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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102836/preparation-characterization-and-in-vitro-dosimetry-of-dispersed-engineered-nanomaterials
#1
Glen M DeLoid, Joel M Cohen, Georgios Pyrgiotakis, Philip Demokritou
Evidence continues to grow of the importance of in vitro and in vivo dosimetry in the hazard assessment and ranking of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Accurate dose metrics are particularly important for in vitro cellular screening to assess the potential health risks or bioactivity of ENMs. To ensure meaningful and reproducible quantification of in vitro dose, with consistent measurement and reporting between laboratories, it is necessary to adopt standardized and integrated methodologies for (i) generation of stable ENM suspensions in cell culture media; (ii) colloidal characterization of suspended ENMs, particularly of properties that determine particle kinetics in an in vitro system (size distribution and formed agglomerate effective density); and (iii) robust numerical fate and transport modeling for accurate determination of the ENM dose delivered to cells over the course of the in vitro exposure...
February 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102313/cultivation-and-energy-efficient-harvesting-of-microalgae-using-thermoreversible-sol-gel-transition
#2
Bendy Estime, Dacheng Ren, Radhakrishna Sureshkumar
Microalgae represent a promising source of renewable biomass for the production of biofuels and valuable chemicals. However, energy efficient cultivation and harvesting technologies are necessary to improve economic viability. A Tris-Acetate-Phosphate-Pluronic (TAPP) medium that undergoes a thermoreversible sol-gel transition is developed to efficiently culture and harvest microalgae without affecting the productivity as compared to that in traditional culture in a well-mixed suspension. After seeding microalgae in the TAPP medium in a solution phase at 15 °C, the temperature is increased by 7 °C to induce gelation...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100305/environment-directed-activation-the-escherichia-coli-flhdc-operon-by-transposons
#3
Zhongge Zhang, Chika Kukita, Mir Zafri Humayun, Milton H Saier
The flagellar system in E. coli K12 is expressed under the control of the flhDC-encoded master regulator, FlhDC. Transposition of insertion sequence (IS) elements to the upstream flhDC promoter region up-regulates transcription of this operon, resulting in more rapid motility. Wang and Wood (2011) provided evidence that insertion of IS5 into upstream activating sites occurs at higher rates in semisolid agar media in which swarming behavior is allowed as compared with liquid or solid media where swarming cannot occur...
January 17, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100236/human-%C3%AE-defensin-2-production-from-s-cerevisiae-using-the-repressible-met17-promoter
#4
Thea S B Møller, Joanna Hay, Malcolm J Saxton, Karen Bunting, Evamaria I Petersen, Søren Kjærulff, Christopher J A Finnis
BACKGROUND: Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a proven host for the commercial production of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins. For the manufacture of heterologous proteins with activities deleterious to the host it can be desirable to minimise production during the growth phase and induce production late in the exponential phase. Protein expression by regulated promoter systems offers the possibility of improving productivity in this way by separating the recombinant protein production phase from the yeast growth phase...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098879/cytokines-inducers-and-inhibitors-modulate-mmp-2-and-mmp%C3%A2-9-secretion-by-human-fanconi-anemia-immortalized-fibroblasts
#5
M W Roomi, T Kalinovsky, M Rath, A Niedzwiecki
Acute myeloid leukemia and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas are the major causes of mortality and morbidity in Fanconi anemia (FA) patients. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly MMP-2 and MMP-9, have been implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. Various cytokines, mitogens, growth factors, inducers and inhibitors control MMP activities. We investigated the roles of these in the regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human immortalized fibroblasts from FA. Human FA immortalized fibroblast cell lines FA-A:PD220 and FA-D2:PD20 were grown in minimum essential medium (MEM) supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and antibiotics in 24-well tissue culture plates...
January 16, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097685/cartilage-oligomeric-matrix-protein-comp-neo-epitope-in-the-synovial-fluid-of-horses-with-acute-lameness-a-new-biomarker-for-the-early-stages-of-osteoarthritis
#6
E Skiöldebrand, S Ekman, L MattssonHultén, E Svala, K Björkman, A Lindahl, A Lundqvist, P Önnerfjord, C Sihlbom, U Rüetschi
BACKGROUND: Clinical tools to diagnose the early changes of osteoarthritis (OA) that occur in the articular cartilage are lacking. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify and quantify a novel cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) neo-epitope in the synovial fluid from the joints of healthy horses and those with different stages of OA. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro quantitative proteomics and assay development with application in synovial fluids samples obtained from biobanks of well-characterised horses...
January 17, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097594/mechanism-of-anti-vibrio-activity-of-marine-probiotic-strain-bacillus-pumilus-h2-and-characterization-of-the-active-substance
#7
Xi-Yan Gao, Ying Liu, Li-Li Miao, Er-Wei Li, Ting-Ting Hou, Zhi-Pei Liu
Vibriosis is a major epizootic disease that impacts free-living and farmed fish species worldwide. Use of probiotics is a promising approach for prevention of Vibrio infections in aquaculture. A probiotic anti-Vibrio strain, Bacillus pumilus H2, was characterized, and the mechanism of its effect was investigated. All 29 Vibrio strains tested were growth-inhibited by H2. The anti-Vibrio substance present in cell-free supernatant of H2 was purified and characterized by reversed-phase HPLC. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the purified substance, determined in liquid media for various Vibrio strains, ranged from 0...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097203/staged-anticonvulsant-screening-for-chronic-epilepsy
#8
Yevgeny Berdichevsky, Yero Saponjian, Kyung-Il Park, Bonnie Roach, Wendy Pouliot, Kimberly Lu, Waldemar Swiercz, F Edward Dudek, Kevin J Staley
OBJECTIVE: Current anticonvulsant screening programs are based on seizures evoked in normal animals. One-third of epileptic patients do not respond to the anticonvulsants discovered with these models. We evaluated a tiered program based on chronic epilepsy and spontaneous seizures, with compounds advancing from high-throughput in vitro models to low-throughput in vivo models. METHODS: Epileptogenesis in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures was quantified by lactate production and lactate dehydrogenase release into culture media as rapid assays for seizure-like activity and cell death, respectively...
December 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095523/effects-of-titanium-surface-microtopography-and-simvastatin-on-growth-and-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-estrogen-deprived-cell-culture
#9
Premjit Arpornmaeklong, Prisana Pripatnanont, Chonticha Chookiatsiri, Boonsin Tangtrakulwanich
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effects of titanium surface topography and simvastatin on growth and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in estrogen-deprived (ED) cell culture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human BMSCs were seeded on cell culture plates, smooth-surface titanium (Ti) disks, and sandblasted with large grits and acid etched (SLA)-surface Ti disks; and subsequently cultured in regular (fetal bovine serum [FBS]), ED, and ED-with 100 nM simvastatin (ED-SIM) culture media for 14 to 21 days...
January 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095466/substrate-stiffness-controls-osteoblastic-and-chondrocytic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-without-exogenous-stimuli
#10
Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Erin M Lee, Kathryn Smith, Sharon L Hyzy, Maryam Doroudi, Joseph K Williams, Ken Gall, Barbara D Boyan, Zvi Schwartz
Stem cell fate has been linked to the mechanical properties of their underlying substrate, affecting mechanoreceptors and ultimately leading to downstream biological response. Studies have used polymers to mimic the stiffness of extracellular matrix as well as of individual tissues and shown mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be directed along specific lineages. In this study, we examined the role of stiffness in MSC differentiation to two closely related cell phenotypes: osteoblast and chondrocyte. We prepared four methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate (MA/MMA) polymer surfaces with elastic moduli ranging from 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095177/integrated-colony-imaging-analysis-and-selection-device-for-regenerative-medicine
#11
Edward Kwee, Edward E Herderick, Thomas Adams, James Dunn, Robert Germanowski, Frank Krakosh, Cynthia Boehm, James Monnich, Kimerly Powell, George Muschler
Stem and progenitor cells derived from human tissues are being developed as cell sources for cell-based assays and therapies. However, tissue-derived stem and progenitor cells are heterogeneous. Differences in observed clones of stem cells likely reflect important aspects of the underlying state of the source cells, as well as future potency for cell therapies. This paper describes a colony analysis and picking device that provides quantitative analysis of heterogeneous cell populations and precise tools for cell picking for research or biomanufacturing applications...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Laboratory Automation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093072/in-vitro-effects-of-hyaluronic-acid-on-human-periodontal-ligament-cells
#12
Masako Fujioka-Kobayashi, Heinz-Dieter Müller, Andrea Mueller, Adrian Lussi, Anton Sculean, Patrick R Schmidlin, Richard J Miron
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been reported to have a positive effect on periodontal wound healing following nonsurgical and surgical therapy. However, to date, a few basic in vitro studies have been reported to investigating the potential of HA on human periodontal ligament (PDL) cell regeneration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HA on PDL cell compatibility, proliferation, and differentiation in vitro. METHODS: Either non-cross-linked (HA_ncl) or cross-linked (HA_cl) HA was investigated...
January 16, 2017: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092842/blocking-tgf-%C3%AE-1-by-p17-peptides-attenuates-gastric-cancer-cell-induced-peritoneal-fibrosis-and-prevents-peritoneal-dissemination-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#13
Zhi-Dong Lv, Wei-Jun Zhao, Li-Ying Jin, Wen-Juan Wang, Qian Dong, Na Li, Hui-Mian Xu, Hai-Bo Wang
Our previous study demonstrated that the peritoneal stroma environment favors proliferation of tumor cells by serving as a rich source of growth factors and chemokines known to be involved in tumor metastasis. In this study, we investigated the interaction between gastric cancer cells and peritoneal mesothelial cells, and determined the effects of TGF-β1 in this processing. Human peritoneal tissues and peritoneal wash fluid were obtained, which examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining or ELISA for measurements of TGF-β1 levels...
January 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088328/altered-myocyte-contractility-and-calcium-homeostasis-in-alpha-myosin-heavy-chain-point-mutations-linked-to-familial-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#14
Matthew Klos, Lakshmi Mundada, Indroneal Banerjee, Sherry Morgenstern, Stephanie Myers, Michael Leone, Mark Kleid, Todd Herron, Eric Devaney
Mutations in the human cardiac motor protein beta-myosin heavy chain (βMHC) have been long recognized as a cause of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recently, mutations (P830L and A1004S) in the less abundant but faster isoform alpha-myosin heavy chain (αMHC) have been linked to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). In this study, we sought to determine the cellular contractile phenotype associated with these point mutations. Ventricular myocytes were isolated from 2 month male Sprague Dawley rats. Cells were cultured in M199 media and infected with recombinant adenovirus containing the P830L or the A1004S mutant human αMHC at a MOI of 500 for 18 h...
January 11, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088294/suitability-of-small-diagnostic-peripheral-blood-samples-for-cell-therapy-studies
#15
Coralea Stephanou, Panayiota Papasavva, Myria Zachariou, Petros Patsali, Marilena Epitropou, Petros Ladas, Ruba Al-Abdulla, Soteroulla Christou, Michael N Antoniou, Carsten W Lederer, Marina Kleanthous
BACKGROUND AIMS: Primary hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are key components of cell-based therapies for blood disorders and are thus the authentic substrate for related research. We propose that ubiquitous small-volume diagnostic samples represent a readily available and as yet untapped resource of primary patient-derived cells for cell- and gene-therapy studies. METHODS: In the present study we compare isolation and storage methods for HSPCs from normal and thalassemic small-volume blood samples, considering genotype, density-gradient versus lysis-based cell isolation and cryostorage media with different serum contents...
February 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088132/expression-and-secretion-of-cyan-fluorescent-protein-cfp-in-b-subtilis-using-the-chitinase-promoter-from-bacillus-pumilus-sg2
#16
Abbas Shali, Garshasb Rigi, Majid Pornour, Gholamreza Ahmadian
Background: Improved cyan fluorescent protein (ICFP) is a monochromic, green fluorescent protein (GFP) derivative produced by Aequorea macrodactyla in a process similar to GFP. This protein has strong absorption spectra at wavelengths 426-446 nm. ICFP can be used in cell, organelle or intracellular protein labeling, investigating the protein-protein interactions as well as assessing the promoter activities. Methods: In our previous study, the promoters of two chitinases (ChiS and ChiL) from Bacillus pumilus SG2 were assessed in B...
15, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087861/jolkinolide-a-and-jolkinolide-b-inhibit-proliferation-of-a549-cells-and-activity-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#17
Lei Shen, Shan-Qiang Zhang, Lei Liu, Yu Sun, Yu-Xuan Wu, Li-Ping Xie, Ji-Cheng Liu
BACKGROUND Jolkinolide A (JA) and Jolkinolide B (JB) are diterpenoids extracted from the roots of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud and have been shown to have anti-tumor activity. However, their effects on the ability of tumor cells to invade blood vessels and metastasize remain largely unknown. Investigations into the effects of JA and JB on the angiogenesis of tumor tissues may facilitate the identification of new natural drugs with anti-tumor growth and metastasis activities. MATERIAL AND METHODS We used different concentrations of JA and JB (20 μg/ml, 40 μg/ml, 60 μg/ml, 80 μg/ml, and 100 μg/ml) to stimulate A549 cells and then studied the effects on the growth and metastasis of lung cancers...
January 14, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087526/rapid-enrichment-of-dehalococcoides-like-bacteria-by-partial-hydrophobic-separation
#18
Hanna R Temme, Kipp Sande, Tao Yan, Paige J Novak
: Organohalide respiring bacteria can be difficult to enrich and isolate, which can limit research on these important organisms. The goal of this research was to develop a method to rapidly (minutes to days) enrich these organisms from a mixed community. The method presented is based on the hypothesis that organohalide respiring bacteria would be more hydrophobic than other bacteria as they dehalogenate hydrophobic compounds. The developed method tests this hypothesis by separating a portion of putative organohalide respiring bacteria, those phylogenetically related to Dehalococcoides mccartyi, at the interface between a hydrophobic organic solvent and aqueous media...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087417/culture-media-based-selection-of-endothelial-cells-pericytes-and-perivascular-resident-macrophage-like-melanocytes-from-the-young-mouse-vestibular-system
#19
Jinhui Zhang, Songlin Chen, Jing Cai, Zhiqiang Hou, Xiaohan Wang, Allan Kachelmeier, Xiaorui Shi
The vestibular blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) is comprised of perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) and pericytes (PCs), in addition to endothelial cells (ECs) and basement membrane (BM), and bears strong resemblance to the cochlear BLB in the stria vascularis. Over the past few decades, in vitro cell-based models have been widely used in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barrier (BRB) research, and have proved to be powerful tools for studying cell-cell interactions in their respective organs...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086962/inhibitory-effects-of-serum-from-sepsis-patients-on-epithelial-cell-migration-in-vitro-a-case-control-study
#20
Henna Jaurila, Vesa Koivukangas, Marjo Koskela, Fiia Gäddnäs, Sirpa Salo, Johanna Korvala, Maija Risteli, Toni Karhu, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Tuula Salo, Tero I Ala-Kokko
BACKGROUND: Sepsis delays wound re-epithelialization. In this study we explored the effect of human sepsis sera as well as the effects of cytokines, growth factors and exosomes of sepsis sera treated normal fibroblasts (NF) on keratinocyte migration and proliferation in vitro. METHODS: Serum samples were taken on days 1, 4, and 9 from 44 patients diagnosed with severe sepsis, and from 14 matching healthy controls. We evaluated the effects of sepsis serum with or without TNF-α, EGF, EGF receptor inhibitor or exosomes of sepsis sera treated NF on human keratinocyte (HaCaT) proliferation (BrdU assay), viability (MTT assay), and migration (horizontal wound healing model)...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
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