbers have been found in insulin-resistant individuals. Restoration of the number of mitochondria and normal mitochondrial function has become an important therapeutic target of diabetes. Salicylate, the main active ingredient in aspirin, has been in medicinal use since ancient times. Little information regarding the effects of salicylate on mitochondrial function has been reported...
July 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687361/combined-effects-of-diets-and-temperature-on-mitochondrial-function-growth-and-nutrient-efficiency-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#10
Jonathan C Eya, Rodrigue Yossa, Dayan Perera, Olasupo Okubajo, Ann Gannam
A 4×3 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two dietary protein sources (mixed fishmeal/plant protein-, and plant protein- based diet), two dietary lipid levels (10% and 20%) and three water temperatures (10°C, 14°C, and 18°C) on the growth performance, nutrient utilization efficiencies and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (average weight±SD, 39.5±5g) over a 180day rearing period. At the end of the experiment, weight gain (WG), condition factor (CF), and feed efficiency (FE) were significantly affected by diet×temperature interaction (P<0...
July 4, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686056/proteomic-profile-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-after-eupomatenoid-5-induction-reveals-potential-drug-targets
#11
Luciana D Ghiraldi-Lopes, Paula Az Campanerut-Sá, Jean E Meneguello, Flávio Av Seixas, Mariana A Lopes-Ortiz, Regiane Bl Scodro, Claudia Ta Pires, Rosi Z da Silva, Vera Ld Siqueira, Celso V Nakamura, Rosilene F Cardoso
AIM: We investigated a proteome profile, protein-protein interaction and morphological changes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after different times of eupomatenoid-5 (EUP-5) induction to evaluate the cellular response to the drug-induced damages. METHODS: The bacillus was induced to sub-minimal inhibitory concentration of EUP-5 at 12 h, 24 h and 48 h. The proteins were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis, identified by LC/MS-MS. Scanning electron microscopy and Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins analyses were performed...
July 7, 2017: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682939/burn-trauma-acutely-increases-the-respiratory-capacity-and-function-of-liver-mitochondria
#12
Fredrick J Bohanon, Omar Nunez Lopez, David N Herndon, Xiaofu Wang, Nisha Bhattarai, Amina El Ayadi, Anesh Prasai, Jayson W Jay, Yesenia Rojas-Khalil, Tracy E Toliver-Kinsky, Celeste C Finnerty, Ravi S Radhakrishnan, Craig Porter
BACKGROUND: A complete understanding of the role of the liver in burn-induced hypermetabolism is lacking. We investigated the acute effect of severe burn trauma on liver mitochondrial respiratory capacity and coupling control as well as the signaling events underlying these alterations. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice (8-12 weeks) received full-thickness scald burns on ∼30% of the body surface. Liver tissue was harvested 24 hours post injury. Mitochondrial respiration was determined by high-resolution respirometry...
July 4, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676556/influence-of-longitudinal-radiation-exposure-from-microcomputed-tomography-scanning-on-skeletal-muscle-function-and-metabolic-activity-in-female-cd-1-mice
#13
John S Mikhaeil, Sandra M Sacco, Caitlin Saint, William Gittings, Jordan Bunda, Cameron R Giles, Val Andrew Fajardo, Rene Vandenboom, Wendy E Ward, Paul J LeBlanc
Microcomputed tomography (μCT) is an imaging technology to assess bone microarchitecture, a determinant of bone strength. When measured in vivo, μCT exposes the skeletal site of interest to a dose of radiation, in addition to nearby skeletal muscles as well. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of repeated radiation exposure from in vivo μCT on muscle health - specifically, muscle morphometrics, contractile function, and enzyme activity. This study exposed the right hind limb of female mice to either a low (26 cGy) or moderate (46 cGy) dose, at 2, 4, and 6 months of age, while the left hind limb of the same animal was exposed to a single dose at 6 months to serve as a nonirradiated control...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676454/myostatin-deficiency-is-associated-with-lipidomic-abnormalities-in-skeletal-muscles
#14
Narjes Baati, Christine Feillet-Coudray, Gilles Fouret, Barbara Vernus, Bénédicte Goustard, Charles Coudray, Jérome Lecomte, Véronique Blanquet, Laetitia Magnol, Anne Bonnieu, Christelle Koechlin-Ramonatxo
Myostatin (Mstn) deficiency leads to skeletal muscle overgrowth and Mstn inhibition is considered as a promising treatment for muscle-wasting disorders. Mstn gene deletion in mice also causes metabolic changes with decreased mitochondria content, disturbance in mitochondrial respiratory function and increased muscle fatigability. However the impact of MSTN deficiency on these metabolic changes is not fully elucidated. Here, we hypothesized that lack of MSTN will alter skeletal muscle membrane lipid composition in relation with pronounced alterations in muscle function and metabolism...
July 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673455/neorickettsia-risticii-rickettsia-sp-and-bartonella-sp-in-tadarida-brasiliensis-bats-from-buenos-aires-argentina
#15
Gabriel L Cicuttin, María N De Salvo, Isabel La Rosa, Federico E Gury Dohmen
Bats are potential reservoirs of many vector-borne bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to detect species of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, Rickettsia, Borrelia and Bartonella in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis, Molossidae) from Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Between 2012 and 2013, 61 T. brasiliensis from urban areas of Buenos Aires city were studied. The samples were molecularly screened by PCR and sequencing. Five bats (8.2%) were positive to Neorickettsia risticii, one (1...
June 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666159/optimization-of-expression-and-purification-of-human-mortalin-hsp70-folding-unfolding-analysis
#16
Mohd Shahnawaz Khan, Anwar Ahmed, Shams Tabrez, Badar Ul Islam, Nayyar Rabbani, Ajamaluddin Malik, Mohamad A Ismael, Mohammad A Alsenaidy, Abdulrahman M Alsenaidy
Human mortalin is a Hsp70 mitochondrial protein that plays an essential role in the biogenesis of mitochondria. The deregulation of mortalin expression and its functions could lead to several age-associated disorders and some types of cancers. In the present study, we optimized the expression and purification of recombinant human mortalin by the use of two-step chromatography. Low temperature (18°C) and 0.5mM (IPTG) was required for optimum mortalin expression. Chaperone activity of mortalin was assessed by the citrate synthase and insulin protection assay, which suggested their protective role in mitochondria...
June 12, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663335/mitochondrial-quality-control-in-alveolar-epithelial-cells-damaged-by-s-aureus-pneumonia-in-mice
#17
Hagir B Suliman, Bryan D Kraft, Raquel R Bartz, Lingye Chen, Karen E Welty-Wolf, Claude A Piantadosi
(242 words) Mitochondrial damage is often overlooked in acute lung injury (ALI), but most of the lung's physiological processes, such as airway tone, muco-ciliary clearance, Va/Q matching, and immune surveillance require aerobic energy provision. Because the cell's processes of mitochondrial quality control (QC) regulate the elimination and replacement of damaged mitochondria to support cell survival, we evaluated mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy in the alveolar region of mice in a validated S. aureus pneumonia model...
June 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660292/bartonella-in-rodents-and-ectoparasites-in-the-canary-islands-spain-new-insights-into-host-vector-pathogen-relationships
#18
Estefania Abreu-Yanes, Aaron Martin-Alonso, Natalia Martin-Carrillo, Katherine Garcia Livia, Alessandro Marrero-Gagliardi, Basilio Valladares, Carlos Feliu, Pilar Foronda
Bartonella genus is comprised of several species of zoonotic relevance and rodents are reservoirs for some of these Bartonella species. As there were no data about the range of Bartonella species circulating among rodents in the Canary Islands, our main aim was to overcome this lack of knowledge by targeting both the citrate synthase (gltA) and the RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) genes. A total of 181 small mammals and 154 ectoparasites were obtained in three of the Canary Islands, namely Tenerife, La Palma, and Lanzarote...
June 28, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660090/colonic-oxidative-and-mitochondrial-function-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#19
C Morén, Í González-Casacuberta, J Navarro-Otano, D Juárez-Flores, D Vilas, G Garrabou, J C Milisenda, C Pont-Sunyer, M Catalán-García, M Guitart-Mampel, E Tobías, F Cardellach, F Valldeoriola, A Iranzo, E Tolosa
OBJECTIVE: To determine potential mitochondrial and oxidative alterations in colon biopsies from idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects. METHODS: Colonic biopsies from 7 iRBD subjects, 9 subjects with clinically diagnosed PD, and 9 healthy controls were homogenized in 5% w/v mannitol. Citrate synthase (CS) and complex I (CI) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Oxidative damage was assessed either by lipid peroxidation, through malondialdehyde and hydroxyalkenal content by spectrophotometry, or through antioxidant enzyme levels of superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1), and catalase (CAT) by western blot...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655652/-p-clphse-2-stimulates-carbohydrate-metabolism-and-reverses-the-metabolic-alterations-induced-by-high-fructose-load-in-rats
#20
Caroline B Quines, Suzan G Rosa, Pietro M Chagas, Daniela Velasquez, Vinicius C Prado, Cristina W Nogueira
The modern life leads to excess consumption of food rich in fructose; however, the long-term changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism could lead to metabolic dysfunction in humans. The present study evaluated the in vitro insulin-mimetic action of p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide (p-ClPhSe)2. The second aim of this study was to investigate if (p-ClPhSe)2 reverses metabolic dysfunction induced by fructose load in Wistar rats. The insulin-mimetic action of (p-ClPhSe)2 at concentrations of 50 and 100 μM was determined in slices of rat skeletal muscle...
June 24, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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