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Nan Zhang, Lei Zhang, Linyin Feng, Lei Yao
BACKGROUND: Essential oil from Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang essential oil, YYO) is usually used in reducing blood pressure, improving cognitive functioning in aromatherapy in human. Few reports showed its effect on anxiety behaviors. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: To investigate the anxiolytic effects of YYO exposure on anxiety animal models, determine the major active constituents and investigate the change of neurotransmitters after odor exposure. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: ICR mice were subjected to three anxiety models including open field, elevated plus maze and light-dark box tests after acute and chronic YYO exposure...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
M Allie Holschbach, Joseph S Lonstein
The adult brain shows remarkable neuroplasticity in response to hormones and the socioemotional modifications that they influence. In females with reproductive and maternal experience, this neuroplasticity includes the birth and death of cells in several forebrain regions involved in maternal caregiving and postpartum affective state. Such plasticity in midbrain sites critical for these behavioral and emotional processes has never been examined, though. By visualizing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotic cells, NeuroD for neuronal precursors, and TUNEL to identify dying cells, we found that the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus (DR, the source of most ascending serotoninergic projections) exhibited significant neuroplasticity in response to motherhood...
November 19, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Shamsher Singh, Puneet Kumar
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) is a neurotoxin which on intranigral administration produces severe nigrostriatal damage with motor and cognitive deficit in animals. Curcumin (CMN) in combination with bioenhancer piperine (PP) in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinsonian rats was used to investigate the antioxidant, neuromodulatory and neuroprotective mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hemi-Parkinson's rat model was developed with intranigral infusion of 6-OHDA (8 μg/2 μl, once, unilaterally), treatment with CMN (25 and 50 mg/kg) and combination of PP (2...
November 16, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
Katarina Edfeldt, Kosmas Daskalakis, Christofer Bäcklin, Olov Norlén, Eva Tiensuu Janson, Gunnar Westin, Per Hellman, Peter Stålberg
Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are amine- and peptide producing neoplasms. Most patients display metastases at the time of diagnosis, they have an unpredictable individual disease course and the tumors are often therapy resistant. Chromogranin A (CgA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) are the clinically most used biomarkers today, but there is a great need for novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and new therapeutic targets. Sixty-nine biomarkers were screened in serum from 23 SI-NET patients and 23 healthy controls using multiplex PLA (proximity ligation assay)...
November 9, 2016: Neuroendocrinology
Nico Johan Badenhorst, Linda Brand, Brian Herbert Harvey, Susanna Maria Ellis, Christiaan Beyers Brink
OBJECTIVE: Although prescription rates of antidepressants for children and adolescents have increased, concerns have been raised regarding effects on neurodevelopment and long-term outcome. Using a genetic animal model of depression, this study investigated the long-term effects of pre-pubertal administration of fluoxetine (FLX) on depressive-like behaviour in early adulthood, as well as on central monoaminergic response to an acute stressor. We postulated that pre-pubertal FLX will have lasting effects on animal behaviour and monoaminergic stress responses in early adulthood...
November 7, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Cheng-Kun Du, Dong-Yun Zhan, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Tadakatsu Inagaki, Toshiaki Shishido, Mikiyasu Shirai, James Todd Pearson
The aim of this study was to examine the accumulation of serotonin (5-HT) and degradation of 5-HT taken up into cells in the ischemic region during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. Using microdialysis technique in anesthetized rats, we monitored myocardial interstitial levels of 5-HT and its metabolite produced by monoamine oxidase (MAO), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), during 30-min coronary occlusion followed by 45-min reperfusion, and investigated the effects of local administration of the MAO inhibitor pargyline and the 5-HT uptake inhibitor fluoxetine...
October 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Zhiqiang Zhao, Xinxia Liu, Xiumei Xing, Yao Lu, Yi Sun, Xiaoyan Ou, Xiaolin Su, Jun Jiang, Yarui Yang, Jingli Chen, Biling Shen, Yun He
PURPOSES: The objectives of this paper are to study the impact of low level isopropyl alcohol exposure on blood pressure and to explore its potential mechanism. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on a prospective occupational cohort in south China, which focusing on occupational risk factors related cardiovascular health problems. A total of 283 participants (200 low isopropyl alcohol exposed workers and 83 controls) was finally enrolled in this study...
2016: PloS One
Sara Poletti, Aye Mu Myint, Gregor Schüetze, Irene Bollettini, Elena Mazza, Doris Grillitsch, Clara Locatelli, Markus Schwarz, Cristina Colombo, Francesco Benedetti
Decreased availability of serotonin in the central nervous system has been suggested to be a central factor in the pathogenesis of depression. Activation of indoleamine 2-3 dioxygenase following a pro-inflammatory state could reduce the amount of tryptophan converted to serotonin and increase the production of tryptophan catabolites such as kynurenic acid, an antagonist of ionotropic excitatory aminoacid receptors, whose levels are reduced in bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in white matter (WM) integrity have been widely reported in BD...
September 12, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Ying Wang, Shu-Ming Gao, Ran Li, Min Zhang, Shan Gao, Chun-Quan Yu
The Radix Bupleuri and Radix Paeoniae Alba drug pair plays a pivotal role in Xiaoyaosan, a famous Chinese herbal preparation that is popular in clinical medicine. To investigate the antidepressant-like effects and potential mechanism of action of the Radix Bupleuri and Radix Paeoniae Alba drug pair, we carried out the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST), as the mouse models of depression; and the open field test (OFT) to exclude false-positive results. Subsequently, ptosis and hypothermia induced by reserpine were assessed...
October 28, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Kamilla Blecharz-Klin, Ilona Joniec-Maciejak, Katarzyna Jawna-Zboińska, Justyna Pyrzanowska, Agnieszka Piechal, Adriana Wawer, Ewa Widy-Tyszkiewicz
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to clarify the effect of prenatal and postnatal paracetamol administration on the neurotransmitter level and balance of amino acids in the cerebellum. METHODS: Biochemical analysis to determine the concentration of neurotransmitters in this brain structure was performed on two-month-old Wistar male rats previously exposed to paracetamol in doses of 5 (P5, n=10) or 15mg/kg (P15, n=10) throughout the entire prenatal period, lactation and until the completion of the second month of life, when the experiment was terminated...
September 6, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Julia Fedotova, Vagif Soultanov, Tamara Nikitina, Victor Roschin, Natalia Ordyan, Lucian Hritcu
Previous studies indicated that reduced androgen levels may contribute to both physical and cognitive disorders in men, including Alzheimer's disease. New drug candidates for Alzheimer's disease in patients with androgen deficiency should ideally be able to act not only on multiple brain targets but also to correct impaired endocrine functions in hypogonadal men with Alzheimer's disease. Ropren(®) is one such candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease in men with an imbalance of androgens. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to examine the effects of long-term Ropren(®) administration (8...
September 3, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Noreen Samad, Muhammad Abdul Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen Haleem
Effect of administration of Rice bran oil (RBO) was evaluated on haloperidol elicited tardive dyskinesia in rats. Albino Wistar rats treated with haloperidol in drinking water at a dose of 0.2mg/kg/day and RBO by oral tubes at a dose of 0.4 mL/day for 5 weeks. Motor coordination, VCMs and 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetraline)[8-OH-DPAT] _syndrome were monitored. Striatal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-EC)...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Qiuxiao Yu, Shuxian Hao, Huamin Wang, Xi Song, Qiyang Shen, Jihong Kang
Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can suffer from psychological disorders, among which depression is the most commonly diagnosed. However, the pathogenesis is still unclear. The aims of the present study were to investigate the behaviors of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS mice, the effects of high-fat diet (HFD) on mouse behaviors, and the underlying mechanism. Prepubertal C57BL/6 mice (25 days of age) were divided into four groups and injected daily with the vehicle sesame oil or DHEA on the normal chow or a 60% HFD for 20 consecutive days...
October 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Sang Gyun Jin, Min Jung Kim, So Young Park, Shi Nae Park
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of acute noise stress on two amine stress hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the brain and plasma of mice after noise exposure. METHODS: Mice were grouped into the control and noise groups. Mice in the noise group were exposed to white noise of 110dB sound pressure level for 60min. Auditory brainstem response thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the organ of Corti grading scores, western blots of NE/5-HIAA in the whole brain and hippocampus, and the plasma levels of NE/5-HIAA were compared between the two groups...
August 2, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Amish Acharya, Sheraz R Markar, Melody Ni, George B Hanna
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergency and can represent a challenging diagnosis, with a negative appendectomy rate as high as 20 %. This review aimed to evaluate the clinical utility of individual biomarkers in the diagnosis of appendicitis and appraise the quality of these studies. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature between January 2000 and September 2015 using of PubMed, OvidMedline, EMBASE and Google Scholar was conducted...
August 5, 2016: Surgical Endoscopy
Wouter T Zandee, Kimberly Kamp, Roxanne C S van Adrichem, Richard A Feelders, Wouter W de Herder
OBJECTIVE: To determine if urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) excretion is of prognostic value for overall survival (OS) in patients with a gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumour (NET) and to compare the prognostic value with patient characteristics, ENETS/WHO grading, ENETS TNM staging and biomarkers. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data was collected from patients with a gastrointestinal NET or a NET with gastrointestinal metastases and available 5-HIAA excretion in 24-h urine samples...
November 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
Carlos A Driscoll, Stephen G Lindell, Melanie L Schwandt, Stephen J Suomi, J Dee Higley, Markus Heilig, Christina S Barr
Although the notion that alcohol promotes violence is widespread, not all individuals are aggressive while intoxicated. Genetic variation could be a contributing factor to individual differences in alcohol-heightened aggression. The present study examines the effects of OPRM1C77G genotype on responses to threat in rhesus macaques under normal conditions and following alcohol administration. Prior studies have shown that a low CSF level of 5-HIAA is a trait marker for individuals prone to escalated aggression...
August 3, 2016: Addiction Biology
Noble Kumar Talari, Manas Panigrahi, Sailaja Madigubba, Sundaram Challa, Prakash Babu Phanithi
Meningiomas are the neoplasms that arise from the arachnoid cells of the meninges. It was reported that cancer cells escape from immune system through the metabolism of an aromatic essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) via Kynurenine (KYN) pathway. However, the role of TRP metabolites such as, 5-Hydroxy tryptophan (5-HTP), 5-Hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), N-acetyl serotonin (NAS), Melatonin (MEL), KYN, N-acetyl tryptamine, 5-Hydroxy indole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and 5-Methoxy indole acetic acid is not yet evaluated in human meningioma...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Daniel Neider, Leif H Lindström, Robert Bodén
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to investigate the association between 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), bullying, and later suicide among patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients with schizophrenia were included. Correlations of clinical factors, 5-HIAA and HVA, and later suicide were investigated. RESULTS: Twelve patients committed suicide (12%) during a 28-year follow-up period...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Ana Bosak Versic, Nedeljka Glavan, Nado Bukvic, Zlatko Tomasic, Harry Nikolic
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal surgical emergency in children, and appendectomy is the most frequent acute abdominal operation. Prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment are required to reduce the risk of perforation and prevent complications, especially in small children. Enterochromaffin cells that contain large amounts of serotonin are mostly located in the distal appendix. Serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) could therefore be a marker for acute appendicitis...
December 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
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