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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342408/the-role-of-regulatory-rnas-mirnas-in-asthma
#1
REVIEW
O A Svitich, V V Sobolev, L V Gankovskaya, P V Zhigalkina, V V Zverev
INTRODUCTION: Recently, a great deal of attention has been paid to the investigation of regulatory functions of microRNA. Currently, many different mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of asthma are known, but the whole picture of pathogenesis has not yet been studied. CONCLUSIONS: MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of many cellular processes. Undoubtedly, these regulatory molecules are involved in the pathogenesis of asthma, and therefore can be potential targets for treatment...
January 13, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342287/to-the-brain-and-back-migratory-paths-of-dendritic-cells-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Maxime De Laere, Zwi N Berneman, Nathalie Cools
Migration of dendritic cells (DC) to the central nervous system (CNS) is a critical event in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). While up until now, research has mainly focused on the transmigration of DC through the blood-brain barrier, experimental evidence points out that also the choroid plexus and meningeal vessels represent important gateways to the CNS, especially in early disease stages. On the other hand, DC can exit the CNS to maintain immunological tolerance to patterns expressed in the CNS, a process that is perturbed in MS...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342268/reduced-expression-of-mismatch-repair-genes-msh6-msh2-directly-promotes-pituitary-tumor-growth-via-the-atr-chk1-pathway
#3
Shinsuke Uraki, Hiroyuki Ariyasu, Asako Doi, Shintaro Kawai, Ken Takeshima, Shuhei Morita, Junya Fukai, Koji Fujita, Hiroto Furuta, Masahiro Nishi, Kokichi Sugano, Naoko Inoshita, Naoyuki Nakao, Shozo Yamada, Takashi Akamizu
Context: The mechanisms of pituitary adenoma (PA) pathogenesis and proliferation remain largely unknown. Objectives: To evaluate the direct association between PA proliferation and expression of mismatch repair (MMR) genes and proteins, and to clarify the role of MMR genes in the molecular mechanism of PA proliferation. Experimental Design: We performed quantitative analyses by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry to detect MMR gene and protein expression in human PAs (n = 47)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342231/mapping-gene-regulatory-networks-from-single-cell-omics-data
#4
Mark W E J Fiers, Liesbeth Minnoye, Sara Aibar, Carmen Bravo González-Blas, Zeynep Kalender Atak, Stein Aerts
Single-cell techniques are advancing rapidly and are yielding unprecedented insight into cellular heterogeneity. Mapping the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) underlying cell states provides attractive opportunities to mechanistically understand this heterogeneity. In this review, we discuss recently emerging methods to map GRNs from single-cell transcriptomics data, tackling the challenge of increased noise levels and data sparsity compared with bulk data, alongside increasing data volumes. Next, we discuss how new techniques for single-cell epigenomics, such as single-cell ATAC-seq and single-cell DNA methylation profiling, can be used to decipher gene regulatory programmes...
January 12, 2018: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342188/comparative-analysis-of-gene-expression-identifies-distinct-molecular-signatures-of-bone-marrow-and-periosteal-skeletal-stem-progenitor-cells
#5
Lorenzo Deveza, Laura Ortinau, Kevin Lei, Dongsu Park
Periosteum and bone marrow (BM) both contain skeletal stem/progenitor cells (SSCs) that participate in fracture repair. However, the functional difference and selective regulatory mechanisms of SSCs in different locations are unknown due to the lack of specific markers. Here, we report a comprehensive gene expression analysis of bone marrow SSCs (BM-SSCs), periosteal SSCs (P-SSCs), and more differentiated osteoprogenitors by using reporter mice expressing Interferon-inducible Mx1 and NestinGFP, previously known SSC markers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341978/assessment-of-clinical-trials-for-devices-intended-to-control-myopia-progression-in-children
#6
Marc W Robboy, Gene Hilmantel, Michelle E Tarver, Malvina B Eydelman
The increased prevalence of myopia in the United States and other regions of the world, and the sight-threatening problems associated with higher levels of myopia have led to great interest in research designed to reduce these rates. As most of the progression of myopia occurs in childhood, these investigations have been directed toward slowing the progression of myopia in children. Treatments described to potentially slow the progression of myopia have included pharmacological interventions, multifocal spectacles, and multifocal correction created by contact lenses...
January 15, 2018: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341892/premature-aging-in-behavior-and-immune-functions-in-tyrosine-hydroxylase-haploinsufficient-female-mice-a-longitudinal-study
#7
A Garrido, J Cruces, N Ceprián, C Hernández-Sánchez, M De la Fuente
Aging is accompanied by impairment in the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems as well as in neuroimmunoendocrine communication. In this context, there is an age-related alteration of the physiological response to acute stress, which is modulated by catecholamine (CA), final products of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary axis. The involvement of CA in essential functions of the nervous system is consistent with the neuropsychological deficits found in mice with haploinsufficiency (hemizygous; HZ) of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme (TH-HZ)...
January 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341860/risk-management-of-free-radicals-involved-in-air-travel-syndromes-by-antioxidants
#8
Jeum-Nam Kim, Byung-Mu Lee
Frequent air travelers and airplane pilots may develop various types of illnesses. The environmental risk factors associated with air travel syndromes (ATS) or air travel-related adverse health outcomes raised concerns and need to be assessed in the context of risk management and public health. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to determine ATS, risk factors, and mechanisms underlying ATS using scientific data and information obtained from Medline, Toxline, and regulatory agencies. Additional information was also extracted from websites of organizations, such as the International Air Transport Association (IATA), International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT), and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341812/optional-anatomy-and-physiology-e-learning-resources-student-access-learning-approaches-and-academic-outcomes
#9
Richard Guy, Bruce Byrne, Marian Dobos
Anatomy and physiology interactive video clips were introduced into a blended learning environment, as an optional resource, and were accessed by ~50% of the cohort. Student feedback indicated that clips were engaging, assisted understanding of course content, and provided lecture support. Students could also access two other optional online resources, lecture capture recordings and an interactive atlas of anatomy, and individuals were tracked with respect to their access behavior, learning approach, and subject score...
March 1, 2018: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341488/gene-gene-interaction-between-msx1-and-tp63-in-asian-case-parent-trios-with-nonsyndromic-cleft-lip-with-or-without-cleft-palate
#10
Dongjing Liu, Holger Schwender, Mengying Wang, Hong Wang, Ping Wang, Hongping Zhu, Zhibo Zhou, Jing Li, Tao Wu, Terri H Beaty
BACKGROUND: Small ubiquitin-like modification, also known as sumoylation, is a crucial post-translational regulatory mechanisms involved in development of the lip and palate. Recent studies reported two sumoylation target genes, MSX1 and TP63, to have achieved genome-wide level significance in tests of association with nonsyndromic clefts. Here, we performed a candidate gene analysis considering gene-gene and gene-environment interaction for SUMO1, MSX1, and TP63 to further explore the etiology of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P)...
January 17, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341438/natural-antisense-transcripts-in-diseases-from-modes-of-action-to-targeted-therapies
#11
REVIEW
Elżbieta Wanowska, Magdalena Regina Kubiak, Wojciech Rosikiewicz, Izabela Makałowska, Michał Wojciech Szcześniak
Antisense transcription is a widespread phenomenon in mammalian genomes, leading to production of RNAs molecules referred to as natural antisense transcripts (NATs). NATs apply diverse transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms to carry out a wide variety of biological roles that are important for the normal functioning of living cells, but their dysfunctions can be associated with human diseases. In this review, we attempt to provide a molecular basis for the involvement of NATs in the etiology of human disorders such as cancers and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases...
January 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341429/trans-acting-translational-regulatory-rna-binding-proteins
#12
REVIEW
Robert F Harvey, Tom S Smith, Thomas Mulroney, Rayner M L Queiroz, Mariavittoria Pizzinga, Veronica Dezi, Eneko Villenueva, Manasa Ramakrishna, Kathryn S Lilley, Anne E Willis
The canonical molecular machinery required for global mRNA translation and its control has been well defined, with distinct sets of proteins involved in the processes of translation initiation, elongation and termination. Additionally, noncanonical, trans-acting regulatory RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are necessary to provide mRNA-specific translation, and these interact with 5' and 3' untranslated regions and coding regions of mRNA to regulate ribosome recruitment and transit. Recently it has also been demonstrated that trans-acting ribosomal proteins direct the translation of specific mRNAs...
January 17, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341420/transgenic-mice-specifically-expressing-amphiregulin-in-white-adipose-tissue-showed-less-adipose-tissue-mass
#13
Bo Yang, Takahiro Kumoto, Takeshi Arima, Minako Nakamura, Yohei Sanada, Thanutchaporn Kumrungsee, Yusuke Sotomaru, Masayuki Shimada, Noriyuki Yanaka
To determine adipocytokines that play a regulatory role during obesity development, we explored the genes that encode growth factors and investigated the physiological functions for adipose tissue development. Here, we isolated amphiregulin (Areg) gene whose expression was significantly up-regulated in obese adipose tissues. Areg mRNA level was positively correlated with macrophage marker gene expression in adipose tissues in vivo. Unexpectedly, Areg transgenic mice showed less adipose tissue mass with increased mRNA expression levels of Tnf-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (Pgc-1α) and delayed white adipose tissue development during the convalescent stage in a dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model...
January 17, 2018: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341339/immunomodulation-by-therapeutic-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-msc-is-triggered-through-phagocytosis-of-msc-by-monocytic-cells
#14
Samantha F H de Witte, Franka Luk, Jesus M Sierra Parraga, Madhu Gargesha, Ana Merino, Sander S Korevaar, Anusha S Shankar, Lisa O'Flynn, Steve J Elliman, Debashish Roy, Michiel G H Betjes, Philip N Newsome, Carla C Baan, Martin J Hoogduijn
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSC) are under investigation as a potential immunotherapy. MSC are usually administered via intravenous infusion, after which they are trapped in the lungs and die and disappear within a day. The fate of MSC after their disappearance from the lungs is unknown and it is unclear how MSC realize their immunomodulatory effects in their short lifespan. We examined immunological mechanisms determining the fate of infused MSC and the immunomodulatory response associated with it. Tracking viable and dead human umbilical cord MSC (ucMSC) in mice using Qtracker beads (contained in viable cells) and Hoechst33342 (staining all cells) revealed that viable ucMSC were present in the lungs immediately after infusion...
January 17, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341298/multiple-signaling-systems-target-a-core-set-of-transition-metal-homeostasis-genes-using-similar-binding-motifs
#15
M E Garber, L Rajeev, A E Kazakov, J Trinh, D Masuno, M G Thompson, N Kaplan, J Luk, P S Novichkov, A Mukhopadhyay
Bacterial response to metals can require complex regulation. We report an overlapping regulation for copper and zinc resistance genes in the denitrifying bacterium, Pseudomonas stutzeri RCH2, by three two-component regulatory proteins CopR1, CopR2 and CzcR. We conducted genome-wide evaluations to identify gene targets of two paralogous regulators, CopR1 and CopR2, annotated for copper signaling, and compared the results with the gene targets for CzcR, implicated in zinc signaling. We discovered that the CopRs and CzcR have largely common targets, and cross-regulate a core set of P...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341283/mogamulizumab-induced-phosensitivity-in-patients-with-mycosis-fungoides-and-other-t-cell-neoplasms
#16
Y Masuda, K Tatsuno, S Kitano, H Miyazawa, J Ishibe, M Aoshima, T Shimauchi, T Fujiyama, T Ito, Y Tokura
BACKGROUND: Mogamulizumab (Mog) is a defucosylated, therapeutic monoclonal antibody, targeting CCR4, and was first approved in Japan for the treatment of adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL), followed by cutaneous T cell lymphoma and peripheral T cell lymphoma. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively investigate development of photosensitivity in patients with mycosis fungoides and other T cell neoplasms after treatment with Mog. METHODS: We treated 7 cutaneous lymphoma patients with Mog...
January 16, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341250/protectiveness-of-copper-water-quality-criteria-against-impairment-of-behavior-and-chemo-mechanosensory-responses-an-update
#17
REVIEW
Joseph S Meyer, David K DeForest
A meta-analysis was conducted of studies that reported behavior and chemo/mechanosensory responses by fish, amphibians, and aquatic invertebrates in Cu-containing waters and also reported sufficient water chemistry for calculation of hardness-based and biotic ligand model (BLM)-based water quality criteria (WQC) for Cu. The calculated WQC concentrations were then compared to the corresponding 20% impairment concentrations (IC20) of Cu for those behavior and chemo/mechanosensory responses. The hardness-based acute and chronic WQC for Cu would not have been protective (i...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341247/secretory-expression-of-negative-regulatory-region-of-human-notch1-in-e-coli-and-preparation-of-a-functional-polyclonal-antibody
#18
Dengyang Zhang, Tianzhu Sun, Jingyun Yan, Xuanjun Wang, Jun Sheng
Notch signaling is a highly conserved pathway existed in multicellular organisms. It plays roles in normal human body development, human cancer initiation, progression and metastasis. The Notch negative regulatory region (NRR) is critical for Notch signaling, and cleavage at the S2 site in the NRR ultimately leads to the activation of Notch signaling. To study the function of human NRR1, we expressed the recombinant human NRR1 (rhNRR1) domain in Escherichia coli. After purification, rhNRR1 was obtained with approximately 94% purity according to SDS-PAGE analysis...
January 17, 2018: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341118/inhibition-of-the-fgl2-fc%C3%AE-riib-riii-immunosuppressive-pathway-enhances-antiviral-t-cell-and-b-cell-responses-leading-to-clearance-of-lcmv-cl-13
#19
Olga Klingberg, Ramzi Khattar, Kaveh Farrokhi, Dario Ferri, Nataliya Yavorska, Jianhua Zhang, Hassan Sadozai, Oyedele Adeyi, Andrzej Chruscinski, Gary A Levy, Nazia Selzner
Persistent viruses evade immune detection by interfering with virus-specific innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses. Fibrinogen-Like Protein-2 (FGL2) is a potent effector molecule of CD4+ CD25+ FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) and exerts its immunosuppressive activity following ligation to its cognate receptor, FcγRIIB/RIII. The role of FGL2 in the pathogenesis of chronic viral infection caused by Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Clone-13 (LCMV cl-13) was assessed in this study. Chronically infected fgl2+/+ mice had increased plasma levels of FGL2, with reduced expression of the maturation markers, CD80, CD86 and MHC-II on macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) and impaired production of neutralizing antibody...
January 17, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340900/xenin-the-oldest-after-insulin
#20
Alexander T Maryanovich, Dmitry Yu Kormilets, Andrey D Polyanovsky
Xenin is a regulatory peptide first isolated from the human gastric mucosa. Using an open-access protein database MEDLINE (33 million molecules; 11 billion amino acid residues) and our original computer program, we conducted a search for the xenin motifs in the primary structure of proteins across almost the entire taxonomic range of evolution. Motifs with 40% homology to human xenin are already present in prokaryotes. Homology reaches 84-96% in single-cell algae and plants, becoming complete since bony fishes...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
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