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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156947/off-label-use-of-antipsychotics-and-associated-factors-in-community-living-older-adults
#1
Hamzah Bakouni, Djamal Berbiche, Helen-Maria Vasiliadis
BACKGROUND: Given the common off-label use of antipsychotics (AP), we aimed to assess the factors associated with this use in community living older adults. METHODS: The study sample consisted of a large representative sample of older adults (n = 4108), covered under a public drug insurance plan in Canada. Off-label use of antipsychotics was defined by the absence of an approved indication for this use, according to Health Canada's drug product database. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the factors associated with off-label use...
November 20, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156546/systematic-review-of-epigenetic-effects-of-pharmacological-agents-for-bipolar-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Laura E Lockwood, Nagy A Youssef
Epigenetic effects of medications are an evolving field of medicine, and can change the landscape of drug development. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the literature of the relationship between common medications used for treatment of bipolar disorders and epigenetic modifications. MedLine/PubMed searches were performed based on pre-specified inclusion criteria from inception to November 2017. Six animal and human studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies examined the epigenetic changes in the main classes of medications that are used in bipolar disorders, namely mood stabilizers and antipsychotics...
November 18, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155491/variation-in-the-response-of-clozapine-biotransformation-pathways-in-human-hepatic-microsomes-to-cyp1a2-and-cyp3a4-selective-inhibitors
#3
Michael Murray, Wei V Zhang, Robert J Edwards
The atypical antipsychotic agent clozapine (CLZ) is effective in many patients who are resistant to conventional antipsychotic drugs. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) 1A2 and 3A4 oxidise CLZ to norCLZ and CLZ N-oxide in human liver. Concurrent treatment with inducers and inhibitors of CYP1A2 modulates CLZ elimination that disrupts therapy. Drug-drug interactions involving CYP3A4 are also significant but less predictable. To further characterise the factors underlying these interactions, we used samples from a cohort of human livers to assess variation in CLZ oxidation pathways in relation to intrinsic CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 activities and the effects of the corresponding selective inhibitors ketoconazole (0...
November 20, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154367/effects-of-amphetamine-on-sensorimotor-gating-and-neurocognition-in-antipsychotic-medicated-schizophrenia-patients
#4
Neal R Swerdlow, Savita G Bhakta, Jo A Talledo, Daniel M Franz, Erica L Hughes, Brinda K Rana, Gregory A Light
Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle is being explored both as an indicator of target engagement for, and a biomarker predicting sensitivity to, pro-cognitive effects of drugs. We now report the effects of the pro-attentional drug, d-amphetamine, on PPI and neurocognition in antipsychotic-medicated schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects (HS) who were also tested in a targeted cognitive training (TCT) module. 44 HS and 38 schizophrenia patients completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the effects of a single dose of amphetamine (10 mg po) on PPI and MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) performance; TCT results were previously reported from 60 of these subjects...
November 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145545/treatment-of-alcohol-induced-psychotic-disorder-alcoholic-hallucinosis-a-systematic-review
#5
Barkat Masood, Peter Lepping, Dmitry Romanov, Rob Poole
Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of evidence based treatments for alcohol-induced psychotic disorder (AIPD) as described by ICD-10 and DSM-5, a condition that is distinct from schizophrenia and has a close relationship with alcohol withdrawal states. Method: Systematic review using PRISMA guidelines. Results: Of 6205 abstracts found, fifteen studies and ten case reports met criteria and were examined. Larger studies examined the use of first-generation antipsychotic drugs, reporting full or partial remission in most patients...
November 14, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143952/-the-effect-of-mood-stabilising-drugs-on-cytokine-levels-in-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review
#6
S Van Den Ameele, L van Diermen, W Staels, V Coppens, G Dumont, B Sabbe, M Morrens
Veranderde cytokineconcentraties bij personen met een bipolaire stoornis ten opzichte van controle-personen suggereren een rol van het immuunsysteem in de pathofysiologie van bipolaire stoornis. Farmacotherapie is een belangrijke verstorende factor in klinisch onderzoek naar cytokineconcentraties.<br/> DOEL: Evalueren van cytokineconcentraties bij medicatievrije patiënten met een bipolaire stoornis en van het effect van stemmingsstabiliserende geneesmiddelen op deze concentraties.<br/> METHODE: We doorzochten systematisch PubMed en Embase naar klinische studies die cytokineconcentraties bij medicatievrije patiënten met een bipolaire stoornis beschrijven of het effect van een individueel stemmingsstabiliserend geneesmiddel op deze concentraties evalueren...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143192/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-and-severe-acute-respiratory-syndrome-current-therapeutic-options-and-potential-targets-for-novel-therapies
#7
REVIEW
Julie Dyall, Robin Gross, Jason Kindrachuk, Reed F Johnson, Gene G Olinger, Lisa E Hensley, Matthew B Frieman, Peter B Jahrling
No specific antivirals are currently available for two emerging infectious diseases, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). A literature search was performed covering pathogenesis, clinical features and therapeutics, clinically developed drugs for repurposing and novel drug targets. This review presents current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical features of the SARS and MERS coronaviruses. The rationale for and outcomes with treatments used for SARS and MERS is discussed...
November 15, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142562/drug-poisoning-and-associated-factors-in-western-saudi-arabia-a-five-year-retrospective-chart-review-2011-2016
#8
Sami H Alzahrani, Ali H Alqahtani, Fayssal Mostafa Farahat, Mohammed Abdel Galil Elnour, Jamil Bashawri
Objective: Drug poisoning is a globally common cause of emergency-room admissions. This study explores drug-poisoning prevalence patterns, associated risk factors (gender, age and exposure circumstances), and outcomes in western Saudi Arabia. Methods: Retrospective analysis of Clinical drug poisoning cases (2011-2016). The data were retrieved from the Saudi Ministry of Health's record and Patients' medical charts were analyzed. Results: The Ministry of Health received 1,474 reports of drug poisoning during 2011-2016...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137178/antidepressants-and-mood-stabilizers-novel-research-avenues-and-clinical-insights-for-bipolar-depression
#9
REVIEW
In Hee Shim, Young Sup Woo, Moon-Doo Kim, Won-Myong Bahk
The concept of the bipolar-spectrum and of mixed features being a bridge between major depressive disorders and bipolar disorders (BDs) has become increasingly important in mood-disorder diagnoses. Under these circumstances, antidepressants (ADs) and mood stabilizers (MSs) should be used with caution in the treatment of major depressive episodes (MDEs) and to obtain long-term stability in BDs. Before treating MDEs, screening tools, specific symptom evaluation and medical history should be used to distinguish between bipolarity and mixed features in patients for whom AD monotherapy may present a risk...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136441/antipsychotic-drug-prescribing-in-nursing-homes-reply
#10
LETTER
Jerry H Gurwitz, Alice Bonner, Donald M Berwick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136436/antipsychotic-drug-prescribing-in-nursing-homes
#11
LETTER
Juanita L Westbury
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136435/antipsychotic-drug-prescribing-in-nursing-homes
#12
LETTER
Muriel R Gillick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 14, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133173/effects-of-norquetiapine-the-active-metabolite-of-quetiapine-on-cloned-herg-potassium-channels
#13
Hong Joon Lee, Jin-Sung Choi, Bok Hee Choi, Sang June Hahn
Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug that is widely used for the treatment of schizophrenia. It is mainly metabolized by a cytochrome P450 system in the liver. Norquetiapine is a major active metabolite in humans with a pharmacological profile that differs distinctly from that of quetiapine. We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to investigate the effects of norquetiapine on hERG channels that are stably expressed in HEK cells. Quetiapine and norquetiapine inhibited the hERG tail currents at -50mV in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 8...
November 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131655/psychotropic-drug-prescription-in-adolescents-a-retrospective-study-in-a-swiss-psychiatric-university-hospital
#14
Nicolas Ansermot, Véronique Jordanov, Michal Smogur, Laurent Holzer, Chin B Eap
OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study aims to evaluate off-label prescriptions and administrations of psychotropic medications in adolescents in a university psychiatric hospital in Switzerland. METHODS: Data were collected during the entire stays from the electronic database for 76 inpatients in 2008 and 76 inpatients in 2014. Data collected included gender, age, psychiatric diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, and psychotropic drug prescriptions and administrations...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129510/increase-in-serum-hdl-level-is-associated-with-less-negative-symptoms-after-one-year-of-antipsychotic-treatment-in-first-episode-psychosis
#15
Priyanthi B Gjerde, Ingrid Dieset, Carmen Simonsen, Eva Z Hoseth, Trude Iversen, Trine V Lagerberg, Siv Hege Lyngstad, Ragni H Mørch, Silje Skrede, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle, Vidar M Steen
BACKGROUND: A potential link between increase in total cholesterol and triglycerides and clinical improvement has been observed during antipsychotic drug treatment in chronic schizophrenia patients, possibly due to drug related effects on lipid biosynthesis. We examined whether changes in serum lipids are associated with alleviation of psychosis symptoms after one year of antipsychotic drug treatment in a cohort of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. METHODS: A total of 132 non-affective antipsychotic-treated FEP patients were included through the Norwegian Thematically Organized Psychosis (TOP) project...
November 9, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128871/neural-substrate-of-unrelenting-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-a-longitudinal-resting-state-fmri-study
#16
Mingli Li, Wei Deng, Tushar Das, Yinfei Li, Liansheng Zhao, Xiaohong Ma, Yingcheng Wang, Hua Yu, Xiaojing Li, Ya-Jing Meng, Qiang Wang, Lena Palaniyappan, Tao Li
Developing a mechanistic insight into the specific brain processes that underpin improvement in negative symptoms can help us design novel chemical and physical treatments against these unrelenting symptoms. The aim of the present study is to explore the longitudinal changes in the brain's regional functional efficiency that accompany improvement in negative symptoms seen in first-episode patients with schizophrenia when treated with antipsychotic for 1 year. Forty-seven first-episode patients with schizophrenia were scanned at a drug-naive baseline state and followed up for 1 year to identify negative symptom responders (Rn) and non-responders (NRn)...
November 11, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128144/the-antipsychotic-drug-brexpiprazole-reverses-phencyclidine-induced-disruptions-of-thalamocortical-networks
#17
Hanna E van den Munkhof, Jørn Arnt, Pau Celada, Francesc Artigas
Brexpiprazole (BREX), a recently approved antipsychotic drug in the US and Canada, improves cognitive dysfunction in animal models, by still largely unknown mechanisms. BREX is a partial agonist at 5-HT1A and D2 receptors and antagonist at α1B- and α2C-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors all with a similar potency. The NMDA receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP), used as pharmacological model of schizophrenia, activates thalamocortical networks and decreases low frequency oscillations (LFO; <4 Hz). These effects are reversed by antipsychotics...
November 8, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127503/relationships-between-low-grade-peripheral-inflammation-and-psychotropic-drugs-in-schizophrenia-results-from-the-national-face-sz-cohort
#18
G Fond, N Resseguier, F Schürhoff, O Godin, M Andrianarisoa, L Brunel, E Bulzacka, B Aouizerate, F Berna, D Capdevielle, I Chereau, T D'Amato, C Dubertret, J Dubreucq, C Faget, F Gabayet, C Lançon, P M Llorca, J Mallet, D Misdrahi, C Passerieux, R Rey, A Schandrin, M Urbach, P Vidailhet, L Boyer, M Leboyer
Low-grade inflammation has repeatedly been associated with schizophrenia (SZ) and in particular with cognitive impairment. Female gender, overweight and tobacco smoking have been suggested as risk factors to increase inflammation while preclinical inconsistent findings have been found regarding the association with psychotropic drugs. The aim of this study was to explore if psychotropic drugs were associated with inflammation in SZ and to determine which psychotropic drug was associated with inflammation in stable SZ subjects while considering clinical confounding factors...
November 10, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124985/pharmacotherapy-and-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#19
Luciano Viale, Natalia Paola Catoira, Guillermo Di Girolamo, Claudio Daniel González
Stroke is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases worldwide, especially among the elderly population. There are various mechanisms that enhance motor recovery after a stroke. In clinical practice, we have the opportunity to enhance plasticity by designing specific rehabilitation programs. Areas covered: There are a variety of drugs commonly administered to people after the acute phase of a stroke. These drugs may modify motor performance. Herein reviewed is the evidence concerning motor enhancement or decline in stroke patients, produced by drugs commonly used in rehabilitation settings...
November 10, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122637/side-effect-burden-of-antipsychotic-drugs-in-real-life-impact-of-gender-and-polypharmacy
#20
Trude Seselie Jahr Iversen, Nils Eiel Steen, Ingrid Dieset, Sigrun Hope, Ragni Mørch, Erlend Strand Gardsjord, Kjetil Nordbø Jørgensen, Ingrid Melle, Ole A Andreassen, Espen Molden, Erik G Jönsson
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic-associated side effects are well known and represent a significant treatment challenge. Still, few large studies have investigated the overall side effect burden of antipsychotics in real-life settings. OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence of side effects and perceived burden of antipsychotics in a large naturalistic sample, taking polypharmacy and patient characteristics into account. METHOD: Patients (n=1087) with psychotic disorders were assessed for side effects using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser (UKU) side effect rating scale in addition to assessment of clinical and pharmacological data...
November 6, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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