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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933106/-review-for-sedative-and-hypnotic-mechanism-of-sedative-traditional-chinese-medicine-and-relative-active-components-on-neurotransmitters
#1
REVIEW
Fei-Yan Zhang, Jing-Jing Li, Ying Zhou, Xiao-Yu Xu
The sedative traditional Chinese medicine has a long history of clinical experience in treating insomnia. The main pharmacological effects of sedative agents are sedation, hypnosis, antianxiety and antidepression which might be related to certain neurotransmitters and cytokines and so on. This review summarized the mechanism of sedative traditional Chinese medicine and its active monomers based on neurotransmitters, including GABA, Glu, 5-HT, DA, NE and their metabolites 5-HIAA, HVA, DOPAC. The results showed that the most research about the sedative medicine at present was throught serotonergic and GABA ergic system...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904734/a-17-year-old-male-with-a-small-bowel-neuroendocrine-tumor-flushing-differential-diagnosis
#2
Maria Alejandra Forero Molina, Elizabeth Garcia, Deyanira Gonzalez-Devia, Rafael García-Duperly, Alonso Vera
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are heterogeneous neoplasms that originate from cells with a secretory function. Small bowel NETs (SB-NETs) are related to serotonin hypersecretion which causes: flushing, diarrhea, abdominal pain, bronchoconstriction and heart involvement, also known as carcinoid syndrome (CS). CS can be confused with an allergic reaction and thus should be considered as a differential diagnosis in the allergy consult. We present the case of a pediatric patient initially referred under the suspicion of food allergies...
2017: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887162/extrinsic-nerves-are-not-involved-in-branchial-5-ht-dynamics-or-pulsatile-urea-excretion-in-gulf-toadfish-opsanus-beta
#3
Maria C Cartolano, Molly H B Amador, Velislava Tzaneva, William K Milsom, M Danielle McDonald
Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta) can switch from continuously excreting ammonia as their primary nitrogenous waste to excreting predominantly urea in distinct pulses. Previous studies have shown that the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) is involved in controlling this process, but it is unknown if 5-HT availability is under central nervous control or if the 5-HT signal originates from a peripheral source. Following up on a previous study, cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal) and X (vagus) were sectioned to further characterize their role in controlling pulsatile urea excretion and 5-HT release within the gill...
September 5, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841487/csf-apolipoprotein-e-in-attempted-suicide
#4
Peter Asellus, Peter Nordström, Anna-Lena Nordström, Jussi Jokinen
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol and cholesterol metabolism, involved in continued neural plasticity, has been associated to suicide and suicidal behavior. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in the cholesterol metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ApoE in cerebrospinal fluid was related to severity of suicidal behavior as measured by number of earlier suicide attempts, reversibility/interruptabilty and violent method of suicide attempt. METHODS: CSF ApoE and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured in 42 medication free suicide attempters...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804659/fatal-systemic-vasoconstriction-in-a-case-of-metastatic-small-intestinal-net
#5
Stenzel Jochen, Noe Sebastian, Holzapfel Konstantin, Erlmeier Franziska, Eyer Florian
An increased release of serotonin secreted by ileal NETs is thought to be the major factor causing the carcinoid syndrome. However, in acutely arising carcinoid crisis also other vasoactive factors may lead to hazardous fluctuations in blood pressure and bronchial constriction. In rare cases, systemic vasoconstriction can be observed, probably caused by catecholamines or similar acting substances. Here, we report a fatal case of fulminant systemic vasoconstriction possibly caused by catecholamines in a patient with metastasized ileal NET...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800105/anti-anxiety-effect-of-syringaresnol-4-o-%C3%AE-d-apiofuranosyl-1%C3%A2-2-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranoside-from-albizzia-julibrissin-durazz-leguminosae
#6
Jie Liu, Yue-Wei Lv, Jin-Li Shi, Xiao-Jie Ma, Yi Chen, Zhi-Quan Zheng, Sheng-Nan Wang, Jian-You Guo
Albizzia julibrissin Durazz, a Chinese Medicine, is commonly used for its anti-anxiety effects. (-)-syringaresnol-4-O-β-d-apiofuranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranoside (SAG) is the main ingredient of Albizzia julibrissin Durazz. The present study investigated the anxiolytic effect and potential mechanisms on the HPA axis and monoaminergic systems of SAG on acute restraint-stressed rats. The anxiolytic effect of SAG was examined through an open field test and an elevated plus maze test. The concentration of CRF, ACTH, and CORT in plasma was examined by an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) kit while neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the brain were examined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)...
August 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757050/electroencephalographic-cognitive-and-neurochemical-effects-of-ly3130481-cerc-611-a-selective-antagonist-of-tarp-%C3%AE-8-associated-ampa-receptors
#7
Jeffrey M Witkin, Jennifer Li, Gary Gilmour, Stephen N Mitchell, Guy Carter, Scott D Gleason, Wesley F Seidel, Brian J Eastwood, Andrew McCarthy, Warren J Porter, Jon Reel, Kevin M Gardinier, Akihiko S Kato, Keith A Wafford
6-[(1S)-1-[1-[5-(2-hydroxyethoxy)-2-pyridyl]pyrazol-3-yl]ethyl]-3H-1,3-benzothiazol-2-one (LY3130481 or CERC-611) is a selective antagonist of AMPA receptors containing transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein (TARP) γ-8. This molecule has been characterized as a potent and efficacious anticonvulsant in an array of acute and chronic epilepsy models in rodents. The present set of experiments was designed to assess the effects of LY3130481 on the electroencephelogram (EEG), cognitive function, and neurochemical outflow...
July 27, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749090/relationships-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-monoamine-metabolite-levels-with-clinical-variables-in-major-depressive-disorder
#8
Hyung Shin Yoon, Kotaro Hattori, Shintaro Ogawa, Daimei Sasayama, Miho Ota, Toshiya Teraishi, Hiroshi Kunugi
OBJECTIVE: Many studies have investigated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolite levels in depressive disorders. However, their clinical significance is still unclear. We tried to determine whether CSF monoamine metabolite levels could be a state-dependent marker for major depressive disorder (MDD) based on analyses stratified by clinical variables in a relatively large sample. METHODS: Subjects were 75 patients with MDD according to DSM-IV criteria and 87 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and ethnicity (Japanese)...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740098/puerarin-ameliorated-the-behavioral-deficits-induced-by-chronic-stress-in-rats
#9
Zhi-Kun Qiu, Guan-Hua Zhang, De-Sheng Zhong, Jia-Li He, Xu Liu, Ji-Sheng Chen, Da-Nian Wei
The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant-like effects of puerarin via the chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) procedure in rats. Similar to Sertraline (Ser), Chronic treatment of puerarin (60 and 120 mg/kg, i.g) elicited the antidepressant-like effects by reversing the decreased sucrose preference in sucrose preference test (SPT), by blocking the increased latency to feed in novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT) and the increased immobility time in forced swimming test (FST) without affecting locomotor activity...
July 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723348/central-serotonin-attenuates-lps-induced-systemic-inflammation
#10
Clarissa M D Mota, Caroline Rodrigues-Santos, Rodrigo A R Fernández, Ruither O G Carolino, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Luiz G S Branco
Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator involved in several central-mediated mechanisms, such as endocrine processes, behavior, and sleep. Dysfunction of the serotonergic system is mainly linked to psychiatric disorders, but emerging evidence suggests that immune system activation may also alter brain 5-HT signaling. However, whether central 5-HT modulates systemic inflammation (SI) remains unknown. For this purpose, male Wistar rats (280-350 g, 8-9 weeks) were submitted to the experimental protocols beginning between 9 and 10 AM with the performance of injections...
July 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687505/xiaochaihutang-attenuates-depressive-anxiety-like-behaviors-of-social-isolation-reared-mice-by-regulating-monoaminergic-system-neurogenesis-and-bdnf-expression
#11
Jie Ma, Fang Wang, Jingyu Yang, Yingxu Dong, Guangyue Su, Kuo Zhang, Xing Pan, Ping Ma, Tingshuo Zhou, Chunfu Wu
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xiaochaihutang (XCHT), as a classical herbal formula for the treatment of "Shaoyang syndrome" has been demonstrated to exert an antidepressant effect in multiple animal models of depression as shown in our previous studies. However, the effects of XCHT on social isolation (SI)-reared mice have not been investigated. This study aims to explore the effects of XCHT on depressive/anxiety-like behaviors of SI-reared mice, and its implicated mechanisms, including alterations in the monoaminergic system, neurogenesis and neurotrophin expression...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675524/biomarkers-for-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#12
Z Mujagic, D M A E Jonkers, S Ludidi, D Keszthelyi, M A Hesselink, Z Z R M Weerts, R N Kievit, J F Althof, C Leue, J W Kruimel, F J van Schooten, A A M Masclee
BACKGROUND: Increased visceral sensitivity is observed in up to 60% of patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Mucosal inflammation, altered neuroendocrine activity and intraluminal metabolic processes may contribute to the development of visceral hypersensitivity. Previously, we demonstrated that biomarkers, indicative for these biological processes, were altered in IBS patients compared to healthy controls. However, how these processes relate to visceral hypersensitivity is unknown...
July 3, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659833/neuropeptide-y-and-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-comorbid-depression-versus-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#13
Per Svenningsson, Sven Pålhagen, Aleksander A Mathé
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world. The diagnosis of PD is based on movement dysfunctions. Many patients also suffer from comorbid depression in spite of adequate treatment with dopamine replacement, indicating that also other non-dopaminergic mechanisms are involved. Indeed, neuropeptides are critically implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). To increase our understanding of the biochemical basis of depression in PD patients, we examined the levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from PD patients, with or without comorbid depression, and compared them to the levels in patients with MDD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656371/cerebrospinal-fluid-monoamine-metabolite-profiles-in-bipolar-disorder-adhd-and-controls
#14
Erik Pålsson, Carl Sellgren, Eleonore Rydén, Ruth Kizza, Aurimantas Pelanis, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Mikael Landén
Alterations in monoaminergic signaling are suggested as key aspects of the pathophysiology in bipolar disorder and ADHD, but it is not known if the monoamine metabolic profile differs between these disorders. One method to study monoaminergic systems in humans is to measure monoamine end-point metabolite concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Here, we analyzed CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations in 103 adults with bipolar disorder, 72 adults with ADHD, and 113 controls. Individuals with bipolar disorder had significantly higher homovanillic acid (HVA, 264 ± 112 nmol/L, p < 0...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624415/aging-rather-than-aneuploidy-affects-monoamine-neurotransmitters-in-brain-regions-of-down-syndrome-mouse-models
#15
Alain D Dekker, Yannick Vermeiren, Christelle Albac, Eva Lana-Elola, Sheona Watson-Scales, Dorota Gibbins, Tony Aerts, Debby Van Dam, Elizabeth M C Fisher, Victor L J Tybulewicz, Marie-Claude Potier, Peter P De Deyn
Altered concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolites have been repeatedly found in people with Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21). Because of the limited availability of human post-mortem tissue, DS mouse models are of great interest to study these changes and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Although previous studies have shown the potential of Ts65Dn mice - the most widely used mouse model of DS - to model noradrenergic changes, a comprehensive monoaminergic characterization in multiple brain regions has not been performed so far...
September 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601766/trace-level-determination-of-5-hydroxytryptamine-and-its-related-indoles-in-amniotic-fluid-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#16
Hongmei Shi, Bo Wang, Lingmei Niu, Mengsi Cao, Weijun Kang, Kaoqi Lian, Pingping Zhang
5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and its derivatives are endogenously active substances involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes. A novel method of detetermining 5-hydroxyindole ethanol (5-HTOL), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and 5-HT in amniotic fluid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was established based on a modified method of derivatization by silanization, in combination with solid-phase extraction pretreatment. Good linearity was achieved in the tested calibration range...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579486/no-effect-of-c1473g-polymorphism-in-the-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-gene-on-the-response-of-the-brain-serotonin-system-to-chronic-fluoxetine-treatment-in-mice
#17
Ekaterina Y Bazhenova, Nadezhda A Sinyakova, Elizabeth A Kulikova, Irina A Kazarinova, Daria V Bazovkina, Raul R Gainetdinov, Alexander V Kulikov
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressants that block serotonin transporter (SERT) and increase serotonin (5-HT) level in the synaptic cleft. The interaction between SERT and the key enzyme of 5-HT synthesis in the brain, tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), is essential to maintain the brain 5-HT level. The G allele of C1473G polymorphism in Tph2 gene decreases enzyme activity by half in mouse brain. Here we studied effect of C1473G polymorphism on the reaction of brain 5-HT system to chronic fluoxetine treatment (120mg/l in drinking water, for 3 weeks) in adult males of the congenic B6-1473C and B6-1473G mouse lines with high and low enzyme activity, respectively...
July 13, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539708/assessment-of-mexican-arnica-heterotheca-inuloides-cass-and-rosemary-rosmarinus-officinalis-extracts-on-dopamine-and-selected-biomarkers-of-oxidative-stress-in-stomach-and-brain-of-salmonella-typhimurium-infected-rats
#18
David Calderón Guzmàn, Maribel Ortiz Herrera, Norma Osnaya Brizuela, Gerardo Barragàn Mejía, Ernestina Hernàndez García, Hugo Juàrez Olguín, Armando Valenzuela Peraza, Norma Labra Ruíz, Daniel Santamaría Del Angel
BACKGROUND: The effects of some natural products on dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) in brain of infected models are still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of Mexican arnica/rosemary (MAR) water extract and oseltamivir on both biogenic amines and some oxidative biomarkers in the brain and stomach of young rats under infection condition. METHODS: Female Wistar rats (weight 80 g) in the presence of MAR or absence (no-MAR) were treated as follows: group 1, buffer solution (controls); oseltamivir (100 mg/kg), group 2; culture of Salmonella typhimurium (S...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535482/multiple-metal-exposures-and-their-correlation-with-monoamine-neurotransmitter-metabolism-in-chinese-electroplating-workers
#19
Lin-Lin Wu, Wei Gong, Si-Peng Shen, Zhong-He Wang, Jia-Xi Yao, Jun Wang, Jing Yu, Rong Gao, Gang Wu
Excessive metal exposure has been recognized as one of the detrimental factors for brain damage. However, the potential adverse effects induced by heavy metals on monoamine neurotransmitter pathways remains poorly understood. Our study aimed to investigate the possible association between metal exposure and neurotransmitter metabolism. By a cross-sectional investigation, 224 electroplating workers and 213 non-electroplating exposure workers were recruited in the exposure and control groups. Metal exposure levels were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry and monoamine neurotransmitter pathway metabolites were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in human urine samples...
September 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507564/management-of-the-hormonal-syndrome-of-neuroendocrine-tumors
#20
Paweł Gut, Joanna Waligórska-Stachura, Agata Czarnywojtek, Nadia Sawicka-Gutaj, Maciej Bączyk, Katarzyna Ziemnicka, Jakub Fischbach, Kosma Woliński, Jarosław Kaznowski, Elżbieta Wrotkowska, Marek Ruchała
Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP/NET) are unusual and rare neoplasms that present many clinical challenges. They characteristically synthesize store and secrete a variety of peptides and neuroamines which can lead to the development of distinct clinical syndrome, however many are clinically silent until late presentation with mass effects. Management strategies include surgery cure and cytoreduction with the use of somatostatin analogues. Somatostatin have a broad range of biological actions that include inhibition of exocrine and endocrine secretions, gut motility, cell proliferation, cell survival and angiogenesis...
April 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
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