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human Embryonic stem cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526756/restricted-intra-embryonic-origin-of-bona-fide-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-chicken
#1
Laurent Yvernogeau, Catherine Robin
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), responsible for blood cell production, are generated during embryonic development. Human and chicken embryos share features that pose the chicken as a reliable and accessible alternative model to study developmental hematopoiesis. However, the existence of HSCs has never been formally proven in chicken embryos. Here, we established a complete cartography and quantification of hematopoietic cells in the aorta during development. We demonstrated the existence of bona fide HSCs, originating from the chicken embryo aorta (and not the yolk sac, allantois or head), through an in vivo transplantation assay...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525893/rat-embryonic-fibroblasts-immortalized-by-mrps18-2-protein-are-target-for-nk-cells
#2
Muhammad Mushtaq, Pradeepa N Pangigadde, Suhas Darekar, Erik Dissen, Elena Kashuba
Overexpression of the human mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPS18-2 (S18-2) led to immortalization of primary rat embryonic fibroblasts (REFs). The derived cells (18IM) expressed embryonic stem cell markers. Noteworthy, genes encoding the COX family proteins were up-regulated significantly. It is known that the COX family proteins are involved in the regulation of immune response.In the present work we demonstrate that 18IM cells behave like stem cells when subjected to directed differentiation in vitro. However, unlike stem cells, 18IM cells do not develop tumors in vivo, in SCID mice...
May 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525381/the-cell-of-origin-dictates-the-temporal-course-of-neurofibromatosis-1-nf1-low-grade-glioma-formation
#3
Anne C Solga, Joseph A Toonen, Yuan Pan, Patrick J Cimino, Yu Ma, Guillaume A Castillon, Scott M Gianino, Mark H Ellisman, Da Yong Lee, David H Gutmann
Low-grade gliomas are one of the most common brain tumors in children, where they frequently form within the optic pathway (optic pathway gliomas; OPGs). Since many OPGs occur in the context of the Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome, we have previously employed Nf1 genetically-engineered mouse (GEM) strains to study the pathogenesis of these low-grade glial neoplasms. In the light of the finding that human and mouse low-grade gliomas are composed of Olig2+ cells and that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to murine high-grade gliomas, we sought to determine whether Olig2+ OPCs could be tumor-initiating cells for Nf1 optic glioma...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524367/transplantation-of-human-villous-trophoblasts-preserves-cardiac-function-in-mice-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#4
Zegen Wang, Ningzheng Dong, Yayan Niu, Zhiwei Zhang, Ce Zhang, Meng Liu, Tiantian Zhou, Qingyu Wu, Ke Cheng
Over the past decade, cell therapies have provided promising strategies for the treatment of ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Particularly, the beneficial effects of stem cells, including bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), have been demonstrated by substantial preclinical and clinical studies. Nevertheless stem cell therapy is not always safe and effective. Hence, there is an urgent need for alternative sources of cells to promote cardiac regeneration...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520534/cpg-island-methylation-correlates-with-the-use-of-alternative-promoter-for-usp44-gene-expression-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-testis
#5
Philippe Tropel, Laura Jung, Cécile André, Adeline Ndandougou, Stéphane Viville
Deubiquitinating enzymes may play a major regulatory role in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) but few studies have investigated this topic. Within this family of enzymes, we found that the ubiquitin specific peptidase, USP44, is highly expressed in embryonic stem cells, induced PSCs and testes as compared to differentiated progenies and somatic organs. Analysis by qPCR and 5'RACE showed that alternate promoters are responsible for expression in PSCs and organs. We noticed 7 regions of transcription initiation, some of them with cell- or tissue-specific activity...
May 18, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520399/an-immunofluorescence-imaging-strategy-for-evaluation-of-the-accessibility-of-dna-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-in-chromatins
#6
Shangwei Zhong, Zhe Li, Ting Jiang, Xiangjun Li, Hailin Wang
DNA 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is an important epigenetic modification found in various mammalian cells. Immunofluorescence imaging analysis essentially provides visual pictures to the abundance and distribution of DNA 5hmC in single cells. However, nuclear DNA is usually wrapped around nucleosomes and packaged into chromatins, and further bound with many functional proteins. These physiologically relevant events would generate barriers to the anti-5hmC antibody to selectively recognize 5hmC in DNA. By taking advantage of these naturally generated barriers, here we present a strategy to evaluate the accessibility of DNA 5hmC in chromatins in situ...
May 18, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516002/transplantation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-cells-into-the-subretinal-space-of-a-non-human-primate
#7
Jennifer R Chao, Deepak A Lamba, Todd R Klesert, Anna La Torre, Akina Hoshino, Russell J Taylor, Anu Jayabalu, Abbi L Engel, Thomas H Khuu, Ruikang K Wang, Maureen Neitz, Jay Neitz, Thomas A Reh
PURPOSE: Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of retinal cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to survive, integrate into the host retina, and mediate light responses in murine mouse models. Our aim is to determine whether these cells can also survive and integrate into the retina of a nonhuman primate, Saimiri sciureus, following transplantation into the subretinal space. METHODS: hESCs were differentiated toward retinal neuronal fates using our previously published technique and cultured for 60 to 70 days...
May 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514439/haematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#8
Ryohichi Sugimura, Deepak Kumar Jha, Areum Han, Clara Soria-Valles, Edroaldo Lummertz da Rocha, Yi-Fen Lu, Jeremy A Goettel, Erik Serrao, R Grant Rowe, Mohan Malleshaiah, Irene Wong, Patricia Sousa, Ted N Zhu, Andrea Ditadi, Gordon Keller, Alan N Engelman, Scott B Snapper, Sergei Doulatov, George Q Daley
A variety of tissue lineages can be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by mimicking embryonic development through stepwise exposure to morphogens, or by conversion of one differentiated cell type into another by enforced expression of master transcription factors. Here, to yield functional human haematopoietic stem cells, we perform morphogen-directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into haemogenic endothelium followed by screening of 26 candidate haematopoietic stem-cell-specifying transcription factors for their capacity to promote multi-lineage haematopoietic engraftment in mouse hosts...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506993/mapk-pathway-activation-in-the-embryonic-pituitary-results-in-stem-cell-compartment-expansion-differentiation-defects-and-provides-insights-into-the-pathogenesis-of-papillary-craniopharyngioma
#9
S Haston, S Pozzi, G Carreno, S Manshaei, L Panousopoulos, J M Gonzalez-Meljem, J R Apps, A Virasami, S Thavaraj, A Gutteridge, T Forshew, R Marais, S Brandner, T S Jacques, C L Andoniadou, J P Martinez-Barbera
Despite the importance of the RAS-RAF-MAPK pathway in normal physiology and disease of numerous organs, its role during pituitary development and tumourigenesis remains largely unknown. Here we show that the over-activation of the MAPK pathway, through conditional expression of the gain-of-function alleles BrafV600E and KrasG12D in the developing mouse pituitary, results in severe hyperplasia and abnormal morphogenesis of the gland by the end of gestation. Cell-lineage commitment and terminal differentiation are disrupted, leading to a significant reduction in numbers of most of the hormone-producing cells before birth, with the exception of corticotrophs...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506532/accreditation-of-biosafe-clinical-grade-human-embryonic-stem-cells-according-to-chinese-regulations
#10
Qi Gu, Juan Wang, Lei Wang, Zheng-Xin Liu, Wan-Wan Zhu, Yuan-Qing Tan, Wei-Fang Han, Jun Wu, Chun-Jing Feng, Jin-Hui Fang, Lei Liu, Liu Wang, Wei Li, Xiao-Yang Zhao, Bao-Yang Hu, Jie Hao, Qi Zhou
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are promising in regenerative medicine. Although several hESC-based clinical trials are under way, a widely accepted standard of clinical-grade cells remains obscure. To attain a completely xeno-free clinical-grade cell line, the system must be free of xenogenic components, the cells must have a comprehensive set of functions, and good manufacturing practice conditions must be used. In this study, following these criteria, we successfully derived two hESC lines, which were thereby considered "clinical-grade embryonic stem cells"...
May 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505334/direction-a-machine-learning-framework-for-predicting-and-characterizing-dna-methylation-and-hydroxymethylation-in-mammalian-genomes
#11
Milos Pavlovic, Pradipta Ray, Kristina Pavlovic, Aaron Kotamarti, Min Chen, Michael Q Zhang
Motivation: 5-Methylcytosine and 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine in DNA are major epigenetic modifications known to significantly alter mammalian gene expression. High-throughput assays to detect these modifications are expensive, labor-intensive, unfeasible in some contexts, and leave a portion of the genome unqueried. Hence, we devised a novel, supervised, integrative learning framework to perform whole-genome methylation and hydroxymethylation predictions in CpG dinucleotides. Our framework can also perform imputation of missing or low quality data in existing sequencing datasets...
May 12, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502982/why-are-hematopoietic-stem-cells-so-sexy-on-a-search-for-developmental-explanation
#12
REVIEW
Mariusz Z Ratajczak
Evidence has accumulated that normal human and murine hematopoietic stem cells express several functional pituitary and gonadal sex hormones and that, in fact, some sex hormones, such as androgens, have been employed for many years to stimulate hematopoiesis in patients with bone marrow aplasia. Interestingly, sex hormone receptors are also expressed by leukemic cell lines and blasts. In this review I will discuss the emerging question of why hematopoietic cells express these receptors. A tempting hypothetical explanation for this phenomenon is that hematopoietic stem cells are related to subpopulation of migrating primordial germ cells...
May 15, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501573/alterations-of-dna-methylation-in-parathyroid-tumors
#13
REVIEW
V Guarnieri, L A Muscarella, C Verdelli, S Corbetta
Parathyroid tumors are common endocrine neoplasias associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, a metabolic disorder characterized by parathormone hypersecretion. Parathyroid neoplasia are frequently benign adenomas or multiple glands hyperplasia, while malignancies are rare. The epigenetic scenario in parathyroid tumors has just begun to be decoded: DNA methylation, histones and chromatin modifiers expression have been investigated so far. The main findings suggest that DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling are active and deregulated in parathyroid tumors, cooperating with genetic alterations to drive the tumor phenotype: the tumor suppressors menin and parafibromin, involved in parathyroid tumorigenesis, interact with chromatin modifiers, defining distinct epigenetic derangements...
May 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500952/isolation-and-characterization-of-lymphoid-enhancer-factor-1-positive-deciduous-dental-pulp-stem-like-cells-after-transfection-with-a-piggybac-vector-containing-lef1-promoter-driven-selection-markers
#14
Tomoya Murakami, Issei Saitoh, Masahiro Sato, Emi Inada, Miki Soda, Masataka Oda, Hisanori Domon, Yoko Iwase, Tadashi Sawami, Kazunari Matsueda, Yutaka Terao, Hayato Ohshima, Hirofumi Noguchi, Haruaki Hayasaki
OBJECTIVE: Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 (LEF1) is a 48-kD nuclear protein that is expressed in pre-B and T cells. LEF1 is also an important member of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway that plays important roles in the self-renewal and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. We speculated that LEF1 might function in the stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED). In this study, we attempted to isolate such LEF1-positive cells from human deciduous dental pulp cells (HDDPCs) by genetic engineering technology, using the human LEF1 promoter...
May 7, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494940/differentiation-defective-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-reveal%C3%A2-strengths-and-limitations-of-the-teratoma-assay-and-in%C3%A2-vitro-pluripotency-assays
#15
Marga J Bouma, Maarten van Iterson, Bart Janssen, Christine L Mummery, Daniela C F Salvatori, Christian Freund
The ability to form teratomas in vivo containing multiple somatic cell types is regarded as functional evidence of pluripotency for human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Since the Teratoma assay is animal dependent, laborious, and only qualitative, the PluriTest and the hPSC ScoreCard assay have been developed as in vitro alternatives. Here we compared normal hPSCs, induced hPSCs (hiPSCs) with reactivated reprogramming transgenes, and human embryonal carcinoma cells (hECs) in these assays. While normal hPSCs gave rise to typical teratomas, the xenografts of the hECs and the hiPSCs with reactivated reprogramming transgenes were largely undifferentiated and malignant...
May 9, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494856/addressing-the-ethical-issues-raised-by-synthetic-human-entities-with-embryo-like-features
#16
John Aach, Jeantine Lunshof, Eswar Iyer, George M Church
The "14-day rule" for embryo research stipulates that experiments with intact human embryos must not allow them to develop beyond 14 days or the appearance of the primitive streak. However, recent experiments showing that suitably cultured human pluripotent stem cells can self-organize and recapitulate embryonic features have highlighted difficulties with the 14-day rule and led to calls for its reassessment. Here we argue that these and related experiments raise more foundational issues that cannot be fixed by adjusting the 14-day rule, because the framework underlying the rule cannot adequately describe the ways by which synthetic human entities with embryo-like features (SHEEFs) might develop morally concerning features through altered forms of development...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491150/dynamic-silencing-of-somatic-l1-retrotransposon-insertions-reflects-the-developmental-and-cellular-contexts-of-their-genomic-integration
#17
Manoj Kannan, Jingfeng Li, Sarah E Fritz, Kathryn E Husarek, Jonathan C Sanford, Teresa L Sullivan, Pawan Kumar Tiwary, Wenfeng An, Jef D Boeke, David E Symer
BACKGROUND: The ongoing mobilization of mammalian transposable elements (TEs) contributes to natural genetic variation. To survey the epigenetic control and expression of reporter genes inserted by L1 retrotransposition in diverse cellular and genomic contexts, we engineered highly sensitive, real-time L1 retrotransposon reporter constructs. RESULTS: Here we describe different patterns of expression and epigenetic controls of newly inserted sequences retrotransposed by L1 in various somatic cells and tissues including cultured human cancer cells, mouse embryonic stem cells, and tissues of pseudofounder transgenic mice and their progeny...
2017: Mobile DNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491099/induction-of-pluripotent-stem-cells-from-a-manifesting-carrier-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-and-characterization-of-their-x-inactivation-status
#18
Yuko Miyagoe-Suzuki, Takashi Nishiyama, Miho Nakamura, Asako Narita, Fusako Takemura, Satoru Masuda, Narihiro Minami, Kumiko Murayama, Hirofumi Komaki, Yu-Ichi Goto, Shin'ichi Takeda
Three to eight percent of female carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) develop dystrophic symptoms ranging from mild muscle weakness to a rapidly progressive DMD-like muscular dystrophy due to skewed inactivation of X chromosomes during early development. Here, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from a manifesting female carrier using retroviral or Sendai viral (SeV) vectors and determined their X-inactivation status. Although manifesting carrier-derived iPS cells showed normal expression of human embryonic stem cell markers and formed well-differentiated teratomas in vivo, many hiPS clones showed bi-allelic expression of the androgen receptor (AR) gene and loss of X-inactivation-specific transcript and trimethyl-histone H3 (Lys27) signals on X chromosomes, suggesting that both X chromosomes of the hiPS cells are in an active state...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490958/transplantation-of-human-neonatal-foreskin-stromal-cells-in-ex-vivo-organotypic-cultures-of-embryonic-chick-femurs
#19
Abdullah Aldahmash, Radhakrishnan Vishnubalaji
We have previously reported that human neonatal foreskin stromal cells (hNSSCs) promote angiogenesis in vitro and in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay in vivo. To examine the in vivo relevance of this observation, we examined in the present study the differentiation potential of hNSSCs in ex vivo organotypic cultures of embryonic chick femurs. Isolated embryonic chick femurs (E10 and E11) were cultured for 10 days together with micro-mass cell pellets of hNSSCs, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or a combination of the two cell types...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490693/-comparison-of-differentiated-endothelial-cells-from-the-embryonic-stem-cells-with-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#20
Yangui Wang, Xiaoxiao Mao, Tianlun Yang
To compare the differentiated endothelial cells from the embryonic stem cells in vitro with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).
 Methods: Induction of the stem cells HUES9 to endothelial cells follows 2 steps. Stem cells were treated with CHIR99021 (10 µmol/L) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (25 ng/mL) for 3 days to keep mesoderm state, then subsequent exposure them to VEGF165 (200 ng/mL) and Forskolin (2 µmol/L) to differentiate into endothelial cells. The morphology of differentiated endothelial cells were compared with HUVECs...
April 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
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