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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921083/integrated-role-of-bifidobacterium-animalis-subsp-lactis-supplementation-in-gut-microbiota-immunity-and-metabolism-of-infant-rhesus-monkeys
#1
Xuan He, Carolyn M Slupsky, James W Dekker, Neill W Haggarty, Bo Lönnerdal
To investigate the impact of probiotic supplementation of infant formula on immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, and metabolism, five individually housed infant rhesus monkeys exclusively fed standard infant formula supplemented with probiotics (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019) from birth until 3 months of age were compared with five standard formula-fed and five breast-fed monkeys. Anthropometric measurements, serum insulin, immune parameters, fecal microbiota, and metabolic profiles of serum, urine, and feces were evaluated...
November 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913198/argininosuccinate-synthetase-1-ass1-is-a-common-metabolic-marker-of-chemosensitivity-for-targeted-arginine-and-glutamine-starvation-therapy
#2
Yan Long, Wen-Bin Tsai, Dajuan Wang, David H Hawke, Niramol Savaraj, Lynn G Feun, Mien-Chie Hung, Helen H W Chen, Macus Tien Kuo
Argininosuccinate synthetase 1 (ASS1) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of arginine (Arg). Many malignant human tumors are auxotrophic for Arg because ASS1 is silenced. ASS1 has been established as a sensor of Arg auxotrophic response and a chemosensitivity marker for Arg starvation therapy. Here, we report that ASS1 is also a sensor for glutamine (Gln)-deprivation response, and that upregulation of ASS1 expression is associated with resistance to Gln-starvation treatments. Knockdown of ASS1 expression resulted in increased sensitivity to both Arg- and Gln-starvation, whereas increased ASS1 expression by ectopic transfection is associated with resistance to both Arg- and Gln-starvation...
November 29, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907068/investigating-the-influence-of-mos2-nanosheets-on-e-coli-from-metabolomics-level
#3
Na Wu, Yadong Yu, Tao Li, Xiaojun Ji, Ling Jiang, Jiajun Zong, He Huang
Molybdenum disulfide, a type of two-dimensional layered material with unique properties, has been widely used in many fields. However, an exact understanding of its toxicity remains elusive, let alone its effects on the environmental microbial community. In this study, we utilized metabolomics technology to explore the effects of different concentrations of molybdenum disulfide nanosheets on Escherichia coli for the first time. The results showed that with increasing concentration of molybdenum disulfide nanosheets, the survival rate of Escherichia coli was decreased and the release of lactic dehydrogenase was increased...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900719/changes-of-soil-bacterial-activities-and-functions-after-different-n-additions-in-a-temperate-forest
#4
Peng Guo, Tiwen Han, Li Zhang, Shushan Li, Dongzhu Ma, Yuhan Du
It has been shown that different nitrogen (N) addition led to various influences on soil microbial activities in forest ecosystems; however, the changes of bacteria were still unclear. In this work, inorganic N (NH4NO3) and organic N (urea and glycine) were fertilized with different ratios (5:0, 1:4, 3:2, 2:3, and 1:4) on temperate forest soils, while fungicide (cycloheximide) was simultaneously added on half of each treatment to inhibit fungal activities (leaving only bacteria). After a 3-year field experiment, soil samples were harvested, then microbial enzymatic activities involved in carbon (C), and N and phosphorus (P) cycles were determined...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898091/restoring-ureagenesis-in-hepatocytes-by-crispr-cas9-mediated-genomic-addition-to-arginase-deficient-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#5
Patrick C Lee, Brian Truong, Agustin Vega-Crespo, W Blake Gilmore, Kip Hermann, Stephanie Ak Angarita, Jonathan K Tang, Katherine M Chang, Austin E Wininger, Alex K Lam, Benjamen E Schoenberg, Stephen D Cederbaum, April D Pyle, James A Byrne, Gerald S Lipshutz
Urea cycle disorders are incurable enzymopathies that affect nitrogen metabolism and typically lead to hyperammonemia. Arginase deficiency results from a mutation in Arg1, the enzyme regulating the final step of ureagenesis and typically results in developmental disabilities, seizures, spastic diplegia, and sometimes death. Current medical treatments for urea cycle disorders are only marginally effective, and for proximal disorders, liver transplantation is effective but limited by graft availability. Advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell research has allowed for the genetic modification of stem cells for potential cellular replacement therapies...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891735/hyperammonemia-in-ornithine-transcarbamylase-deficient-recipients-following-living-donor-liver-transplantation-from-heterozygous-carrier-donors
#6
Tri Hening Rahayatri, Hajime Uchida, Kengo Sasaki, Takanobu Shigeta, Yoshihiro Hirata, Hiroyuki Kanazawa, Vidyadhar Mali, Akinari Fukuda, Seisuke Sakamoto, Mureo Kasahara
Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is a urea cycle disorder of X-linked inheritance, affecting the detoxification of excess nitrogen and leading to hyperammonemia (hyper-NH3 ). Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been applied for the treatment of OTCD. This case series retrospectively reviewed two OTCD patients who experienced hyper-NH3 following LDLT. The first case was a 5-year-old girl who had onset of OTCD at 2 years of age. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) enzyme activity was 62% for the donor and 15% for the recipient...
November 28, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890695/nitric-oxide-polyamines-cross-talk-during-dormancy-release-and-germination-of-apple-embryos
#7
Urszula Krasuska, Katarzyna Ciacka, Agnieszka Gniazdowska
Nitric oxide (NO) and polyamines (PAs) belong to plant growth and development regulators. These compounds play a key role in numerous physiological processes e.g. seed germination. Based on the suggestion of overlapping of NO and PAs biosynthetic pathways, we demonstrated a cross-talk of NO and PAs in regulation of embryonic dormancy release. The aim of the work was to investigate an impact of PAs (Put, Spd and Spm) or NO short-term fumigation on nitrite, urea, Arg and ornithine (Orn) content, NO synthase-like (NOS-like) and arginase activity in axes of apple (Malus domestica Borkh...
November 23, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886187/plasma-proteomic-study-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-associated-with-congenital-heart-diseases
#8
Xi Zhang, Hai-Tao Hou, Jun Wang, Xiao-Cheng Liu, Qin Yang, Guo-Wei He
Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease (CHD-PAH) has serious consequence and plasma protein profiles in CHD-PAH are unknown. We aimed to reveal the differential plasma proteins in 272 CHD patients with or without PAH. Various types of CHD-PAH were studied. Differential plasma proteins were first detected by iTRAQ proteomic technology and those with significant clinical relevance were selected for further ELISA validation in new cohort of patients. Among the 190 differential plasma proteins detected by iTRAQ, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase I (CPSI, related to urea cycle and endogenous nitric oxide production) and complement factor H-related protein 2 (CFHR2, related to complement system and coagulant mechanism) were selected for further ELISA validation in new cohort of 152 patients...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860485/an-update-on-the-use-of-benzoate-phenylacetate-and-phenylbutyrate-ammonia-scavengers-for-interrogating-and-modifying-liver-nitrogen-metabolism-and-its-implications-in-urea-cycle-disorders-and-liver-disease
#9
Javier de Las Heras, Luis Aldámiz-Echevarría, María-Luz Martínez-Chantar, Teresa C Delgado
Ammonia-scavenging drugs, benzoate and phenylacetate (PA)/phenylbutyrate (PB), modulate hepatic nitrogen metabolism mainly by providing alternative pathways for nitrogen disposal. Areas Covered: We review the major findings and potential novel applications of ammonia-scavenging drugs, focusing on urea cycle disorders and liver disease. Expert Opinion: For over 40 years, ammonia-scavenging drugs have been used in the treatment of urea cycle disorders. Recently, the use of these compounds has been advocated in acute liver failure and cirrhosis for reducing hyperammonemic-induced hepatic encephalopathy...
November 18, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834067/novel-pathogenic-variant-c-580c-t-in-the-cps1-gene-in-a-newborn-with-carbamoyl-phosphate-synthetase-1-deficiency-identified-by-whole-exome-sequencing
#10
Rihwa Choi, Hyung Doo Park, Mina Yang, Chang Seok Ki, Soo Youn Lee, Jong Won Kim, Junghan Song, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
Diagnosis of the urea cycle disorder (USD) carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) deficiency (CPS1D) based on only the measurements of biochemical intermediary metabolites is not sufficient to properly exclude other UCDs with similar symptoms. We report the first Korean CPS1D patient using whole exome sequencing (WES). A four-day-old female neonate presented with respiratory failure due to severe metabolic encephalopathy with hyperammonemia (1,690 μmol/L; reference range, 11.2-48.2 μmol/L). Plasma amino acid analysis revealed markedly elevated levels of alanine (2,923 μmol/L; reference range, 131-710 μmol/L) and glutamine (5,777 μmol/L; reference range, 376-709 μmol/L), whereas that of citrulline was decreased (2 μmol/L; reference range, 10-45 μmol/L)...
January 2017: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833088/structure-guided-design-of-purine-based-probes-for-selective-nek2-inhibition
#11
Christopher R Coxon, Christopher Wong, Richard Bayliss, Kathy Boxall, Katherine H Carr, Andrew M Fry, Ian R Hardcastle, Christopher J Matheson, David R Newell, Mangaleswaran Sivaprakasam, Huw Thomas, David Turner, Sharon Yeoh, Lan Z Wang, Roger J Griffin, Bernard T Golding, Céline Cano
Nek2 (NIMA-related kinase 2) is a cell cycle-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates centrosome separation at the onset of mitosis. Overexpression of Nek2 is common in human cancers and suppression can restrict tumor cell growth and promote apoptosis. Nek2 inhibition with small molecules, therefore, offers the prospect of a new therapy for cancer. To achieve this goal, a better understanding of the requirements for selective-inhibition of Nek2 is required. 6-Alkoxypurines were identified as ATP-competitive inhibitors of Nek2 and CDK2...
November 9, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830380/recovery-of-pan-genotypic-and-genotype-specific-amino-acid-alterations-in-chronic-hepatitis-c-after-viral-clearance-transition-at-the-crossroad-of-metabolism-and-immunity
#12
Ming-Ling Chang, Mei-Ling Cheng, Su-Wei Chang, Hsiang-Yu Tang, Cheng-Tang Chiu, Chau-Ting Yeh, Ming-Shi Shiao
Recovery of amino acid (AA) metabolism and the associated clinical implications in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with sustained virological response (SVR) following anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy remains elusive. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 222 CHC patients with SVR. Eighty-two age-matched male genotype 1 (G1) and G2 patients underwent paired serum metabolomics analyses with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to examine AAs before and 24 weeks after anti-HCV therapy. Before anti-HCV therapy, G1 patients had a higher HCV RNA level than G2 patients...
November 10, 2016: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814282/nephroprotective-effects-of-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-in-coronary-angiography
#13
Naufal Zagidullin, Alina Dunayeva, Alexander Gilmanov, Shamil Zagidullin, Valentin Pavlov
BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a formidable side effect of iodinated contrast medium use in subjects undergoing coronary angiogram (CAG). Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) may reduce the risk of CIN. AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the nephroprotective effects of RIPC in coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients, undergoing CAG, with mild to moderate lowered estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). MATERIALS: In the randomized, blinded, sham RIPC (sRIPC) controlled study 51 patients with CHD and GFR less than 80 mL/min/m2, undergoing CAG, were investigated...
November 4, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813233/novel-translocation-intermediate-allows-re-evaluation-of-roles-of-atp-proton-motive-force-and-secg-at-the-late-stage-of-preprotein-translocation
#14
Ken-Ichi Nishiyama, Hajime Tokuda
Presecretory proteins such as pOmpA are translocated across the inner membrane of Escherichia coli by Sec translocase powered by ATP and proton motive force (PMF). Translocation activity has been determined by protease protection assaying in vitro. We identified a new translocation intermediate at a late stage, which was protected by proteinase K (PK), but became PK sensitive upon urea extraction. At a late stage of pOmpA translocation driven by PMF in the presence of a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue, the PK-protected materials arose, but were pulled back upon urea extraction, indicating that completion of translocation requires ATP hydrolysis...
November 4, 2016: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809283/effect-of-high-carbohydrate-diet-on-plasma-metabolome-in-mice-with-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-complex-iii-deficiency
#15
Jayasimman Rajendran, Nikica Tomašić, Heike Kotarsky, Eva Hansson, Vidya Velagapudi, Jukka Kallijärvi, Vineta Fellman
Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1l(c.232A>G)) mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose) will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804888/recent-advances-in-the-synthesis-and-anticancer-activity-of-molecules-other-than-nitrogen-containing-heterocyclic-moeities
#16
Md Jawaid Akhtar, M Shahar Yar, Ahsan Ahmed Khan, Zulphikar Ali, Md Rafi Haider
The present review article presented a detailed account of the design strategies and the structure activity relationship of different derivatives apart from nitrogen containing ring. These scaffolds play an important part in the drug discovery which showed anticancer activity against different human cancer cell lines through apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, inhibiting kinases, angiogenesis, disruption of cell migration, modulation of nuclear receptor responsiveness and others. Napthalenes amides/amidines, furan, podophyllotoxin, platinum compounds, steroids, and urea which form the core part or along with other N-heterocyclic rings are enclosed...
October 31, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802150/feeding-through-your-gills-and-turning-a-toxicant-into-a-resource-how-the-dogfish-shark-scavenges-ammonia-from-its-environment
#17
Chris M Wood, Marina Giacomin
Nitrogen (N) appears to be a limiting dietary resource for elasmobranchs, required not only for protein growth but also for urea-based osmoregulation. Building on recent evidence that the toxicant ammonia can be taken up actively at the gills of the shark and made into the valuable osmolyte urea, we demonstrate that the uptake exhibits classic Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics with an affinity constant (Km) of 379 µmol l(-1), resulting in net N retention at environmentally realistic ammonia concentrations (100-400 µmol l(-1)) and net N loss through stimulated urea-N excretion at higher levels...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799750/averting-the-foul-taste-of-pediatric-medicines-improves-adherence-and-can-be-lifesaving-pheburane-%C3%A2-sodium-phenylbutyrate
#18
REVIEW
Gideon Koren, Michael J Rieder, Yona Amitai
BACKGROUND: Children's aversions to poor and mostly bitter tastes and their inability to swallow tablets and capsules are major challenges in pediatric medicine. Sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) is a lifesaving waste nitrogen, alternative to urea nitrogen, for individuals suffering from urea cycle disorders. A major issue in the use of NaPB is its highly foul taste, which often leads to children being unable to consume it, resulting in ineffective treatment, or alternatively, necessitating the application of the drug through a nasogastric tube or gastrostomy...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794610/salt-tunable-rheology-of-thixotropic-supramolecular-organogels-and-their-applications-for-crystallization-of-organic-semiconductors
#19
Sheng Gao, Suansuan Wang, Jing Ma, Ying Wu, Xuwei Fu, Ravi Kumar Marella, Kaiqiang Liu, Yu Fang
Physical gelation behaviors of a series of novel bisurea-based derivatives bearing fatty alkyl tertiary amine moieties have been explored in water and common organic solvents. One of these amines exhibits very good thixotropic gels in apolar aromatic solvents (e.g. xylenes). The corresponding sol-gel transition is instantaneous and could be repeated for at least 50 cycles. Interestingly, the elasticity and strength of the resulting gels can be remarkably enhanced initially by the addition of a trace amount of tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBA) followed by a subsequent drop with further salt addition...
October 30, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779385/deep-eutectic-solvents-as-mwcnt-delivery-vehicles-in-the-synthesis-of-functional-poly-hipe-nanocomposites-for-applications-as-selective-sorbents
#20
Arturo Carranza, María Guadalupe Pérez-García, Kunlin Song, George M Jeha, Zhenyu Diao, Rongying Jin, Nina Bogdanchikova, J Félix Armando Soltero, Mauricio Terrones, Qinglin Wu, John Anthony Pojman, Josue David Mota-Morales
We report an alternative green strategy based on deep-eutectic solvents (DES) to deliver multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for a bottom-up approach that allowing the selective interfacial functionalization of nonaqueous poly(high internal phase emulsions), poly(HIPEs). The formation and polymerization of methacrylic and styrenic HIPEs were possible through the stabilization with nitrogen doped carbon nanotube (CNX) and surfactant mixtures using a urea-choline chloride DES as a delivering phase. Subtle changes in CNX concentration (less than 0...
October 25, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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