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quality by design

Andrew B Schenkel, Ivy Peltz, Analia Veitz-Keenan
BACKGROUND: Resin-based composite (RBC) is currently accepted as a viable material for the restoration of caries for posterior permanent teeth requiring surgical treatment. Despite the fact that the thermal conductivity of the RBC restorative material closely approximates that of natural tooth structure, postoperative hypersensitivity is sometimes still an issue. Dental cavity liners have historically been used to protect the pulp from the toxic effects of some dental restorative materials and to prevent the pain of thermal conductivity by placing an insulating layer between restorative material and the remaining tooth structure...
October 25, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Richard D Scheffe, Madeleine Strum, James Thurman, Sharon B Phillips, Alison Eyth, Steve Fudge, Mark Morris, Ted Palma, Richard Cook
A hybrid air quality model has been developed and applied to estimate annual concentrations of 40 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) across the continental United States (CONUS) to support the 2011 calendar year National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA). By combining a chemical transport model (CTM) with a Gaussian dispersion model, both reactive and non-reactive HAPs are accommodated across local to regional spatial scales, through a multiplicative technique designed to improve mass conservation relative to previous additive methods...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Mei-Chuan Huang, Chich-Hsiu Hung, Ching-Yun Yu, Diane C Berry, Shyi-Jang Shin, Yu-Yun Hsu
AIMS: To explore the effectiveness of two types of health education on improving knowledge concerning diabetes and insulin injection, insulin injection skills and self-efficacy, satisfaction with health education and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and creatinine levels among patients with type 2 diabetes who began insulin therapy using a pen injector. BACKGROUND: Insulin therapy is recommended to facilitate the regulation of plasma glucose; however, patient's acceptance of insulin therapy is generally low...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Sara H Javid, Sarah O Lawrence, Danielle C Lavallee
Breast-cancer-specific tools that measure health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were developed for use in research or clinical practice, and little is known about these tools' performance ability for quality improvement. Furthermore, existing tools may not fully reflect all issues that contribute to quality care as seen by patients. Work is needed to identify and validate patient-reported outcome measures for use in quality improvement in breast cancer surgical care. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study in order to better understand what HRQOL domains and processes of care define high quality surgical care for women undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer from both the patient and clinician perspective...
October 25, 2016: Breast Journal
Declan T Millett, Anne-Marie Glenny, Rye Cr Mattick, Joy Hickman, Nicky A Mandall
BACKGROUND: Orthodontic treatment involves using fixed or removable appliances (dental braces) to correct the positions of teeth. It has been shown that the quality of treatment result obtained with fixed appliances is much better than with removable appliances. Fixed appliances are, therefore, favoured by most orthodontists for treatment. The success of a fixed orthodontic appliance depends on the metal attachments (brackets and bands) being attached securely to the teeth so that they do not become loose during treatment...
October 25, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Stefano Corbella, Roberto Weinstein, Luca Francetti, Silvio Taschieri, Massimo Del Fabbro
The aim of the present study was to systematically review the existing literature on periodontal regenerative procedures in individuals affected by aggressive periodontitis (AgP). An electronic and manual search was performed using an ad hoc prepared search string. All types of study designs were considered acceptable for inclusion. Data about treated patients, baseline clinical parameters, type of surgery, and outcomes were extracted and recorded. A narrative evaluation of the results was performed. After the article-selection process, a total of 22 full-texts were included in the qualitative synthesis...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Thomas J Hopkins, Karthik Raghunathan, Atilio Barbeito, Mary Cooter, Mark Stafford-Smith, Rebecca Schroeder, Katherine Grichnik, Richard Gilbert, Solomon Aronson
BACKGROUND: In this study, we examined the association between American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status (ASA PS) designation and 48-h mortality for both elective and emergent procedures in a large contemporary dataset (patient encounters between 2009 and 2014) and compared this association with data from a landmark study published by Vacanti et al. in 1970. METHODS: Patient history, hospital characteristics, anesthetic approach, surgical procedure, efficiency and quality indicators, and patient outcomes were prospectively collected for 732,704 consecutive patient encounters between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2014, at 233 anesthetizing locations across 19 facilities in two US states and stored in the Quantum™ Clinical Navigation System (QCNS) database...
2016: Perioperative Medicine
Hossein Fakhrzadeh, Shirin Djalalinia, Mojdeh Mirarefin, Tahereh Arefirad, Hamid Asayesh, Saeid Safiri, Elham Samami, Morteza Mansourian, Morteza Shamsizadeh, Mostafa Qorbani
Introduction: Physical inactivity is one of the most important risk factors for chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and stroke. We aim to conduct a systematic review of the prevalence of physical inactivity in Iran. Methods: We searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Irandoc, Barakat knowledge network system, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We collected data for outcome measures of prevalence of physical inactivity by sex, age, province, and year...
2016: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
Shannon Doocy, Emily Lyles, Baptiste Hanquart, Michael Woodman
BACKGROUND: Given the large burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) among both Syrian refugees and the host communities within which they are settled, humanitarian actors and the government of Lebanon face immense challenges in addressing health needs. This study assessed health status, unmet needs, and utilization of health services among Syrian refugees and host communities in Lebanon. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of Syrian refugees and host communities in Lebanon was conducted using a two-stage cluster survey design with probability proportional to size sampling...
2016: Conflict and Health
During recent decades, researchers have used several different parameters to evaluate the biological and health effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields in animals, humans and their isolated cells. The data reported in many of publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals were reviewed by the international and national expert groups of scientists for human risk assessment of exposure to radiofrequency fields. The criteria used for such assessment depended on the study design, methodology and reporting of the data in the publication...
November 1, 2016: Mutation Research
Barbara N Arch, Joanne Blair, Andrew McKay, John W Gregory, Paul Newland, Carrol Gamble
BACKGROUND: Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is an important outcome measure in diabetes clinical trials. For multicentre designs, HbA1c can be measured locally at participating centres or by sending blood samples to a central laboratory. This study analyses the agreement between local and central measurements, using 1-year follow-up data collected in a multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) of newly diagnosed children with type I diabetes. METHODS: HbA1c measurements were routinely analysed both locally and centrally at baseline and then at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months and the data reported in mmol/mol...
October 24, 2016: Trials
Chiara Baldo, Lorena Casareto, Alessandra Renieri, Giuseppe Merla, Barbara Garavaglia, Stefano Goldwurm, Elena Pegoraro, Maurizio Moggio, Marina Mora, Luisa Politano, Luca Sangiorgi, Raffaella Mazzotti, Valeria Viotti, Ilaria Meloni, Maria Teresa Pellico, Chiara Barzaghi, Chiuhui Mary Wang, Lucia Monaco, Mirella Filocamo
BACKGROUND: Rare diseases (RDs) are often neglected because they affect a small percentage of the population (6-8 %), which makes research and development of new therapies challenging processes. Easy access to high-quality samples and associated clinical data is therefore a key prerequisite for biomedical research. In this context, Genetic Biobanks are critical to developing basic, translational and clinical research on RDs. The Telethon Network of Genetic Biobanks (TNGB) is aware of the importance of biobanking as a service for patients and has started a dialogue with RD-Patient Organisations via promotion of dedicated meetings and round-tables, as well as by including their representatives on the TNGB Advisory Board...
October 24, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Carolina Ortiz, José J Esteve-Taboada, Lurdes Belda-Salmerón, Daniel Monsálvez-Romín, Alberto Domínguez-Vicent
PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of decentration on the optical quality of two diffractive-refractive intraocular lenses, a bifocal and a trifocal, when displaced laterally (horizontal direction) from the center. METHODS: The AT LISA 809M IOL (+3.75 D add) with two main foci and the AT LISA tri 839MP intraocular lens with three main foci (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany) were analyzed. The optical quality of the intraocular lenses was measured with the PMTF (power and modulation transfer function [MTF] measurement for refractive and diffractive intraocular lenses) optical bench (Lambda-X, Nivelles, Belgium)...
October 22, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
Megan Quinn, Sheila Gephart
BACKGROUND: Palliative care is a holistic framework that is designed to improve quality of life by identifying and treating distressing symptoms of life-threatening or complex conditions. Neonatal palliative care (NPC) has potential benefits for parents, staff, and patients, yet evidence suggests that implementation and utilization of organized NPC services are low. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to answer the clinical question: In neonatal intensive care, what evidence can be used to guide implementation of palliative care protocols? SEARCH STRATEGY: A literature search was conducted using CINAHL (Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature), PubMed, and the Cochrane Library databases...
October 22, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
F Bath-Hextall, S Nalubega, C Evans
BACKGROUND: Skin cancer incidence is increasing worldwide. This is an update of a previous review published in 2010 that identified only two studies and found that the needs and experiences of individuals with skin cancer were under-researched. OBJECTIVES: To undertake a qualitative systematic review of the needs and experiences of people with a diagnosis of skin cancer. METHODS: As an update of a previous review, the following databases were searched from 2010 to 30/11/15: CINAHL PsycINFO, MEDLINE and EMBASE...
October 24, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Teryl K Nuckols, Emmett Keeler, Sally C Morton, Laura Anderson, Brian Doyle, Marika Booth, Roberta Shanman, Jonathan Grein, Paul Shekelle
Importance: Although quality improvement (QI) interventions can reduce central-line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), their economic value is uncertain. Objective: To systematically review economic evaluations of QI interventions designed to prevent CLABSI and/or CRBSI in acute care hospitals. Evidence Review: A search of Ovid MEDLINE, Econlit, Centre for Reviews & Dissemination, New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report, Worldcat, prior systematic reviews (January 2004 to July 2016), and IDWeek conference abstracts (2013-2016), was conducted from 2013 to 2016...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Nicholas Brandmeir, Elena Nehrbass, James McInerney
INTRODUCTION:  Deep brain stimulator (DBS) infections are a persistent problem for patients undergoing this procedure. They may require further surgery, treatment with antibiotics, or even removal of the device. To date, no consensus exists on the best practices to avoid DBS infections or what factors predispose patients to an eventual infection. The goal of this study was to examine several patient factors for association with DBS infection. METHODS:  A single-center, single-surgeon quality improvement database was queried...
September 20, 2016: Curēus
Tee Joo Yeo, Poh Shuan Daniel Yeo, Farid Abdul Hadi, Timothy Cushway, Kim Yee Lee, Bee Choo Tai, Carolyn S P Lam
AIMS: Iron deficiency (ID) is highly prevalent in patients with heart failure (HF) worldwide regardless of haemoglobin levels. Results from therapeutic trials of intermittently dosed intravenous (i.v.) iron are promising in the ambulatory Caucasian population with HF with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, although evidence is scarce in Asia. The Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Role of Intravenous Ferric Carboxymaltose in Asian Patients with Heart Failure aims to assess the effect of single-dose i...
June 2016: ESC Heart Failure
Miguel Anaya, Juan P Correa-Baena, Gabriel Lozano, Michael Saliba, Pablo Anguita, Bart Roose, Antonio Abate, Ullrich Steiner, Michael Grätzel, Mauricio E Calvo, Anders Hagfeldt, Hernán Míguez
Organic-inorganic perovskite structures in which lead is substituted by tin are exceptional candidates for broadband light absorption. Herein we present a thorough analysis of the optical properties of CH3NH3Sn x Pb1-x I3 films, providing the field with definitive insights about the possibilities of these materials for perovskite solar cells of superior efficiency. We report a user's guide based on the first set of optical constants obtained for a series of tin/lead perovskite films, which was only possible to measure due to the preparation of optical quality thin layers...
August 7, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
Sravya Atluri, Matthew Frehlich, Ye Mei, Luis Garcia Dominguez, Nigel C Rogasch, Willy Wong, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Faranak Farzan
Concurrent recording of electroencephalography (EEG) during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an emerging and powerful tool for studying brain health and function. Despite a growing interest in adaptation of TMS-EEG across neuroscience disciplines, its widespread utility is limited by signal processing challenges. These challenges arise due to the nature of TMS and the sensitivity of EEG to artifacts that often mask TMS-evoked potentials (TEP)s. With an increase in the complexity of data processing methods and a growing interest in multi-site data integration, analysis of TMS-EEG data requires the development of a standardized method to recover TEPs from various sources of artifacts...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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