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Ruobing Huang, Ana Namburete, Alison Noble
We present a general framework for automatic segmentation of fetal brain structures in ultrasound images inspired by recent advances in machine learning. The approach is based on a region descriptor that characterizes the shape and local intensity context of different neurological structures without explicit models. To validate our framework, we present experiments to segment two fetal brain structures of clinical importance that have quite different ultrasonic appearances-the corpus callosum (CC) and the choroid plexus (CP)...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Ana I L Namburete, Weidi Xie, Mohammad Yaqub, Andrew Zisserman, J Alison Noble
Methods for aligning 3D fetal neurosonography images must be robust to (i) intensity variations, (ii) anatomical and age-specific differences within the fetal population, and (iii) the variations in fetal position. To this end, we propose a multi-task fully convolutional neural network (FCN) architecture to address the problem of 3D fetal brain localization, structural segmentation, and alignment to a referential coordinate system. Instead of treating these tasks as independent problems, we optimize the network by simultaneously learning features shared within the input data pertaining to the correlated tasks, and later branching out into task-specific output streams...
February 21, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Nadine Hahner, Bienvenido Puerto, Miriam Perez-Cruz, Catarina Policiano, Elena Monterde, Fatima Crispi, Eduard Gratacos, Elisenda Eixarch
OBJECTIVES: To perform a comprehensive assessment of cortical development in fetuses with isolated non-severe ventriculomegaly (INSVM) by neurosonography. METHODS: We prospectively included 40 fetuses with INSVM and 40 controls. INSVM was defined as atrial width between 10.0 and 14.9mm without associated malformation, infection or chromosomal abnormality. Cortical development was assessed by neurosonography at 26 and 30 weeks of gestation measuring depth of selected sulci and applying a maturation scale from 0 (no appearance) to 5 (maximally developed) of main sulci and areas...
February 19, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
Magdalena Sanz Cortes, Ana Maria Rivera, Mayel Yepez, Carolina V Guimaraes, Israel Diaz Yunes, Alexander Zarutskie, Ivan Davila, Anil Shetty, Arun Mahadev, Saray Maria Serrano, Nicolas Castillo, Wesley Lee, Gregory Valentine, Michael Belfort, Guido Parra, Carrie Mohila, Kjersti Aagaard, Miguel Parra
BACKGROUND: Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection can be detected in both the presence and absence of microcephaly, and manifests as a number of signs and symptoms detected clinically and by neuroimaging. However, to date, qualitative and quantitative measures for the purpose of diagnosis and prognosis are limited. OBJECTIVES: Main objectives of this study conducted on fetuses and infants with confirmed congenital ZIKV infection and detected brain abnormalities are: 1) To assess the prevalence of microcephaly and the frequency of the anomalies including a detailed description based on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fetuses and ultrasound, MRI and computed tomography imaging postnatally; 2) To provide quantitative measures of fetal and infant brain findings by MRI using volumetric analyses and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI); 3) To obtain additional information from placental and fetal histopathological assessments and postnatal clinical evaluations...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Misun Hwang, Becky J Riggs, Joseph Katz, Donna Seyfert, Frances Northington, Robinson Shenandoah, Irina Burd, Justin McArthur, Kassa Darge, Matthew A Thimm, Thierry A G M Huisman
Recent technical advances in neurosonography continue broadening the diagnostic utility, sensitivity, and specificity of ultrasound for detecting intracranial abnormalities bed side. The clinical and functional applications of neurosonography have significantly expanded since the 1980s when transcranial Doppler sonography first allowed anatomic and hemodynamic delineation of the intracranial vessels through the thin temporal skull. In the past few years, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, elastography, 3D/4D reconstruction tools, and high-resolution microvessel imaging techniques have further enhanced the diagnostic significance of neurosonography...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Roee Birnbaum, Liat Ben-Sira, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Gustavo Malinger
OBJECTIVE: To analyze ultrasound and MRI results and developmental outcome in cases of maternal primary CMV infection during pregnancy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the results of fetal neurosonography and brain MRI of CMV infected fetuses (Group 1). Cases of maternal infection in which the fetal status was unknown, and subsequently had a negative CMV postnatal urine analysis, were independently analyzed (Group 2). Imaging results were classified as: positive, negative or inconclusive...
November 8, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
A Gasparyan
The actual problem of modern obstetrics is a preterm delivery (PD), its tactics as the matter of specialists' discussions. One of the main components of "preterm delivery considerate management" is the conduction of fetus neuroprotection. Currently, the only wide spread preparation for fetus neuroprotection is magnesium sulphate, the advisability of that is criticized by several authors. The 62 neonatals of recurrent delivering women with monocarpous pregnancy, who delivered with 27-28- week gestation, were examined...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
Ivan Davila, Isabel Moscardo, Mayel Yepez, Magdalena Sanz Cortes
Fetal brain ultrasound remains as the mainstay for screening fetal intracranial anatomy. One of its main advantages is the availability of 3 dimensional and other ultrasound modalities for a better understanding of fetal neurodevelopment. Neurosonography is performed when findings, suggestive of an abnormality, are present on a screening ultrasound or if a high-risk situation of brain injury is present. This technique offers the use of complementary imaging planes, axial, coronal and sagittal, and the ability to image intracranial anatomy from the transabdominal and transvaginal approaches...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Tamar Harel, Nuphar Hacohen, Avraham Shaag, Moshe Gomori, Amihood Singer, Orly Elpeleg, Vardiella Meiner
Lissencephaly is a severe malformation of cortical development, most often attributed to abnormalities in neuronal migration. It is associated with a severe prognosis including developmental delay, intellectual disability, and seizures. Lissencephaly can be reliably diagnosed during late gestation by neurosonography or fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We report two sibling male fetuses who were diagnosed with delayed cortical sulcation highly suggestive of lissencephaly during late pregnancy. After receiving genetic counseling, the parents elected to terminate the pregnancies based on the neuroradiological findings and the associated severe prognosis...
September 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Kyung Joon Oh, Jee Yoon Park, JoonHo Lee, Joon-Seok Hong, Roberto Romero, Bo Hyun Yoon
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of combined exposure to intra-amniotic inflammation and neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) on the development of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm neonates. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study includes 207 consecutive preterm births (24.0-33.0 weeks of gestation). Intra-amniotic inflammation was defined as an amniotic fluid matrix metalloproteinase-8 concentration >23 ng/mL. According to McMenamin's classification, IVH was defined as grade II or higher when detected by neurosonography within the first weeks of life...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Karina Krajden Haratz, Alon Peled, Boris Weizman, Liat Gindes, Mordechai Tamarkin, Dorit Lev, Dvora Kidron, Liat Ben-Sira, Gustavo Malinger, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Zvi Leibovitz
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prenatal imaging features enabling diagnosis of developmental venous anomalies (DVA). METHODS: Four fetuses with unexplained persistent echogenic parenchymal brain lesions were studied. The evaluation included dedicated neurosonography, fetal MRI, serology for intrauterine infection, screening for coagulation abnormalities, and chromosomal microarray. Postnatal neurodevelopmental follow-up or autopsy results were assessed. RESULTS: DVA presented as very slowly growing echogenic brain lesions without cystic components, calcifications, or structural changes on otherwise normal neurosonographic scans performed at 2- to 3-week intervals...
June 17, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Rozemarijn Snoek, Marieke E W A Albers, Eduard J H Mulder, Klaske D Lichtenbelt, Linda S de Vries, Peter G J Nikkels, Inge Cuppen, Lourens R Pistorius, Gwendolyn T R Manten, Roel de Heus
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of prenatal neurosonography in diagnosing underlying causes of fetal ventriculomegaly, posterior fossa anomalies and microcephaly before 24 weeks' gestational age (GA) and to study the accuracy of prenatal counseling on postnatal prognosis. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study based on 146 cases of these fetal brain anomalies before 24 weeks' GA. Counseling on prognosis was compared with postnatal outcome. Data on genetic testing was analyzed...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
G Malinger, D Paladini, G Pilu, I E Timor-Tritsch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Michał Lipa, Ritsuko Kimata Pooh, Mirosław Wielgoś
Neurosonography is a promising technique for prenatal diagnosis, combining features of ultrasound imaging with fetal neurology. The brain is a three-dimensional structure, therefore observing brain structure in the three basic planes (sagittal, coronal and axial) is mandatory. The anterior fontanelle and sagittal suture may serve as acoustic ultrasound windows in the transvaginal brain scan, allowing to obtain high-resolution neuroimages of the intracranial structures. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound combined with the transvaginal brain approach provides detailed and sophisticated neuroimages...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
Nickie N Andescavage, Adre DuPlessis, Robert McCarter, Gilbert Vezina, Richard Robertson, Catherine Limperopoulos
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to apply quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to characterize absolute cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) development, as well as its relative development to fetal brain parenchyma in the healthy human fetus. DESIGN: We created three-dimensional high-resolution reconstructions of the developing brain for healthy fetuses between 18 and 40 weeks' gestation, segmented the parenchymal and CSF spaces, and calculated the volumes for the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles; extra-axial CSF space; and the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem...
2016: Developmental Neuroscience
José Enrique Sanín-Blair, Carolina Gutiérrez-Márquez, Diego A Herrera, Arastoo Vossough
Brain lesions and malformations have been described on ultrasonography of prenatal Zika infection; however, there are scarce reports about fetal magnetic resonance (MR) findings. We report 3 cases of fetuses with confirmed intrauterine Zika virus infection evaluated by ultrasound and fetal MR. Various morphometric measurements were assessed and brain maturation was calculated with the fetal total maturation score. Fetuses with prenatal Zika virus infection showed retardation in brain maturation indexes evaluated by fetal MR...
2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
D Schwarz, M T Pedro, C Brand, M Bendszus, G Antoniadis
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Traumatic lesions of peripheral nerves and the brachial plexus are feared complications because they frequently result in severe functional impairment. The prognosis is greatly dependent on the correct early diagnosis and the right choice of treatment regimen. It is important to distinguish between open and closed injuries. STANDARD RADIOLOGICAL METHODS: Initial imaging must critically evaluate or prove nerve continuity and is commonly achieved by high-resolution ultrasonography...
March 2017: Der Radiologe
Sunil Manjila, Aditya Karhade, Ji Hoon Phi, R Michael Scott, Edward R Smith
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Brain shift during the exposure of cranial lesions may reduce the accuracy of frameless stereotaxy. We describe a rapid, safe, and effective method to approach deep-seated brain lesions using real-time intraoperative ultrasound placement of a catheter to mark the dissection trajectory to the lesion. METHODS: With Institutional Review Board approval, we retrospectively reviewed the radiographic, pathologic, and intraoperative data of 11 pediatric patients who underwent excision of 12 lesions by means of this technique...
2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
Jessica Kurian, Susan Sotardi, Mark C Liszewski, William A Gomes, Thomas Hoffman, Benjamin H Taragin
Brain pathology is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, especially in the premature population. While conventional two-dimensional neurosonography is traditionally used for screening, diagnosis and monitoring of brain disorders such as germinal matrix hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia and hydrocephalus, three-dimensional ultrasonography has gained popularity in a variety of clinical applications in recent years. Three-dimensional ultrasonography is not yet widely utilized in pediatric imaging but is a potentially powerful tool for evaluating the neonatal brain...
May 2017: Pediatric Radiology
S Tercanli, F Prüfer
Both in routine diagnostics and detailed, highly specialized workups, major advances have been observed in many areas of ultrasound due to an increase in expertise and improved technology in recent years. This is particularly true in the case of fetal neurosonography 1 2 3 4. Malformations of the CNS together with fetal heart defects are among the most common congenital anomalies. From the embryonic phase to the late third trimester, the CNS undergoes extensive development and maturation processes. The diagnosis of CNS anomalies is therefore primarily dependent on the time at which the examination is performed and the experience of the examiner...
December 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
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