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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333855/carbon-and-binder-free-core-shell-nanowire-arrays-for-efficient-ethanol-electro-oxidation-in-alkaline-medium
#1
Fen Guo, Yiju Li, Baoan Fan, Yi Liu, Lilin Lu, Yang Lei
To achieve high electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and avoid carbon support and binder in the anode catalyst of direct ethanol fuel cell, herein, we design freestanding core-shell nickel@palladium-nickel nanowire arrays (Ni@Pd-Ni NAs) without carbon support and binder for high-efficiency ethanol electro-oxidation. Bare Ni nanowire arrays (Ni NAs) are first prepared using the facile template-assistantelectrodeposition method. Subsequently, the Ni@Pd-Ni NAs are formed using one-step solution-based alloying reaction...
January 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330779/correction-to-age-at-disease-onset-and-peak-ammonium-level-rather-than-interventional-variables-predict-the-neurological-outcome-in-urea-cycle-disorders
#2
Roland Posset, Angeles Garcia-Cazorla, Vassili Valayannopoulos, Elisa Leão Teles, Carlo Dionisi-Vici, Anaïs Brassier, Alberto B Burlina, Peter Burgard, Elisenda Cortès-Saladelafont, Dries Dobbelaere, Maria L Couce, Jolanta Sykut-Cegielska, Johannes Häberle, Allan M Lund, Anupam Chakrapani, Manuel Schiff, John H Walter, Jiri Zeman, Roshni Vara, Stefan Kölker
Due to an unfortunate error during the typesetting process, the collaborators were presented incorrectly.
January 12, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320490/the-glutamine-synthetase-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-is-required-for-its-resistance-to-ammonium-accumulation-and-evasion-of-the-parasitophorous-vacuole-during-host-cell-infection
#3
Marcell Crispim, Flávia Silva Damasceno, Agustín Hernández, María Julia Barisón, Ismael Pretto Sauter, Raphael Souza Pavani, Alexandre Santos Moura, Elizabeth Mieko Furusho Pral, Mauro Cortez, Maria Carolina Elias, Ariel Mariano Silber
Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, consumes glucose and amino acids depending on the environmental availability of each nutrient during its complex life cycle. For example, amino acids are the major energy and carbon sources in the intracellular stages of the T. cruzi parasite, but their consumption produces an accumulation of NH4+ in the environment, which is toxic. These parasites do not have a functional urea cycle to secrete excess nitrogen as low-toxicity waste. Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays a central role in regulating the carbon/nitrogen balance in the metabolism of most living organisms...
January 10, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318674/a-simple-route-to-porous-graphene-from-carbon-nanodots-for-supercapacitor-applications
#4
Volker Strauss, Kris Marsh, Matthew D Kowal, Maher El-Kady, Richard B Kaner
A facile method to convert biomolecule-based carbon nanodots (CNDs) into high-surface-area 3D-graphene networks with excellent electrochemical properties is presented. Initially, CNDs are synthesized by microwave-assisted thermolysis of citric acid and urea according to previously published protocols. Next, the CNDs are annealed up to 400 °C in a tube furnace in an oxygen-free environment. Finally, films of the thermolyzed CNDs are converted into open porous 3D turbostratic graphene (3D-ts-graphene) networks by irradiation with an infrared laser...
January 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318410/flux-analysis-of-inborn-errors-of-metabolism
#5
D-J Reijngoud
Patients with an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) are deficient of an enzyme involved in metabolism, and as a consequence metabolism reprograms itself to reach a new steady state. This new steady state underlies the clinical phenotype associated with the deficiency. Hence, we need to know the flux of metabolites through the different metabolic pathways in this new steady state of the reprogrammed metabolism. Stable isotope technology is best suited to study this. In this review the progress made in characterizing the altered metabolism will be presented...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314318/two-novel-cps1-mutations-in-a-case-of-carbamoyl-phosphate-synthetase-1-deficiency-causing-hyperammonemia-and-leukodystrophy
#6
Xihui Chen, Lijuan Yuan, Mao Sun, Qingbo Liu, Yuanming Wu
BACKGROUND: Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency (CPS1D) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle, mostly characterized by hyperammonemia and the concomitant leukodystrophy. The onset of CPS1D can be at any age, and the clinical manifestations are variable and atypical. Genetic tests are indispensable for accurate diagnosis of CPS1D on the basis of biochemical tests. METHODS: Blood tandem mass spectrometric analysis and urea organic acidemia screening were performed on a Chinese neonatal patient with low activity, recurrent seizures, and hyperammonemia...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313349/analysis-of-the-effects-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-%C3%AE-toh-on-raw264-7-and-k562-cells-based-on-sup-1-sup-h-nmr-metabonomics
#7
Yang Lu, Hui Li, Yue Geng
δ-Tocopherol (δ-TOH) is a form of vitamin E with higher bioactivity. In this study, we studied the bioactivity of δ-TOH using the IC50 of δ-TOH on RAW264.7 (80 μM) and K562 (110 μM) cells. We compared the differential metabolites from the cell lines with and without δ-TOH treatment by 1H-NMR metabonomics analysis. It was found that δ-TOH affected the protein biosynthesis, betaine metabolism, and urea cycle in various ways in both cell lines. Metabolic levels of the cell lines were changed after treatment with δ-TOH as differential metabolites were produced...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307055/novel-acute-kidney-injury-biomarkers-their-characteristics-utility-and-concerns
#8
REVIEW
Braian M Beker, Mateo G Corleto, Cecilia Fieiras, Carlos G Musso
Acute kidney injury (AKI) consists of a rapid renal function decline which usually increases serum urea and creatinine levels. Since kidney injury begins by inducing biological and molecular changes which evolve to cellular damage, biomarkers could be used as tools for monitoring early AKI appearance, and predicting its recovery. Among the main AKI biomarkers the neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, cystatin C, kidney injury molecule-1, monocyte chemotactic peptide-1, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, interleukin-18, liver-type fatty acid-binding protein, netrin-1, cycle arrest markers, endogenous ouabain, selenium-binding protein 1, and BPIFA2 marker, have been described...
January 6, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285295/nmr-based-metabolomic-techniques-identify-potential-urinary-biomarkers-for-early-colorectal-cancer-detection
#9
Zhening Wang, Yan Lin, Jiahao Liang, Yao Huang, Changchun Ma, Xingmu Liu, Jurong Yang
Better early detection methods are needed to improve the outcomes of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR), a potential non-invasive early tumor detection method, was used to profile urine metabolites from 55 CRC patients and 40 healthy controls (HCs). Pattern recognition through orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was applied to 1H-NMR processed data. Model specificity was confirmed by comparison with esophageal cancers (EC, n=18)...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282796/disease-causing-mutations-in-the-promoter-and-enhancer-of-the-ornithine-transcarbamylase-gene
#10
Yoon J Jang, Abigail L LaBella, Timothy P Feeney, Nancy Braverman, Mendel Tuchman, Hiroki Morizono, Nicholas Ah Mew, Ljubica Caldovic
The ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) gene is on the X chromosome and its product catalyzes the formation of citrulline from ornithine and carbamylphosphate in the urea cycle. About 10-15% of patients, clinically diagnosed with OTC deficiency (OTCD), lack identifiable mutations in the coding region or splice junctions of the OTC gene on routine molecular testing. We collected DNA from such patients via retrospective review and by prospective enrollment. In nine of 38 subjects (24%), we identified a sequence variant in the OTC regulatory regions...
December 27, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279371/enhancement-of-hepatic-autophagy-increases-ureagenesis-and-protects-against-hyperammonemia
#11
Leandro R Soria, Gabriella Allegri, Dominique Melck, Nunzia Pastore, Patrizia Annunziata, Debora Paris, Elena Polishchuk, Edoardo Nusco, Beat Thöny, Andrea Motta, Johannes Häberle, Andrea Ballabio, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri
Ammonia is a potent neurotoxin that is detoxified mainly by the urea cycle in the liver. Hyperammonemia is a common complication of a wide variety of both inherited and acquired liver diseases. If not treated early and thoroughly, it results in encephalopathy and death. Here, we found that hepatic autophagy is critically involved in systemic ammonia homeostasis by providing key urea-cycle intermediates and ATP. Hepatic autophagy is triggered in vivo by hyperammonemia through an α-ketoglutarate-dependent inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1, and deficiency of autophagy impairs ammonia detoxification...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260325/environmental-evaluation-of-the-life-cycle-of-elephant-grass-fertilization-cenchrus-purpureus-schumach-morrone-using-chemical-fertilization-and-biosolids
#12
Talles Iwasawa Neves, Claudio Augusto Uyeda, Monica Carvalho, Raphael Abrahão
Law 12305/10, National Solid Waste Policy of Brazil, banned the disposal in landfills of any solid waste that could be converted to another use. Sludge produced at Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plants, which contains components characteristic of fertilizers, falls into this category. This type of sludge, also known as a biosolid, has great potential to replace commercial chemical fertilization. The use of biosolids in agriculture allows for compliance with new legislation, reducing the burden on landfills and reusing a waste product...
December 19, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258276/metabolomic-profiles-of-a-midge-procladius-villosimanus-kieffer-are-associated-with-sediment-contamination-in-urban-wetlands
#13
Katherine J Jeppe, Konstantinos A Kouremenos, Kallie R Townsend, Daniel F MacMahon, David Sharley, Dedreia L Tull, Ary A Hoffmann, Vincent Pettigrove, Sara M Long
Metabolomic techniques are powerful tools for investigating organism-environment interactions. Metabolite profiles have the potential to identify exposure or toxicity before populations are disrupted and can provide useful information for environmental assessment. However, under complex environmental scenarios, metabolomic responses to exposure can be distorted by background and/or organismal variation. In the current study, we use LC-MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) and GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) to measure metabolites of the midge Procladius villosimanus inhabiting 21 urban wetlands...
December 18, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247816/generation-of-an-ass1-heterozygous-knockout-human-embryonic-stem-cell-line-wae001-a-13-using-crispr-cas9
#14
Fang Yuan, Dongsheng Guo, Yanli Liu, Yingying Xu, Ge Gao, Yuhang Wu, Fan Yang, Xinrong Ke, Keyu Lai, Hongcheng Wei, Yin-Xiong Li
The ASS1 gene encodes argininosuccinate synthetase-1, a cytosolic enzyme with a critical role in the urea cycle. Mutations are found in all ASS1 exons and cause the autosomal recessive disorder citrullinemia. Using CRISPR/Cas9-editing, we established the WAe001-A-13 cell line, which was heterozygous for an ASS1 mutation, from the human embryonic stem cell line H1. The WAe001-A-13 cell line maintained the pluripotent phenotype, the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers and a normal karyotype.
November 10, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244243/metabolic-interaction-between-urea-cycle-and-citric-acid-cycle-shunt-a-guided-approach
#15
Rossana Pesi, Francesco Balestri, Piero L Ipata
This article is a guided pedagogical approach, devoted to postgraduate students specializing in biochemistry, aimed at presenting all single reactions and overall equations leading to the metabolic interaction between ureagenesis and citric acid cycle to be incorporated into a two-three lecture series about the interaction of urea cycle with other metabolic pathways. We emphasize that citrate synthetase, aconitase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, three enzymes of the citric acid cycle are not involved, thus creating a shunt in citric acid cycle...
December 15, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232381/effects-of-experimental-nitrogen-fertilization-on-planktonic-metabolism-and-co2-flux-in-a-hypereutrophic-hardwater-lake
#16
Matthew J Bogard, Kerri Finlay, Marley J Waiser, Vijay P Tumber, Derek B Donald, Emma Wiik, Gavin L Simpson, Paul A Del Giorgio, Peter R Leavitt
Hardwater lakes are common in human-dominated regions of the world and often experience pollution due to agricultural and urban effluent inputs of inorganic and organic nitrogen (N). Although these lakes are landscape hotspots for CO2 exchange and food web carbon (C) cycling, the effect of N enrichment on hardwater lake food web functioning and C cycling patterns remains unclear. Specifically, it is unknown if different eutrophication scenarios (e.g., modest non point vs. extreme point sources) yield consistent effects on auto- and heterotrophic C cycling, or how biotic responses interact with the inorganic C system to shape responses of air-water CO2 exchange...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229845/brain-urea-increase-is-an-early-huntington-s-disease-pathogenic-event-observed-in-a-prodromal-transgenic-sheep-model-and-hd-cases
#17
Renee R Handley, Suzanne J Reid, Rudiger Brauning, Paul Maclean, Emily R Mears, Imche Fourie, Stefano Patassini, Garth J S Cooper, Skye R Rudiger, Clive J McLaughlan, Paul J Verma, James F Gusella, Marcy E MacDonald, Henry J Waldvogel, C Simon Bawden, Richard L M Faull, Russell G Snell
The neurodegenerative disorder Huntington's disease (HD) is typically characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons and the midlife onset of debilitating and progressive chorea, dementia, and psychological disturbance. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene, translating to an elongated glutamine tract in the huntingtin protein. The pathogenic mechanism resulting in cell dysfunction and death beyond the causative mutation is not well defined. To further delineate the early molecular events in HD, we performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) on striatal tissue from a cohort of 5-y-old OVT73-line sheep expressing a human CAG-expansion HTT cDNA transgene...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223554/oral-administration-of-nigella-sativa-oil-and-thymoquinone-attenuates-long-term-cisplatin-treatment-induced-toxicity-and-oxidative-damage-in-rat-kidney
#18
Zeba Farooqui, Faaiza Shahid, Aijaz Ahmed Khan, Farah Khan
Cisplatin (CP) is an effective anti-cancer drug which causes remarkable toxicity to the kidney, particularly to proximal tubules, by generating reactive oxygen species. Nigella sativa (NS), commonly known as "black cumin" reduces the progression of various kidney disorders. Thymoquinone (TQ), the major bioactive constituent of NS seeds, has been credited for various pharmacological effects of NS. Since, a typical clinical CP dosing regimen involves CP administration in multiple cycles over a long time duration, hence the present study aimed to evaluate the renoprotective efficacy of NS oil and TQ against multiple dose CP treatment induced deleterious biochemical and histological alterations in rat kidney...
December 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212471/investigation-on-the-differentiation-of-two-ustilago-esculenta-strains-implications-of-a-relationship-with-the-host-phenotypes-appearing-in-the-fields
#19
Yafen Zhang, Qianchao Cao, Peng Hu, Haifeng Cui, Xiaoping Yu, Zihong Ye
BACKGROUND: Ustilago esculenta, a pathogenic basidiomycete fungus, infects Zizania latifolia to form edible galls named Jiaobai in China. The distinct growth conditions of U. esculenta induced Z. latifolia to form three different phenotypes, named male Jiaobai, grey Jiaobai and white Jiaobai. The aim of this study is to characterize the genetic and morphological differences that distinguish the two U. esculenta strains. RESULTS: In this study, sexually compatible haploid sporidia UeT14/UeT55 from grey Jiaobai (T strains) and UeMT10/UeMT46 from white Jiaobai (MT strains) were isolated...
December 6, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209134/metabolically-based-liver-damage-pathophysiology-in-patients-with-urea-cycle-disorders-a-new-hypothesis
#20
Ivan Ivanovski, Miloš Ješić, Ana Ivanovski, Livia Garavelli, Petar Ivanovski
The underlying pathophysiology of liver dysfunction in urea cycle disorders (UCDs) is still largely elusive. There is some evidence that the accumulation of urea cycle (UC) intermediates are toxic for hepatocyte mitochondria. It is possible that liver injury is directly caused by the toxicity of ammonia. The rarity of UCDs, the lack of checking of iron level in these patients, superficial knowledge of UC and an underestimation of the metabolic role of fumaric acid, are the main reasons that are responsible for the incomprehension of the mechanism of liver injury in patients suffering from UCDs...
November 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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