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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534644/a-spectral-power-analysis-of-driving-behavior-changes-during-the-transition-from-non-distraction-to-distraction
#1
Yuan Wang, Shan Bao, Wenjun Du, Zhirui Ye, James R Sayer
OBJECTIVE: This paper investigated and compared frequency-domain and time-domain characteristics of drivers' behavior before and after the start of distracted driving. METHOD: Data from an existing naturalistic driving study were used. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) was applied for the frequency domain analysis to explore drivers' behavior pattern changes between non-distracted (pre-starting of visual-manual task) and distracted (post-starting of visual-manual task) driving periods...
May 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533904/-this-is-where-it-all-started-the-pivotal-role-of-plc%C3%AE-within-the-sophisticated-process-of-mammalian-reproduction-a-systemic-review
#2
Itai Gat, Raoul Orvieto
Mammalian reproduction is one of the most complex and fascinating biological phenomenon, which aims to transfer maternal and paternal genetic material to the next generation. At the end of oogenesis and spermatogenesis, both haploid gametes contain a single set of chromosomes ready to form the zygote, the first cell of the newly developing individual. The mature oocyte and spermatozoa remain in a quiescent state, during which the oocyte is characterized by nuclear and cytoplasmic arrest, while the spermatozoa necessitates further maturation within the epididymis and female reproductive track prior to egg fertilization...
2017: Basic and Clinical Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531272/a-novel-isoform-of-tet1-that-lacks-a-cxxc-domain-is-overexpressed-in-cancer
#3
Charly R Good, Jozef Madzo, Bela Patel, Shinji Maegawa, Nora Engel, Jaroslav Jelinek, Jean-Pierre J Issa
TET1 oxidizes methylated cytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), resulting in regulation of DNA methylation and gene expression. Full length TET1 (TET1FL) has a CXXC domain that binds to unmethylated CpG islands (CGIs). This CXXC domain allows TET1 to protect CGIs from aberrant methylation, but it also limits its ability to regulate genes outside of CGIs. Here, we report a novel isoform of TET1 (TET1ALT) that has a unique transcription start site from an alternate promoter in intron 2, yielding a protein with a unique translation start site...
May 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531161/development-of-optimized-inhibitor-rnas-allowing-multisite-targeting-of-the-hcv-genome
#4
Cristina Romero-López, Thomas Lahlali, Beatriz Berzal-Herranz, Alfredo Berzal-Herranz
Engineered multivalent drugs are promising candidates for fighting infection by highly variable viruses, such as HCV. The combination into a single molecule of more than one inhibitory domain, each with its own target specificity and even a different mechanism of action, results in drugs with potentially enhanced therapeutic properties. In the present work, the anti-HCV chimeric inhibitor RNA HH363-10, which has a hammerhead catalytic domain and an aptamer RNA domain, was subjected to an in vitro selection strategy to isolate ten different optimised chimeric inhibitor RNAs...
May 22, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529974/a-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored-carbonic-anhydrase-related-protein-of-toxoplasma-gondii-is-important-for-rhoptry-biogenesis-and-virulence
#5
Nathan M Chasen, Beejan Asady, Leandro Lemgruber, Rossiane C Vommaro, Jessica C Kissinger, Isabelle Coppens, Silvia N J Moreno
Carbonic anhydrase-related proteins (CARPs) have previously been described as catalytically inactive proteins closely related to α-carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs). These CARPs are found in animals (both vertebrates and invertebrates) and viruses as either independent proteins or domains of other proteins. We report here the identification of a new CARP (TgCA_RP) in the unicellular organism Toxoplasma gondii that is related to the recently described η-class CA found in Plasmodium falciparum. TgCA_RP is posttranslationally modified at its C terminus with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor that is important for its localization in intracellular tachyzoites...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509352/convergent-mechanisms-favor-fast-amyloid-formation-in-two-lambda-6a-ig-light-chain-mutants
#6
Gilberto Valdés-García, Cesar Millan-Pacheco, Nina Pastor
Extracellular deposition as amyloids of immunoglobulin light chains causes light chain amyloidosis. Among the light chain families, lambda 6a is one of the most frequent in light chain amyloidosis patients. Its germline protein, 6aJL2, and point mutants, R24G and P7S, are good models to study fibrillogenesis, because their stability and fibril formation characteristics have been described. Both mutations make the germline protein unstable and speed up its ability to aggregate. To date, there is no molecular mechanism that explains how these differences in amyloidogenesis can arise from a single mutation...
May 16, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506706/cognitive-and-functional-deficits-in-people-with-schizophrenia-evidence-for-accelerated-or-exaggerated-aging
#7
Philip D Harvey, Jennifer B Rosenthal
Cognitive and functional deficits are commonly seen in people with schizophrenia. The profile of these impairments has a resemblance to the cognitive changes seen in healthy aging. In specific, many of the cognitive ability domains that change the most with aging in healthy people are the most salient of these deficits seen in people with schizophrenia, including prominent deficits in processing speed, working memory, and episodic memory. Functional deficits seen in schizophrenia are also similar to those seen in healthy aging...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506526/molecular-simulation-and-biochemical-studies-support-an-elevator-type-transport-mechanism-in%C3%A2-eiic
#8
Jumin Lee, Zhenning Ren, Ming Zhou, Wonpil Im
Enzyme IIC (EIIC) is a membrane-embedded sugar transport protein that is part of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferases. Crystal structures of two members of the glucose EIIC superfamily, bcChbC in the inward-facing conformation and bcMalT in the outward-facing conformation, were previously solved. Comparing the two structures led us to the hypothesis that sugar translocation could be achieved by an elevator-type transport mechanism in which a transport domain binds to the substrate and, through rigid body motions, transports it across the membrane...
May 13, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506463/rna-pol-ii-dynamics-modulate-co-transcriptional-chromatin-modification-ctd-phosphorylation-and-transcriptional-direction
#9
Nova Fong, Tassa Saldi, Ryan M Sheridan, Michael A Cortazar, David L Bentley
Eukaryotic genes are marked by conserved post-translational modifications on the RNA pol II C-terminal domain (CTD) and the chromatin template. How the 5'-3' profiles of these marks are established is poorly understood. Using pol II mutants in human cells, we found that slow transcription repositioned specific co-transcriptionally deposited chromatin modifications; histone H3 lysine 36 trimethyl (H3K36me3) shifted within genes toward 5' ends, and histone H3 lysine 4 dimethyl (H3K4me2) extended farther upstream of start sites...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506197/high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-confirms-the-presence-of-a-hydroxyproline-hyp-post-translational-modification-in-the-ggggp-linker-of-an-fc-fusion-protein
#10
Chris Spahr, Gunasekaran Kannan, Kenneth W Walker, Stone D-H Shi
Flexible and protease resistant (G4S)n linkers are used extensively in protein engineering to connect various protein domains. Recently, a number of groups have observed xylose-based O-glycosylation at linker Ser residues that yield unwanted heterogeneity and may affect product quality. Because of this, an engineering effort was implemented to explore different linker sequence constructs. Here, we demonstrate the presence of an unexpected hydroxylation of a prolyl residue in the linker, made possible through the use of high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) and MSn...
May 16, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504028/essential-competencies-in-global-health-research-for-medical-trainees-a-narrative-review
#11
Mary T White, Caley A Satterfield, Jason T Blackard
INTRODUCTION: Participation in short-term educational experiences in global health (STEGHs) among medical trainees is increasingly accompanied by interest in conducting research while abroad. Because formal training in both global health and research methods is currently under-represented in most medical curricula, trainees are often unfamiliar with the knowledge, attitudes, and skills necessary to design and conduct research successfully. This narrative review identifies essential global health research competencies for medical trainees engaged in STEGHs...
May 14, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503844/typeloader-a-fast-and-efficient-automated-workflow-for-the-annotation-and-submission-of-novel-full-length-hla-alleles
#12
V Surendranath, V Albrecht, J D Hayhurst, B Schöne, J Robinson, S G E Marsh, A H Schmidt, V Lange
Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the discovery of novel allelic variants of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Commonly, only the exons encoding the peptide binding domains of novel HLA alleles are submitted. As a result, the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database lacks sequence information outside those regions for the majority of known alleles. This has implications for the application of the new sequencing technologies, which deliver sequence data often covering the complete gene. As these technologies simplify the characterization of the complete gene regions, it is desirable for novel alleles to be submitted as full-length sequences to the database...
May 14, 2017: HLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499347/the-dynamics-of-early-state-transcriptional-changes-and-aggregate-formation-in-a-huntington-s-disease-cell-model
#13
Martijn van Hagen, Diewertje G E Piebes, Wim C de Leeuw, Ilona M Vuist, Willeke M C van Roon-Mom, Perry D Moerland, Pernette J Verschure
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Proteolytic cleavage of mutant huntingtin (Htt) protein with an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch results in production of Htt fragments that aggregate and induce impaired ubiquitin proteasome, mitochondrial functioning and transcriptional dysregulation. To understand the time-resolved relationship between aggregate formation and transcriptional changes at early disease stages, we performed temporal transcriptome profiling and quantification of aggregate formation in living cells in an inducible HD cell model...
May 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498994/threadomex-a-unified-platform-for-predicting-continuous-and-discontinuous-protein-domains-by-multiple-threading-and-segment-assembly
#14
Yan Wang, Jian Wang, Ruiming Li, Qiang Shi, Zhidong Xue, Yang Zhang
We develop a hierarchical pipeline, ThreaDomEx, for both continuous domain (CD) and discontinuous domain (DCD) structure predictions. Starting from a query sequence, ThreaDomEx first threads it through the PDB to identify multiple structure templates, where a profile of domain conservation score (DC-score) is derived for domain-segment assignment. To further detect DCDs that consist of separated segments along the sequence, a boundary-clustering algorithm is used to refine the DCD-linker locations. In case that the templates do not contain DCDs, a domain-segment assembly process, guided by symmetry comparison, is applied for further DCD detections...
May 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490711/purification-crystallization-and-x-ray-diffraction-study-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-human-herpesvirus-6a-immediate-early-protein-2
#15
Junjie Wang, Mitsuhiro Nishimura, Aika Wakata, Yasuko Mori
Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) starts its replication cycle following the action of immediate early proteins that transactivate viral promoters. Immediate early protein 2 (IE2) of HHV-6A is a 1500 amino acid polypeptide with a C-terminal region that is conserved among beta-herpesvirus subfamily members. In this study, a structural domain in the homologous C-terminal region was subjected to secondary structure prediction, and residues 1324-1500 were subsequently designated as the C-terminal domain of IE2 (IE2-CTD)...
April 7, 2017: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489019/heart-sound-classification-from-unsegmented-phonocardiograms
#16
Philip Langley, Alan Murray
Objective Most algorithms for automated analysis of phonocardiograms (PCG) require segmentation of the signal into the characteristic heart sounds. The aim was to assess the feasibility for accurate classification of heart sounds on short, unsegmented recordings. Approach PCG segments of 5 second duration from the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge database were analysed. Initially the 5 second segment at the start of each recording (seg 1) was analysed. Segments were zero-mean but otherwise had no pre-processing or segmentation...
May 10, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484914/further-evidence-on-eq-5d-5l-preference-inversion-a-brazil-u-s-collaboration
#17
Benjamin M Craig, Andréa L Monteiro, Michael Herdman, Marisa Santos
PURPOSE: A preference inversion occurs when "worse" health (instead of "better" health) along a scale or score is preferred. Our aim was to confirm past findings of EQ-5D-5L preference inversions among English-speaking respondents and to explore inversions among Portuguese-speaking respondents. Anecdotal evidence suggests that inversions may be more common in the Portuguese version, where the translation of the fourth level "severely" (gravemente) means "gravely." METHODS: Through an infusion clinic in Tampa, Florida, United States and a cardiology clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 740 respondents completed a tablet-based survey, which included the EQ-5D-3L and -5L followed by paired comparisons designed to assess preference inversions between the fourth and fifth levels of each of the five domains: Mobility (MO), Self-Care (SC), Usual Activity (UA), Pain/Discomfort (PD), and Anxiety/Depression (AD)...
May 8, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484468/the-membrane-proximal-region-of-c-c-chemokine-receptor-type-5-participates-in-the-infection-of-hiv-1
#18
Yue Tan, Pei Tong, Junyi Wang, Lei Zhao, Jing Li, Yang Yu, Ying-Hua Chen, Ji Wang
The initial infection and transmission of HIV-1 requires C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5). Here, we report that the membrane-proximal region (MPR, aa 22-38) of CCR5 participates in the infection of HIV-1. First, MPR-specific antibodies elicited in mice dose-dependently inhibited the infection of CCR5-tropic HIV-1. Second, substituting MPR with the same region from other co-receptors significantly impaired HIV-1 infection, while the key residues identified by alanine scanning mutagenesis formed an exposed leucine zipper-like structure...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481434/time-course-of-the-effects-of-lisdexamfetamine-dimesylate-in-two-phase-3-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trials-in-adults-with-binge-eating-disorder
#19
Susan L McElroy, James I Hudson, Maria Gasior, Barry K Herman, Jana Radewonuk, Denise Wilfley, Joan Busner
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the time course of efficacy-related endpoints for lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) versus placebo in adults with protocol-defined moderate to severe binge eating disorder (BED). METHODS: In two 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, adults meeting DSM-IV-TR BED criteria were randomized 1:1 to receive placebo or dose-optimized LDX (50 or 70 mg). Analyses across visits used mixed-effects models for repeated measures (binge eating days/week, binge eating episodes/week, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Binge Eating [Y-BOCS-BE] scores, percentage body weight change) and chi-square tests (Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement [CGI-I; from the perspective of BED symptoms] scale dichotomized as improved or not improved)...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479539/trust-essential-requirement-and-basis-for-phealth-services
#20
Pekka Ruotsalainen, Bernd Blobel
Trust is a social code and glue between persons and organizations in any business domain including health. pHealth is a complex concept that is built around health service providers, individuals and artefacts such as sensors, mobile devices, networks, computers, and software applications. It has many stakeholders such as organizations, persons, patients, customers, and tele-operators. pHealth services are increasingly offered in insecure information space, and used over organizational, geographical and jurisdictional borders...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
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