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Brianna J Shinn, Laura J Tafe, Pantila Vanichakarn
BACKGROUND Carcinoid tumor, benign, low-grade malignant, and high-grade malignant, can be associated with the release of vasoactive substances that cause symptoms including cutaneous flushing, diarrhea, and bronchospasm. In 50-60% of patients with carcinoid syndrome, the vasoactive substances cause fibrosis of the pulmonary and tricuspid heart valves which lead to regurgitation and right-sided heart failure. The right side of the heart is usually affected because monoamine oxidases in the lungs usually inactivate the vasoactive substances...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Michele M Moraes, Patrícia C R Rabelo, Valéria A Pinto, Washington Pires, Samuel P Wanner, Raphael E Szawka, Danusa D Soares
Listening to melodic music is regarded as a non-pharmacological intervention that ameliorates various disease symptoms, likely by changing the activity of brain monoaminergic systems. Here, we investigated the effects of exposure to melodic music on the concentrations of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their respective metabolites in the caudate-putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), areas linked to reward and motor control. Male adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned to a control group or a group exposed to music...
February 27, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Josefin Hjärpe, Erik Söderman, Dimitrios Andreou, Göran C Sedvall, Ingrid Agartz, Erik G Jönsson
Metabolism of the monoamines dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline, is altered in the central nervous system of people with schizophrenia, and their major metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), respectively, have been intensively studied as indirect measures of these neurotransmitters in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Regular tobacco smoking has been shown to alter neurotransmitter metabolism in the brain and studies have found CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations to be substantially lower in smokers...
February 17, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Sygrid van der Zee, Yannick Vermeiren, Erik Fransen, Debby Van Dam, Tony Aerts, Marleen J Gerritsen, Jacoba M Spikman, Teus van Laar, Peter P De Deyn
BACKGROUND: Lewy body disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), are characterized by profound central and peripheral monoaminergic dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether these alterations depend on dementia status, we measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum monoamine and metabolite levels across subgroups of the cognitive spectrum, and evaluated their marker potential afterwards...
2018: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
Minhwa Oh, Eugene Huh, Myung Sook Oh, Ji-Seon Jeong, Seon-Pyo Hong
We developed a diagnostic method for Parkinson's disease by simultaneously analyzing biogenic amines and their metabolites using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with integrated pulsed amperometric detection (RP-HPLC-IPAD) method. Dopamine (DA), 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and homovanillic acid (HVA) were used as biomarkers to diagnose Parkinson's disease. All target components were detected with good sensitivity using sodium hydroxide (as a post-column eluent)...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Alexandra R Lewis, Xin Wang, Laurice Magdalani, Paolo D'Arienzo, Colsom Bashir, Was Mansoor, Richard Hubner, Juan W Valle, Mairéad G McNamara
AIM: To compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL), anxiety, depression, and impulsivity scores in patients with and without carcinoid syndrome (CS), and correlated them with serum 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels. METHODS: Patients with advanced gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEPNET), with and without CS completed HRQoL QLQ-C30 and QLQ-GI.NET21, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) questionnaires...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Kosmas Daskalakis, Olov Norlen, Andreas Karakatsanis, Per Hellman, Rolf Larsson, Peter Nygren, Peter Stalberg
Small intestinal endocrine tumours (SI-NETs) are generally considered resistant to systemic treatment. To date, predictive markers for drug activity are lacking. Tumour samples from 27 patients with SI-NETs were analyzed ex vivo for sensitivity to a panel of cytotoxic drugs and targeted agents using a short-term total cell kill assay. Samples of renal cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC), ovarian cancer, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) were included for comparison. For the SI-NET subset, drug sensitivity was analyzed in relation to clinico-pathological variables and pre-treatment biomarkers...
February 12, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Timothy D Brewerton, Karen T Putnam, Richard R J Lewine, S Craig Risch
Seasonal variations in neurotransmitter parameters have been previously reported in humans. However, these studies have involved small sample sizes and have not examined possible relationships with meteorological variables. We compared cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of the major monoamine neurotransmitter metabolites (5-HIAA, HVA, and MHPG) in 188 healthy controls (80 men, 108 women) in relationship to age, sex, BMI, and available meteorological variables. All subjects had a lumbar puncture (LP) performed at 9 a...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Martin Olsson, Johan Ärlig, Jan Hedner, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg
Study Objective: To investigate the cumulative effect of 5 consecutive nights of partial sleep deprivation on a panel of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in healthy adults. Methods: A randomized, cross-over study conducted at the University of Gothenburg. The participants (N=13) were healthy adults (20-40 years of age) with a normal sleeping pattern. The participants underwent a baseline sleep period consisting of 5 nights with 8h spent in bed. A subsequent period with partial sleep deprivation (PSD) consisted of 5 nights of maximum 4h of sleep per night...
February 7, 2018: Sleep
Raúl López-Arnau, Mario Buenrostro-Jáuregui, Jorge Camarasa, David Pubill, Elena Escubedo
Cathinones, such as mephedrone (Meph), are often co-abused with alcoholic drinks. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of Meph plus ethanol (EtOH) on neurotransmitter release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). A guide canula was stereotaxically implanted into either the NAc or the mPFC of male Sprague-Dawley rats. Seven days after surgery, a microdialysis probe was inserted and rats were administered saline, EtOH (1 g/kg, i.p.), Meph (25 mg/kg, s...
March 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Daniel Hammersley, Aamire Shamsi, Mohammad Murtaza Zaman, Phillip Berry, Lydia Sturridge
A 63 year old female presented to hospital with progressive exertional dyspnoea over a 6 month period. In the year preceding her admission, she reported an intercurrent history of abdominal pain, diarrhoea and weight loss. She was found to be hypoxic, the cause for which was initially unclear. A ventilation-perfusion scan identified a right-to-left shunt. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) demonstrated a significant right-to-left intracardiac shunt through a patent foramen ovale (PFO); additionally severe tricuspid regurgitation was noted through a highly abnormal tricuspid valve...
December 7, 2017: Echo Research and Practice
Irvin M Modlin, Mark Kidd, Pier-Luigi Filosso, Matteo Roffinella, Anna Lewczuk, Jaroslaw Cwikla, Lisa Bodei, Agnieska Kolasinska-Cwikla, Kyung-Min Chung, Margot E Tesselaar, Ignat A Drozdov
Thoracic NETs [bronchopulmonary NETs (BPNETs) and thymic NETs (TNET)] share a common anatomic primary location, likely a common cell of origin, the "Kulchitsky cell" and presumably, a common etiopathogenesis. Although they are similarly grouped into well-differentiated [typical carcinoids (TC) and atypical carcinoids (AC)] and poorly differentiated neoplasms and both express somatostatin receptors, they exhibit a wide variation in clinical behavior. TNETs are more aggressive, are frequently metastatic, and have a lower 5-year survival rate (~50% vs ...
November 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Melanie Y Vincent, Nina C Donner, David G Smith, Christopher A Lowry, Lauren Jacobson
The serotonergic dorsal raphé nucleus (DRN) expresses glucocorticoid receptors (GR), and systemic glucocorticoids have been shown to regulate expression and activity of tryptophan hydroxylase isoform 2, the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin synthesis in brain. We have used intra-DRN injection of pseudotyped adeno-associated virus AAV2/9 transducing either green fluorescent protein (GFP control) or Cre recombinase (DRN GR deletion) in floxed GR mice to determine if DRN GR directly regulate DRN mRNA levels of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (tph2)...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Omar S Mabrouk, John L Han, Jenny-Marie T Wong, Huda Akil, Robert T Kennedy, Shelly B Flagel
Relative to bred low-responder (bLR) rats, bred high-responder (bHR) rats have an exaggerated locomotor response to a novel environment, are more risk-taking, more impulsive, and more likely to exhibit compulsive drug-seeking behaviors. These phenotypic differences in addiction-related behaviors and temperament have previously been associated with differences in neurotransmitter signaling, including the mesolimbic dopamine system. In the current study, we applied advanced in vivo microdialysis sampling in the nucleus accumbens of bHRs/bLRs to assess differences in basal and stimulated neurochemical efflux more broadly...
November 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
David Calderón Guzmán, Maribel Ortiz Herrera, Norma Osnaya Brizuela, Gerardo Barragán Mejía, Hugo Juárez Olguín, Armando Valenzuela Peraza
Hypertension causes neuronal damage and apoptosis in the brain. Diazoxide is a drug used in the treatment of hypertension however, its effect on 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and dopamine amines in adult animal models remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of oligoelements on 5-HIAA and dopamine in the brain of adult rats treated with diazoxide METHODS: Male Fisher rats (weight 250g) were treated as follows: Group I, NaCl 0.9% (control); group II, tracefusin® (1.5mL/rat); group III, diazoxide (20mg/rat) and group IV, tracefusin® (1...
November 3, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
María-Aránzazu Martínez, Irma Ares, José-Luis Rodríguez, Marta Martínez, María-Rosa Martínez-Larrañaga, Arturo Anadón
The effects of glyphosate oral exposure (35, 75, 150 and 800mg/kg bw, 6 days) on brain region monoamine levels of male Wistar rats were examined. Glyphosate-treated rats (35, 75, 150 and 800mg/kg bw, 6 days), had no visible injury, i.e., no clinical signs of dysfunction were observed. After last dose of glyphosate, serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) and its metabolites levels were determined in the brain regions striatum, hippocampus, prefrontal, cortex, hypothalamus and midbrain, by HPLC...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Research
Kai Zhang, Chao Dong, Yuko Fujita, Atsuhiro Fujita, Kenji Hashimoto
Background: Previous reports suggest that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) might play a role in the antidepressant actions of (R,S)-ketamine. However, its role in the antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine, which is more potent than (S)-ketamine, is unknown. This study was conducted to examine whether 5-HT depletion affects the antidepressant actions of (R)-ketamine in a chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) model. Methods: An inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis, para-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA; 300 mg/kg, twice daily for 3 consecutive days), or vehicle was administered to control and CSDS susceptible mice...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
A S Davison, B Norman, A M Milan, A T Hughes, M Khedr, J Rovensky, J A Gallagher, L R Ranganath
BACKGROUND: One of the major metabolic consequences of using nitisinone to treat patients with alkaptonuria is that circulating tyrosine concentrations increase. As tyrosine is required for the biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters, it is possible that their metabolism is altered as a consequence. Herein we report the 24-h urinary excretion of normetadrenaline (NMA), metadrenaline (MA), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) (catecholamine metabolites) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA, metabolite of serotonin) in a cohort of AKU patients before and after a 4-week treatment trial with nitisinone...
November 17, 2017: JIMD Reports
Elizabeth K Wood, Ryno Kruger, Angus Bennion, Bradley M Cooke, Stephen Lindell, Melanie Schwandt, David Goldman, Christina S Barr, Stephen J Suomi, J Dee Higley
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 Alcoholism is characterized by low serotonin system functioning and has a high degree of heritability, with offspring of alcoholics often showing a reduced response to the intoxicating effects of ethanol, which is thought to be marker for future alcohol use disorders (AUDs). As such, an important aim of studies investigating the origins of AUDs is understanding the relationship between serotonin system functioning and level of intoxication. A nonhuman primate model was used to evaluate observational ratings of sensitivity to ethanol and to further investigate the relationship between central serotonin activity and behavioral response to ethanol...
November 10, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Inge Oberholzer, Marisa Möller, Brendan Holland, Olivia M Dean, Michael Berk, Brian H Harvey
There is abundant evidence for both disorganized redox balance and cognitive deficits in major depressive disorder (MDD). Garcinia mangostana Linn (GM) has anti-oxidant activity. We studied the antidepressant-like and pro-cognitive effects of raw GM rind in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, a genetic model of depression, following acute and chronic treatment compared to a reference antidepressant, imipramine (IMI). The chemical composition of the GM extract was analysed for levels of α- and γ-mangostin...
November 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
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