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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352532/the-impact-of-severe-mental-disorders-and-psychotropic-medications-on-sexual-health-and-its-implications-for-clinical-management
#1
Angel L Montejo, Laura Montejo, David S Baldwin
Sexual dysfunction often accompanies severe psychiatric illness and can be due to both the mental disorder itself and the use of psychotropic treatments. Many sexual symptoms resolve as the mental state improves, but treatment-related sexual adverse events tend to persist over time, and are unfortunately under-recognized by clinicians and scarcely investigated in clinical trials. Treatment-emergent sexual dysfunction adversely affects quality of life and may contribute to reduce treatment adherence. There are important differences between the various compounds in the incidence of adverse sexual effects, associated with differences in mechanisms of action...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352477/benzodiazepines-for-antipsychotic-induced-tardive-dyskinesia
#2
REVIEW
Hanna Bergman, Paranthaman S Bhoopathi, Karla Soares-Weiser
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disfiguring movement disorder, often of the orofacial region, frequently caused by using antipsychotic drugs. A wide range of strategies have been used to help manage TD, and for those who are unable to have their antipsychotic medication stopped or substantially changed, the benzodiazepine group of drugs have been suggested as a useful adjunctive treatment. However, benzodiazepines are very addictive. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of benzodiazepines for antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia in people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or other chronic mental illnesses...
January 20, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351487/contribution-of-parasympathetic-muscarinic-augmentation-of-insulin-secretion-to-olanzapine-induced-hyperinsulinemia
#3
Michael R Rickels, Elys M Perez, Amy J Peleckis, Erica Alshehabi, Huong-Lan Nguyen, Darko Stefanovski, Karl Rickels, Karen L Teff
Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with the development of obesity and diabetes. In particular, olanzapine can induce peripheral insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia independent of weight gain or psychiatric disease. To determine if this compensatory increase in insulin is mediated by parasympathetic muscarinic stimulation, we randomized fifteen healthy subjects 2:1 to receive double-blind olanzapine or placebo for 9 days under diet and activity controlled inpatient conditions...
December 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345690/clozapine-induced-myocarditis
#4
COMMENT
Tanuka Datta, Allen J Solomon
Approved in 1989 for the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia, Clozapine is a last-line atypical antipsychotic drug used with increasing frequency. In addition to its well-known side effect of agranulocytosis, this drug also carries with it rare but serious adverse cardiovascular risk of myocarditis. We present a patient on Clozapine who was admitted to the cardiology service with chest pain, ST segment elevations and elevated troponin concerning for acute myocardial infarction. Evaluation with imaging revealed decreased left ventricular function, however, no coronary artery disease was present on catheterization; findings consistent with a diagnosis of myocarditis...
January 2018: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344342/frontotemporal-dementia-latest-evidence-and-clinical-implications
#5
REVIEW
Juan Joseph Young, Mallika Lavakumar, Deena Tampi, Silpa Balachandran, Rajesh R Tampi
Background: Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) describes a cluster of neurocognitive syndromes that present with impairment of executive functioning, changes in behavior, and a decrease in language proficiency. FTD is the second most common form of dementia in those younger than 65 years and is expected to increase in prevalence as the population ages. This goal in our review is to describe advances in the understanding of neurobiological pathology, classification, assessment, and treatment of FTD syndromes...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343694/sertraline-paroxetine-and-chlorpromazine-are-rapidly-acting-anthelmintic-drugs-capable-of-clinical-repurposing
#6
Janis C Weeks, William M Roberts, Caitlyn Leasure, Brian M Suzuki, Kristin J Robinson, Heather Currey, Phurpa Wangchuk, Ramon M Eichenberger, Aleen D Saxton, Thomas D Bird, Brian C Kraemer, Alex Loukas, John M Hawdon, Conor R Caffrey, Nicole F Liachko
Parasitic helminths infect over 1 billion people worldwide, while current treatments rely on a limited arsenal of drugs. To expedite drug discovery, we screened a small-molecule library of compounds with histories of use in human clinical trials for anthelmintic activity against the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. From this screen, we found that the neuromodulatory drugs sertraline, paroxetine, and chlorpromazine kill C. elegans at multiple life stages including embryos, developing larvae and gravid adults...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343085/a-lack-of-systemic-absorption-following-the-repeated-application-of-topical-quetiapine-in-healthy-adults
#7
Bryce Kayhart, Maria I Lapid, Sarah Nelson, Julie L Cunningham, Virginia H Thompson, Jonathan G Leung
In the absence of suitable oral or intravenous access for medication administration and when the intramuscular medications are undesirable, alternative routes for drug delivery may be considered. Antipsychotics administered via an inhaled, intranasal, rectal, or topical route have been described in the literature. Topically administered antipsychotics have been previously reported to produce negligible systemic absorption despite being used in clinical practice for nausea and behavioral symptoms associated with dementia...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343074/understanding-the-influence-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-global-methylation-events-and-its-relevance-in-treatment-response
#8
Babu Swathy, Koramannil R Saradalekshmi, Indu V Nair, Chandrasekharan Nair, Moinak Banerjee
AIM: The present study intends to evaluate whether antipsychotic drugs can modulate the host epigenome and if so whether drug-induced epigenetic modulation can explain the heterogeneity in drug response. METHODS: Present study was conducted in in vitro cells and significance of these in vitro observations was further evaluated in a clinical setting, between drug responsive and nonresponsive schizophrenia patients. A number of DNA modifications were assessed at global level using 5-methylcytosine, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and 5-formylcytosine followed by evaluating the expression of epigenetic modifier genes and their crosstalk with miRNAs...
January 18, 2018: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342497/non-antipsychotic-catecholaminergic-drugs-for-antipsychotic-induced-tardive-dyskinesia
#9
REVIEW
Hany G El-Sayeh, John Rathbone, Karla Soares-Weiser, Hanna Bergman
BACKGROUND: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disabling movement disorder associated with the prolonged use of antipsychotic medication. Several strategies have been examined in the treatment of TD. Currently, however, there is no clear evidence of the effectiveness of these drugs in TD and they have been associated with many side effects. One particular strategy would be to use pharmaceutical agents which are known to influence the catecholaminergic system at various junctures. OBJECTIVES: 1...
January 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341821/deuterium-tetrabenazine-for-tardive-dyskinesia
#10
Michael A Cummings, George J Proctor, Stephen M Stahl
Tardive dyskinesia remains a significant, potentially stigmatizing or crippling adverse effect for any patient treated with an antipsychotic medication. While second- and third-generation antipsychotics have exhibited lower annual incidence rates for tardive dyskinesia than classic or first-generation agents, 3.9% versus 5.5%, the estimated incidence rate is only modestly lower. When coupled with the fact that second- and third-generation antipsychotic medications have come to be employed in treating a wider range of disorders (e...
January 2018: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341071/anticholinergic-medication-for-antipsychotic-induced-tardive-dyskinesia
#11
REVIEW
Hanna Bergman, Karla Soares-Weiser
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic (neuroleptic) medication is used extensively to treat people with serious mental illnesses. However, it is associated with a wide range of adverse effects, including movement disorders. Because of this, many people treated with antipsychotic medication also receive anticholinergic drugs in order to reduce some of the associated movement side-effects. However, there is also a suggestion from animal experiments that the chronic administration of anticholinergics could cause tardive dyskinesia...
January 17, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340087/identification-of-antipsychotic-drug-fluspirilene-as-a-potential-anti-glioma-stem-cell-drug
#12
Yu Dong, Takuya Furuta, Hemragul Sabit, Tomohiro Kitabayashi, Shabierjiang Jiapaer, Masahiko Kobayashi, Yasushi Ino, Tomoki Todo, Lei Teng, Atsushi Hirao, Shi-Guang Zhao, Mitsutoshi Nakada
Glioma stem cell (GSC)-targeted therapy is expected to be one of the most innovative approaches to treat patients with glioblastoma (GBM). A number of the drugs that restrain the signaling pathway essential for GSC maintenance have been under clinical trials. Here, we identified fluspirilene, a traditional antipsychotic drug, as a GSC-targeting agent, selected from thousands of existing drugs, and investigated its therapeutic effects against GBM with the purpose of drug repositioning. To develop novel therapeutics targeting GSCs, we initially screened drug libraries for small-molecule compounds showing a greater efficacy, compared to that of controls, in inhibiting the proliferation and survival of different GSC lines using cell proliferation assay...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338576/effect-of-clinical-response-to-active-drugs-and-placebo-on-antipsychotics-and-mood-stabilizers-relative-efficacy-for-bipolar-depression-and-mania-a-meta-regression-analysis
#13
Francesco Bartoli, Massimo Clerici, Carmen Di Brita, Ilaria Riboldi, Cristina Crocamo, Giuseppe Carrà
BACKGROUND: Randomised placebo-controlled trials investigating treatments for bipolar disorder have been hampered by wide variations of active drugs and placebo clinical response rates. It is important to estimate whether the active drug or placebo response has a greater influence in determining the relative efficacy of drugs for psychosis (antipsychotics) and relapse prevention (mood stabilisers) for bipolar depression and mania. METHODS: We identified 53 randomised, placebo-controlled trials assessing antipsychotic or mood stabiliser monotherapy ('active drugs') for bipolar depression or mania...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338548/glycine-transporter-1-inhibitors-a-patent-review-2011-2016
#14
Christopher L Cioffi
Numerous research groups have developed GlyT-1 inhibitors in the pursuit of providing a novel antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia. Despite multiple compounds advancing into clinical trials, a GlyT-1 inhibitor has yet to emerge to treat patients. However, the approach remains heavily investigated as it presents potential therapeutic utility for several other CNS and non-CNS-related indications. Areas covered: This review discusses various GlyT-1 inhibitor chemotypes identified and provides an overview of patent applications filed and published during the period of 2011-2016...
January 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338466/valbenazine-as-the-first-and-only-approved-treatment-for-adults-with-tardive-dyskinesia
#15
Harini Sarva, Claire Henchcliffe
Valbenazine is a selective VMAT2 inhibitor that the FDA approved in April 2017 for the specific treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD), a movement disorder commonly caused by dopamine blocking agents. Valbenazine acts to decrease dopamine release, reducing excessive movement found in TD. Areas covered: This drug profile reviews the development of valbenazine and the clinical trials that led to its approval as the first treatment specific to TD. The literature search was performed with the PubMed online database...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337986/the-e2-65a-mutation-disrupts-dynamic-binding-poses-of-sb269652-at-the-dopamine-d2-and-d3-receptors
#16
Ravi Kumar Verma, Ara M Abramyan, Mayako Michino, R Benjamin Free, David R Sibley, Jonathan A Javitch, J Robert Lane, Lei Shi
The dopamine D2 and D3 receptors (D2R and D3R) are important targets for antipsychotics and for the treatment of drug abuse. SB269652, a bitopic ligand that simultaneously binds both the orthosteric binding site (OBS) and a secondary binding pocket (SBP) in both D2R and D3R, was found to be a negative allosteric modulator. Previous studies identified Glu2.65 in the SBP to be a key determinant of both the affinity of SB269652 and the magnitude of its cooperativity with orthosteric ligands, as the E2.65A mutation decreased both of these parameters...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336603/comparison-of-unlicensed-and-off-label-use-of-antipsychotics-prescribed-to-child-and-adolescent-psychiatric-outpatients-for-treatment-of-mental-and-behavioral-disorders-with-different-guidelines-the-china-food-and-drug-administration-versus-the-fda
#17
Xiuqing Zhu, Jinqing Hu, Bin Sun, Shuhua Deng, Yuguan Wen, Weijia Chen, Chang Qiu, Dewei Shang, Ming Zhang
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the prevalence of unlicensed and off-label use of antipsychotics among child and adolescent psychiatric outpatients with guidelines proposed by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and to identify factors associated with inconsistencies between the two regulations. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 29,326 drug prescriptions for child and adolescent outpatients from the Affiliated Brain Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University was conducted...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336066/medication-use-and-association-with-urinary-incontinence-in-women-data-from-the-norwegian-prescription-database-and-the-hunt-study
#18
Siri A Mauseth, Svetlana Skurtveit, Eva Skovlund, Arnulf Langhammer, Olav Spigset
AIMS: To investigate the association between medication use and urinary incontinence (UI) in women. METHODS: In a cross-sectional population-based study we analyzed questionnaire data on UI, including type and severity, from 21 735 women included in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) in Norway. These data were linked to data on filled prescriptions retrieved from the Norwegian Prescription Database. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds for having UI related to the number of filled prescriptions for selected drug groups during the 6 months prior to participation in HUNT, after adjustment for numerous confounding factors...
January 16, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335597/exercise-protects-against-olanzapine-induced-hyperglycemia-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#19
Laura N Castellani, Willem T Peppler, Paula M Miotto, Natasha Bush, David C Wright
Olanzapine is a widely prescribed antipsychotic drug. While effective in reducing psychoses, treatment with olanzapine causes rapid increases in blood glucose. We wanted to determine if a single bout of exercise, immediately prior to treatment, would attenuate the olanzapine-induced rise in blood glucose and if this occurred in an IL-6 dependent manner. We found that exhaustive, but not moderate exercise, immediately prior to treatment, prevented olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia and this occurred in parallel with increases in serum IL-6...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331153/is-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-antipsychotic-dose-and-anticholinergic-equivalent-loads-in-first-episode-psychosis
#20
Alejandro Ballesteros, Ana M Sánchez-Torres, Jose M López-Ilundain, Bibiana Cabrera, Antonio Lobo, Ana M González-Pinto, Covadonga Díaz-Caneja, Iluminada Corripio, Eduard Vieta, Elena de la Serna, Julio Bobes, Judith Usall, Fernando Contreras, Ruth Lorente-Omeñaca, Gisela Mezquida, Miguel Bernardo, Manuel J Cuesta
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early stages in schizophrenia. However, the extent to which antipsychotic (AP) have a deleterious effect on cognitive performance remains under debate. We aim to investigate whether anticholinergic loadings and dose of AP drugs in first episode of psychosis (FEP) in advanced phase of remission are associated with cognitive impairment and the differences between premorbid intellectual quotient (IQ) subgroups. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-six patients participated...
January 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
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