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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330145/enhanced-xylitol-production-using-immobilized-candida-tropicalis-with-non-detoxified-corn-cob-hemicellulosic-hydrolysate
#1
Tatyaso Yewale, Shruti Panchwagh, Srinivasan Rajagopalan, Pradip B Dhamole, Rishi Jain
This study reports an industrially applicable non-sterile xylitol fermentation process to produce xylitol from a low-cost feedstock like corn cob hydrolysate as pentose source without any detoxification. Different immobilization matrices/mediums (alginate, polyvinyl alcohol, agarose gel, polyacrylamide, gelatin, and κ-carrageenan) were studied to immobilize Candida tropicalis NCIM 3123 cells for xylitol production. Amongst this calcium alginate, immobilized cells produced maximum amount of xylitol with titer of 11...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325852/extended-multiplexing-of-tmt-labeling-reveals-age-and-high-fat-diet-specific-proteome-changes-in-mouse-epididymal-adipose-tissue
#2
Deanna L Plubell, Phillip A Wilmarth, Yuqi Zhao, Alexandra M Fenton, Jessica Minnier, Ashok P Reddy, John Klimek, Xia Yang, Larry L David, Nathalie Pamir
The lack of high-throughput methods to analyze the adipose tissue protein composition limits our understanding of the protein networks responsible for age and diet related metabolic response. We have developed an approach using multiple-dimension liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and extended multiplexing (24 biological samples) with TMT labeling to analyze proteomes of epididymal adipose tissues isolated from mice fed either low or high fat diet for a short or a long-term, and from mice that aged on low vs...
March 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323949/plasma-arginine-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-ratio-and-incidence-of-cardiovascular-events-a-case-cohort-study
#3
Edward Yu, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Frank B Hu, Clary B Clish, Dolores Corella, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Adela Hruby, Montserrat Fitó, Liming Liang, Estefania Toledo, Emilio Ros, Ramón Estruch, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, Jose Lapetra, Fernando Arós, Dora Romaguera, Lluís Serra-Majem, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Dong D Wang, Miguel A Martínez-González
CONTEXT: Arginine, its methylated metabolites and other metabolites related to the urea cycle have been independently associated with cardiovascular risk, but the potential causal meaning of these associations (positive for some metabolites and negative for others) remains elusive due to a lack of studies measuring metabolite changes over time. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between baseline and 1-year concentrations of urea cycle metabolites and cardiovascular disease in a case-cohort setting...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319841/mesoporous-magnesium-oxide-nanoparticles-derived-via-complexation-combustion-for-enhanced-performance-in-carbon-dioxide-capture
#4
Vishwanath Hiremath, Raghavendra Shavi, Jeong Gil Seo
Magnesium oxide (MgO) is a promising candidate for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture at high temperature applicable to pre-combustion capture in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) scheme. In this work, mesoporous MgO nanoparticles were synthesized via simple complexation-combustion method by using glycine (G) and urea (U) as fuels (F). The obtained sorbents were thoroughly characterized in terms of the crystalline structure, morphology, nature of the fuel, F/O ratio, and their consequent effects on CO2 sorption...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319373/morphology-controllable-synthesis-of-zn-co-mixed-sulfide-nanostructures-on-carbon-fiber-paper-towards-efficient-rechargeable-zinc-air-batteries-and-water-electrolysis
#5
Xiaoyu Wu, Xiaopeng Han, Xiaoya Ma, Wei Zhang, Yida Deng, Cheng Zhong, Wenbin Hu
It remains an ongoing challenge to develop cheap, highly active and stable electrocatalysts to promote the sluggish electrocatalytic oxygen evolution, oxygen reduction, and hydrogen evolution reactions for rechargeable metal-air batteries and water-splitting systems. In this work, we report the morphology-controllable synthesis of zinc cobalt mixed sulfide (Zn-Co-S) nanoarchitectures, including nanosheets, nanoplates, and nanoneedles, grown on conductive carbon fiber paper (CFP) and the micro-nanostructure dependent electrochemical efficacy for catalyzing hydrogen and oxygen in zinc-air batteries and water electrolysis...
March 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302489/modelling-urea-cycle-disorder-citrullinemia-type-1-with-disease-specific-ipscs
#6
Elena Yukie Yoshitoshi-Uebayashi, Taro Toyoda, Katsutaro Yasuda, Maki Kotaka, Keiko Nomoto, Keisuke Okita, Kentaro Yasuchika, Shinya Okamoto, Noriyuki Takubo, Toshiya Nishikubo, Tomoyoshi Soga, Shinji Uemoto, Kenji Osafune
Citrullinemia type 1 (CTLN1) is a urea cycle disorder (UCD) caused by mutations of the ASS1 gene, which is responsible for production of the enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), and classically presented as life-threatening hyperammonemia in newborns. Therapeutic options are limited, and neurological sequelae may persist. To understand the pathophysiology and find novel treatments, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated from a CTLN1 patient and differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs)...
March 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296339/controlling-the-hydrolysis-and-loss-of-nitrogen-fertilizer-urea-using-a-nanocomposite
#7
Naiqin Zhong, Linglin Zhou, Pan Zhao, Yu Chi, Dongfang Wang, Pan Wang, Ning Liu, Dongqing Cai, Zhengyan Wu
Urea tends to be hydrolyzed by urease and then migrate to the environment, resulting in low utilization efficiency and severe environmental contamination. To solve this problem, a fertilizer synergist (FS) was developed using sodium humate transported by a nanonetwork through hydrogen bonds. FS could effectively inhibit the hydrolysis, reduce the loss amount, and enhance the UE of nitrogen. Furthermore, FS exerted significant positive effects on the expression of several nitrogen uptake-related genes, ion flux in maize roots, the growth of crops and the organic matter in soil...
March 10, 2017: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288441/carbon-footprint-as-an-environmental-sustainability-indicator-for-the-particleboard-produced-in-pakistan
#8
Majid Hussain, Riffat Naseem Malik, Adam Taylor
This study quantified the carbon footprint of particleboard production in Pakistan using a cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment approach. The system boundary comprised raw materials acquisition, transport, particleboard manufacture and finished product distribution. Primary data were collected through surveys and meetings with particleboard manufacturers. Secondary data were taken from the literature. Greenhouse gas emissions from off-site industrial operations of the particleboard industry represented 52% of the total emissions from the production of 1...
March 10, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284393/epilepsy-in-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-with-therapeutic-options
#9
Jaume Campistol
Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are rare conditions that represent more than 1000 diseases, with a global prevalence of approximately 1:2000 individuals. Approximately, 40%-60% of IEM may present with epilepsy as one of the main neurologic signs. Epilepsy in IEM may appear at any age (fetal, newborn, infant, adolescent, or even adult). Different pathophysiological mechanisms may be responsible for the clinical phenotype, such as disturbances in energy metabolism (mitochondrial and fatty oxidation disorders, GLUT-1, and cerebral creatine deficiency), accumulation of complex molecules (lysosomal storage disorders), toxic mechanisms (organic acidurias and urea cycle disorders), or impairment of neurotransmission...
November 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283530/identification-of-enzymes-involved-in-oxidation-of-phenylbutyrate
#10
Neža Palir, Jos P N Ruiter, Ronald J A Wanders, Riekelt H Houtkooper
In recent years the short-chain fatty acid 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) has emerged as a promising drug for various clinical conditions. In fact, PB is FDA-approved for urea cycle disorders since 1996. PB is more potent and less toxic than its metabolite phenylacetate (PA), and not just a pro-drug for PA as it was initially assumed. The metabolic pathway of PB, however, has remained unclear. Therefore, we set out to identify the enzymes involved in the β-oxidation of PB. We used cells deficient in specific steps of fatty acid β-oxidation, and used ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) to measure to which enzymes are able to convert PB or its downstream products...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283349/aav-gene-therapy-corrects-otc-deficiency-and-prevents-liver-fibrosis-in-aged-otc-knock-out-heterozygous-mice
#11
Lili Wang, Peter Bell, Hiroki Morizono, Zhenning He, Elena Pumbo, Hongwei Yu, John White, Mark L Batshaw, James M Wilson
Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency is an X-linked disorder of the urea cycle. Hemizygous males and heterozygous females may experience life-threatening elevations of ammonia in blood and brain, leading to irreversible cognitive impairment, coma, and death. Recent evidence of acute liver failure and fibrosis/cirrhosis is also emerging in OTC-deficient patients. Here, we investigated the long-term consequences of abnormal ureagenesis in female mice heterozygous (Het) for a null mutation in the OTC gene...
March 2, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283247/environmentally-friendly-and-non-polluting-solvent-pretreatment-of-palm-samples-for-polyphenol-analysis-using-choline-chloride-deep-eutectic-solvents
#12
Najing Fu, Runqiu Lv, Zhixin Guo, Yiwei Guo, Xiaoyu You, Baokun Tang, Dandan Han, Hongyuan Yan, Kyung Ho Row
In this work, choline chloride (ChCl) deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were evaluated for the pretreatment of palm samples in the analysis of polyphenols, such as protocatechuic acid, catechins, epicatechin, and caffeic acid. During the enrichment step of the pretreatment, eight DESs comprising ChCl with ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol (Gly), xylitol (Xyl), phenol (Ph), formic acid (FA), citric acid (CiA), oxalic acid (OA), or malonic acid (MA), were prepared and applied to the reflux extraction of polyphenols from palm samples...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281899/targeting-cps1-in-the-treatment-of-carbamoyl-phosphate-synthetase-1-cps1-deficiency-a-urea-cycle-disorder
#13
Carmen Diez-Fernandez, Johannes Häberle
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) deficiency (CPS1D) is a rare autosomal recessive urea cycle disorder (UCD), which can lead to life-threatening hyperammonemia. Unless promptly treated, it can result in encephalopathy, coma and death, or intellectual disability in surviving patients. Over recent decades, therapies for CPS1D have barely improved leaving the management of these patients largely unchanged. Additionally, in many cases, current management (protein-restriction and supplementation with citrulline and/or arginine and ammonia scavengers) is insufficient for achieving metabolic stability, highlighting the importance of developing alternative therapeutic approaches...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279907/repeated-biotransformation-of-glycerol-to-1-3-dihydroxyacetone-by-immobilized-cells-of-gluconobacter-oxydans-with-glycerol-and-urea-feeding-strategy-in-a-bubble-column-bioreactor
#14
Zhong-Ce Hu, Sheng-Ying Tian, Li-Juan Ruan, Yu-Guo Zheng
Some inorganic nitrogen sources and amino acids instead of yeast extract, which resulted in trouble of product purification, were introduced for 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA) production by biotransformation with Gluconobacter oxydans. The results showed that urea is an optimal nitrogen source. Furthermore, the effects of glycerol- and urea-feeding strategies for DHA production by immobilized cells in a home-made bubble column bioreactor were optimized. Cells immobilization was prepared by cultivation in the bioreactor packed with porous ceramics, and then the broth was removed...
February 24, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275973/normal-neurological-development-during-infancy-despite-massive-hyperammonemia-in-early-treated-nags-deficiency
#15
Hallvard Reigstad, Berit Woldseth, Johannes Häberle
A girl born at term was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit because of mild respiratory distress after a complicated delivery. She recovered, but was readmitted at 58 h of life with mild respiratory distress and increased muscle tone. Neonatal abstinence syndrome because of maternal use of lithium, clomipramine, and quetiapine during pregnancy was suspected, but at 115 h of life she became unresponsive, and an immediate work-up for coma was initiated. An ammonia of 2,235 μmol/l was found, and treatment with sodium benzoate, sodium phenylacetate, arginine, glucose, and N-carbamylglutamate (NCG, Carbaglu(®)) was started...
March 9, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272778/the-activity-of-the-carbamoyl-phosphate-synthase-1-promoter-in-human-liver-derived-cells-is-dependent-on-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-3-beta
#16
Zhanfei Chen, Nanhong Tang, Xiaoqian Wang, Yanling Chen
Carbamoyl phosphate synthase 1 (CPS1) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the first step of the urea cycle and an indispensable enzyme in the metabolism of human liver. However, CPS1 epigenetic regulation involves promoter analysis and the role of liver-enriched transcription factors (LETFs), which is not fully elucidated. In this work, the promoter region of hCPS1 gene was cloned, and its activity was investigated. An LETF, hepatocyte nuclear factor 3-beta (HNF3β), was found to promote the transcriptional expression of CPS1 in liver-derived cell lines...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272033/sewage-sludge-as-fertiliser-environmental-assessment-of-storage-and-land-application-options
#17
A Willén, C Junestedt, L Rodhe, M Pell, H Jönsson
Sewage sludge (SS) contains beneficial plant nutrients and organic matter, and therefore application of SS on agricultural land helps close nutrient loops. However, spreading operations are restricted to certain seasons and hence the SS needs to be stored. Storage and land application of SS are both potential sources of greenhouse gases and ammonia, leading to global warming, acidification and eutrophication. Covering the stored SS, treating it with urea and choosing the correct time for land application all have the potential to reduce emissions from the system...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270654/a-proposed-physiopathological-pathway-to-hyperammonemic-encephalopathy-in-a-non-cirrhotic-patient-with-fibrolamellar-hepatocellular-carcinoma-without-ornithine-transcarbamylase-otc-mutation
#18
Rodrigo C Surjan, Elizabeth S Dos Santos, Tiago Basseres, Fabio F Makdissi, Marcel A Machado
BACKGROUND Hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a potentially fatal condition that may progress to irreversible neuronal damage and is usually associated with liver failure or portosystemic shunting. However, other less common conditions can lead to hyperammonemia in adults, such as fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical awareness of hyperammonemic encephalopathy in patients with normal liver function is paramount to timely diagnosis, but understanding the underlying physiopathology is decisive to initiate adequate treatment for complete recovery...
March 8, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262773/metabolomics-for-clinical-use-and-research-in-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
REVIEW
Berthold Hocher, Jerzy Adamski
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has a high prevalence in the general population and is associated with high mortality; a need therefore exists for better biomarkers for diagnosis, monitoring of disease progression and therapy stratification. Moreover, very sensitive biomarkers are needed in drug development and clinical research to increase understanding of the efficacy and safety of potential and existing therapies. Metabolomics analyses can identify and quantify all metabolites present in a given sample, covering hundreds to thousands of metabolites...
March 6, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261508/urea-cycle-defects-early-onset-disease-associated-with-a208t-mutation-in-otc-gene-expanding-the-clinical-phenotype
#20
Ana Isabel Sánchez, Alejandra Rincón, Mary García, Fernando Suárez-Obando
Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OMIM: 311250) is the most common disorder of urea cycle disorders, accounting for nearly 50% of all cases. We report a case of a two-month- old male patient, who attends our medical genetics consultation because of low citrulline levels and elevated glutamine to citrulline ratio detected by expanded newborn screening with tandem mass spectrometry. He is an asymptomatic male with a normal physical examination and appropriate neurodevelopmental milestones. The patient has a family history of one older brother who died at 18 months old from severe and sudden hyperammonemia and a maternal aunt who suddenly died at two years old...
2017: Case Reports in Genetics
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