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brain change

Chung-Ching Chio, Mao-Tsun Lin, Ching-Ping Chang, Hung-Jung Lin
BACKGROUND: Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) regulates many processes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Both Neuro AiD(™) (MLC601) and Astragaloside (AST) attenuate microglia activation in rats with TBI. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MLC601 or AST improves output of TBI by affecting microglial expression of TGF-β1. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (120 in number) were used to investigate the contribution of TGF-β1-containing microglia in the MLC601-mediated or the AST-mediated neuroprotection in the brain trauma condition using lateral fluid-percussion injury...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Huiping Zhang, Joel Gelernter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is influenced by gene-environment interactions. Environmental factors can affect gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation. This review outlines the findings regarding the association of DNA methylation and AUDs. METHODS: We searched PubMed (by April 2016) and identified 29 studies that examined the association of DNA methylation and AUDs. We also evaluated the methods used in these studies...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
Cailei Zhao, Yongxin Li, Weiguo Cao, Kui Xiang, Heye Zhang, Jian Yang, Yungen Gan
To explore the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters in the quantitative assessment of early brain microstructure changes before and after ventriculoperitoneal shunt in children with high intracranial pressure hydrocephalus.Ten patients with communicating hydrocephalus (age: 2-36 months) and 14 age-/gender-matched controls (age: 2-36 months) were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent the ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedure. The imaging data were collected before and 3 months after the operation...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
R T Pivik, Aline Andres, Shasha Bai, Mario A Cleves, Kevin B Tennal, Yuyuan Gu, Thomas M Badger
Since maturational processes triggering increased attunement to native language features in early infancy are sensitive to dietary factors, infant-diet related differences in brain processing of native-language speech stimuli might indicate variations in the onset of this tuning process. We measured cortical responses (ERPs) to syllables in 4 and 5 month old infants fed breast milk, milk formula, or soy formula and found syllable discrimination (P350) and syntactic-related functions (P600) but not syllable perception (P170) varied by diet, but not gender or background measures...
October 19, 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
Jinge Yang, Dan Wu, Yong Tang, Huabei Jiang
Acupuncture has been an effective treatment for various pain in China for several thousand years. However, the mechanisms underlying this mysterious ancient healing are still largely unknown. Here we applied photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) to investigate brain hemodynamic changes in response to electronic acupuncture (EA) at ST36 (Zusanli). Due to the high optical absorption of blood at 532 nm, PAM could sensitively probe changes in hemoglobin concentration (HbT, i.e., cerebral blood volume [CBV]) of cortical regions in high resolution...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
H-J Kim, S-I Oh, M de Leon, X Wang, K-W Oh, J-S Park, A Deshpande, M Buj, S H Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a motor neuron disease, is associated with various cortical symptoms including mild cognitive decline with behavior changes, suggesting the involvement of extra-motor areas in ALS. Our aim was to investigate the specific patterns of brain atrophy in sporadic, impaired ALS patients without commonly known genetic mutations using voxel-based morphometry. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-seven patients with sporadic ALS and 28 age-matched healthy controls were recruited...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Eva Soto-Tinoco, Natalí N Guerrero-Vargas, Ruud M Buijs
The brain is responsible for maintaining homeostasis of the organism, constantly adjusting its output via hormones and the autonomic nervous system to reach an optimal setting in every compartment of the body. Also the immune system is under strong control of the brain. Beyond the conventional systemic responses evoked by the brain during inflammation, such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation and the induction of sickness behavior, the autonomic nervous system is now recognized to exert regulatory effects on the inflammatory response...
October 18, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Alexander I Tröster, Joseph Jankovic, Michele Tagliati, DeLea Peichel, Michael S Okun
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the neurobehavioral safety of constant-current subthalamic deep brain stimulation and to compare the neuropsychological effects of stimulation versus electrode placement alone. METHODS: A total of 136 patients with Parkinson's disease underwent bilateral subthalamic device implantation in this randomized trial. Patients received stimulation either immediately after device implantation (n = 101; active stimulation) or beginning 3 months after surgery (n = 35; delayed activation control)...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Tristram A Lett, Henrik Walter, Eva J Brandl
Genetic variation underlies both the response to antidepressant treatment and the occurrence of side effects. Over the past two decades, a number of pharmacogenetic variants, among these the SCL6A4, BDNF, FKBP5, GNB3, GRIK4, and ABCB1 genes, have come to the forefront in this regard. However, small effects sizes, mixed results in independent samples, and conflicting meta-analyses results led to inherent difficulties in the field of pharmacogenetics translating these findings into clinical practice. Nearly all antidepressant pharmacogenetic variants have potentially pleiotropic effects in which they are associated with major depressive disorder, intermediate phenotypes involved in emotional processes, and brain areas affected by antidepressant treatment...
October 17, 2016: CNS Drugs
Pál Czobor, Brigitta Kakuszi, Kornél Németh, Livia Balogh, Szilvia Papp, László Tombor, István Bitter
Deficits in error-processing are postulated in core symptoms of ADHD. Our goal was to investigate the neurophysiological basis of abnormal error-processing and adaptive adjustments in ADHD, and examine whether error-related alterations extend beyond traditional Regions of Interest (ROIs), particularly to those involved in adaptive adjustments, such as the Salience Network system. We obtained event-related potentials (ERPs) during a Go/NoGo task from 22 adult-ADHD patients and 29 matched healthy controls using a high-density 256-electrode array...
October 17, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yuko M Komesu, Rebecca G Rogers, Robert E Sapien, Ronald M Schrader, Timothy Simmerman-Sierra, Andrew R Mayer, Loren H Ketai
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: We describe the rationale and methodology for a study comparing mind-body treatment and pharmacotherapy in women with urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). To explore brain associations in UUI, a subset of patients will also undergo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesize that hypnotherapy, a mind-body intervention, will be at least as effective as pharmacotherapy in treating UUI. We also hypothesize that fMRI findings will change following treatment, with changes potentially differing between groups...
October 17, 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
Rebecca Re, Edoardo Martinenghi, Alberto Dalla Mora, Davide Contini, Antonio Pifferi, Alessandro Torricelli
We report the development of a compact probe for time-domain (TD) functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) based on a fast silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) that can be put directly in contact with the sample without the need of optical fibers for light collection. We directly integrated an avalanche signal amplification stage close to the SiPM, thus reducing the size of the detection channel and optimizing the signal immunity to electromagnetic interferences. The whole detection electronics was placed in a plastic screw holder compatible with the electroencephalography standard cap for measurement on brain or with custom probe holders...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
Julien Pichette, Audrey Laurence, Leticia Angulo, Frederic Lesage, Alain Bouthillier, Dang Khoa Nguyen, Frederic Leblond
Using light, we are able to visualize the hemodynamic behavior of the brain to better understand neurovascular coupling and cerebral metabolism. In vivo optical imaging of tissue using endogenous chromophores necessitates spectroscopic detection to ensure molecular specificity as well as sufficiently high imaging speed and signal-to-noise ratio, to allow dynamic physiological changes to be captured, isolated, and used as surrogate of pathophysiological processes. An optical imaging system is introduced using a 16-bands on-chip hyperspectral camera...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
Lin Li, Mary Cazzell, Olajide Babawale, Hanli Liu
Atlas-guided diffuse optical tomography (atlas-DOT) is a computational means to image changes in cortical hemodynamic signals during human brain activities. Graph theory analysis (GTA) is a network analysis tool commonly used in functional neuroimaging to study brain networks. Atlas-DOT has not been analyzed with GTA to derive large-scale brain connectivity/networks based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements. We introduced an automated voxel classification (AVC) method that facilitated the use of GTA with atlas-DOT images by grouping unequal-sized finite element voxels into anatomically meaningful regions of interest within the human brain...
October 2016: Neurophotonics
Christoph Scherfler, Alois Josef Schiefecker, Margarete Delazer, Ronny Beer, Thomas Bodner, Georg Spinka, Mario Kofler, Bettina Pfausler, Christian Kremser, Michael Schocke, Thomas Benke, Elke R Gizewski, Erich Schmutzhard, Raimund Helbok
OBJECTIVE: MRI parameters of iron concentration (R2*, transverse relaxation rate), microstructural integrity (mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy), as well as gray and white matter volumes were analyzed in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and uncomplicated clinical course to detect the evolution of brain tissue changes 3 weeks and 12 months after ictus. METHODS: MRI scans of 14 SAH patients (aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery, n = 5; no aneurysm n = 9) were compared with 14 age-matched healthy control subjects...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Hye-Jin Park, Kang-Woo Lee, Eun S Park, Stephanie Oh, Run Yan, Jie Zhang, Thomas G Beach, Charles H Adler, Michael Voronkov, Steven P Braithwaite, Jeffry B Stock, M Maral Mouradian
OBJECTIVE: Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a heterotrimeric holoenzyme composed of a catalytic C subunit, a structural A subunit, and one of several regulatory B subunits that confer substrate specificity. The assembly and activity of PP2A are regulated by reversible methylation of the C subunit. α-Synuclein, which aggregates in Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), is phosphorylated at Ser129, and PP2A containing a B55α subunit is a major phospho-Ser129 phosphatase...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Christian Brigolin, Nathan McKenty, Kirit Pindolia, Barry Wolf
Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by neurological and cutaneous abnormalities. Untreated individuals with biotinidase deficiency cannot recycle biotin from biocytin (N-biotinyl-ϵ-lysine), the proteolytic digestion product of protein-bound biotin. Biotin therapy can markedly resolve symptoms, or can prevent the development of symptoms if initiated early. To understand better the pathogenesis of the neurological problems in the disorder in humans, we have compared gene transcription changes during the first week post-birth in the brains of biotinidase-deficient, transgenic, knock-out mice at days 1 and 8 and compared to changes in wildtype mice at the same times...
December 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
Drew D Kiraly, Deena M Walker, Erin S Calipari, Benoit Labonte, Orna Issler, Catherine J Pena, Efrain A Ribeiro, Scott J Russo, Eric J Nestler
Addiction to cocaine and other psychostimulants represents a major public health crisis. The development and persistence of addictive behaviors comes from a complex interaction of genes and environment - the precise mechanisms of which remain elusive. In recent years a surge of evidence has suggested that the gut microbiome can have tremendous impact on behavioral via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In this study we characterized the influence of the gut microbiota on cocaine-mediated behaviors. Groups of mice were treated with a prolonged course of non-absorbable antibiotics via the drinking water, which resulted in a substantial reduction of gut bacteria...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Anthony G Hudetz, Jeannette A Vizuete, Siveshigan Pillay, George A Mashour
Consciousness has been linked to the repertoire of brain states at various spatiotemporal scales. Anesthesia is thought to modify consciousness by altering information integration in cortical and thalamocortical circuits. At a mesoscopic scale, neuronal populations in the cortex form synchronized ensembles whose characteristics are presumably state-dependent but this has not been rigorously tested. In this study, spontaneous neuronal activity was recorded with 64-contact microelectrode arrays in primary visual cortex of chronically instrumented, unrestrained rats under stepwise decreasing levels of desflurane anesthesia (8%, 6%, 4%, and 2% inhaled concentrations) and wakefulness (0% concentration)...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Jonathan D Power, Mark Plitt, Timothy O Laumann, Alex Martin
Whole-brain fMRI signals are a subject of intense interest: variance in the global fMRI signal (the spatial mean of all signals in the brain) indexes subject arousal, and psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and autism have been characterized by differences in the global fMRI signal. Further, vigorous debates exist on whether global signals ought to be removed from fMRI data. However, surprisingly little research has focused on the empirical properties of whole-brain fMRI signals. Here we map the spatial and temporal properties of the global signal, individually, in 1000+ fMRI scans...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
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