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Goiter in children

Bangaraiah Gari Ramesh, Panchangam Ramakanth Bhargav, Bangaraiah Gari Rajesh, Nangedda Vimala Devi, Rajagopalan Vijayaraghavan, Bhongir Aparna Varma
BACKGROUND: Dyshormonogenetic goiter is one of the most common causes of hypothyroidism in children and adolescents in iodine nonendemic areas. The exact genotype-phenotypic correlations (GPCs) and risk categorization of hypothyroid phenotypes of dyshormonogenetic mutations are largely speculative. The genetic studies in pediatric dyshormonogenesis are very sparse from Indian sub-continent. In this context, we analyzed the implications of TPO, NIS, and DUOX2 gene mutations in hypothyroid children with dyshormonogenetic hypothyroidism (DH) from South India...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sintayehu Hailu, Mamo Wubshet, Haile Woldie, Amare Tariku
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency remains a public health problem in the world. It is the leading cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage worldwide. Though 12 million school age children are at risk of developing iodine deficiency, there is a scarcity of literature showing the magnitude of iodine deficiency in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of iodine deficiency among school children in Robe District, southeast Ethiopia...
2016: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Ahmad Nadeem Aslami, Mohammed A Ansari, N Khalique, Umesh Kapil
We carried out this study to assess iodine deficiency disorders among school children of 6-12 years age group in Aligarh district of India. The prevalence of goiter was 5.2%. Median Urinary Iodine Excretion level was 150 ug/L; 22.5% of students had biochemical iodine deficiency. 50.4% households were consuming adequately iodized salt.
August 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
J Podoba, K Racova, H Urbankova, M Srbecky
OBJECTIVE: Prophylaxis of iodine deficiency-related disorders with iodized salt in Slovakia was introduced in 1951. This prophylactic measure yielded remarkably good results. Endemic goiter and endemic cretinism disappeared. Sufficient iodine intake, mainly in children and adolescents, was confirmed in several local and international studies carried out in the period 1991-95. Unfortunately, since seventies, there has been no institution which would have dealt with iodine prophylaxis in such an extent as this important measure of Slovak preventive medicine would require...
January 2016: Endocrine Regulations
Guy Lin, Tal Marom, David Dagan, Merin Ofer
OBJECT: The massive typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) ripped across the central Philippines on November 8, 2013, and damaged infrastructure including hospitals. The Israeli Defense Forces field hospital was directed by the Philippine authorities to Bogo City in the northern part of the island of Cebu, to assist the damaged local hospital. Hundreds of patients with neglected diseases sought for medical treatment which was merely out of reach for them. Our ethical dilemmas were whether to intervene, when the treatment we could offer was not the best possible...
August 19, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Douglas S Ross, Henry B Burch, David S Cooper, M Carol Greenlee, Peter Laurberg, Ana Luiza Maia, Scott A Rivkees, Mary Samuels, Julie Ann Sosa, Marius N Stan, Martin A Walter
BACKGROUND: Thyrotoxicosis has multiple etiologies, manifestations, and potential therapies. Appropriate treatment requires an accurate diagnosis and is influenced by coexisting medical conditions and patient preference. This document describes evidence-based clinical guidelines for the management of thyrotoxicosis that would be useful to generalist and subspecialty physicians and others providing care for patients with this condition. METHODS: The American Thyroid Association (ATA) previously cosponsored guidelines for the management of thyrotoxicosis that were published in 2011...
October 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Hale Tuhan, Sakine Işık, Ayhan Abacı, Erdem Şimşek, Ahmet Anık, Özden Anal, Ece Böber
AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and laboratory findings and determine the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data of a total of 80 patients with positive anti-thyroid antibodies who were aged between 6 and 17.9 years were retrospectively studied. Age, gender, complaints at the time of presentation, family history of thyroid disorders, clinical and laboratory findings were recorded...
June 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Yu Jung Choi, Jun Ho Jang, So Hyun Park, Jin-Hee Oh, Dae Kyun Koh
Graves disease (GD) can lead to complications such as cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure. Although dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP) has been occasionally reported in adults with GD, it is rare in children. We present the case of a 32-month-old boy with DCMP due to GD. He presented with irritability, vomiting, and diarrhea. He also had a history of weight loss over the past few months. On physical examination, he had tachycardia without fever, a mild diffuse goiter, and hepatomegaly. The chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly with pulmonary edema, while the echocardiography revealed a dilated left ventricle with an ejection fraction (EF) of 28%...
June 2016: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Ahmad Nadeem Aslami, Mohammed A Ansari, N Khalique, Umesh Kapil
We carried out the study to assessw iodine deficiency disorders among school children of 6-12 years age group in Aligarh district of India. The prevalence of goiter was 5.2%. Modern Urinary Iodine Excretion level was 150 μg/l, 22.5% of students had biochemical iodine deficiency. 50.4% households were consuming adequately iodized salt.
June 1, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Zhongyan Shan, Lulu Chen, Xiaolan Lian, Chao Liu, Bingyin Shi, Lixin Shi, Nanwei Tong, Shu Wang, Jianping Weng, Jiajun Zhao, Xiaochun Teng, Xiaohui Yu, Yaxin Lai, Weiwei Wang, Chenyan Li, Jinyuan Mao, Yongze Li, Chenling Fan, Weiping Teng
BACKGROUND: The goal of eliminating iodine deficiency worldwide was successfully achieved in China after the implementation of a mandatory universal salt iodization program for the last 16 years. Thus, China has been assessed as a country with more than adequate iodine levels. This survey aimed to investigate the current iodine status in China and the effects of an increased iodine intake on the spectrum and prevalence of thyroid disorders. METHODS: A total of 15,008 adult subjects from 10 cities in eastern and central China were investigated...
August 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Rambha Pathak, Chintu Chaudhary, Rashmi Agarwalla, Zakirhusain Shaikh, R K D Goel, Bilkish Patvegar
OBJECTIVES: To find out the magnitude of iron deficiency anemia in the age group of 6-12 years and investigate the role of iron deficiency as a possible contributor to endemic goiter in school children in Ambala. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was conducted as a subset of a cross-sectional study among 2700 children from 6 to 12 years of age to find out the prevalence of goiter. All the subjects who were found to be suffering from goiter in the cross-sectional study were enrolled in the case-control study as cases and were compared with age- and sex-matched controls (children without goiter) from the same cohort...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Shailja Sharma, Sunil Kumar Raina, Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj, Sanjeev Chaudhary, Vipasha Kashyap, Vishav Chander
BACKGROUND: The existence of an endemic goiter belt along the southern slopes of the Himalayas has been known for a long time. Prevalence of neonatal hypothyroidism is high and there has been little work on the prevalence of mental retardation in this part of India. OBJECTIVE: The study was conducted with the aim to know the prevalence of mental retardation in the urban and rural populations of Himachal Pradesh, India and to generate a hypothesis on the differential distribution (geographical) of mental retardation...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Public Health
T Arrigo, P M Cutroneo, M Vaccaro, D Impollonia, V Squadrito, A Mecchio, C Salpietro, D Altavilla
We reported a case of an 11-year-old girl admitted to our hospital for goiter, tachycardia, sweating, and visible and palpable thyroid. Thyroid function tests revealed a low thyrotropin level (<0.004 mIU/L) and elevated free thyroxine level (3.4 ng/ dL) diagnosed with Graves' disease and treated with methimazole. This anti-thyroid drug is recommended as first-line treatment in children with Graves' disease because it produces minor adverse effects with respect to propylthiouracil. She developed a lateralized exanthem mimicking figurate inflammatory dermatosis of infancy after methimazole therapy...
June 7, 2016: International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology
Kh I Kudabaeva, G K Koshmaganbetova, Ye Sh Bazargaliev, A M Baspakova
To evaluate iodine status in the population of Western Kazakhstan on the example oftheAktobe region according to data of urinary iodine concentrations. There were examined 2257 children aged from 7 to 12 years. Urinary iodine was carried out in 10% of schoolchildren by semiquantitative method under field conditions. According to the 30-cluster survey the prevalence of goiter in the region amounted to 42.71 ± 1.04%. The proportion of children with optimal urinary iodine concentrations is only 12.8%, more than 300 mcg/l--57...
2016: Gigiena i Sanitariia
Stephanie Booms, Elizabeth Hill, Leah Kulhanek, Jennifer Vredeveld, Brigid Gregg
Iodine deficiency is rare in the United States today, and this is largely due to the effectiveness of iodization in the general food supply. Recent trends among specific populations of children in the United States include adopting food restrictions, such casein-free and gluten-free diets. Although the effect of these types of diets on overall nutrition status and certain micronutrients has been studied in children with autism spectrum disorder, the effect of these limitations on iodine levels in children has not been assessed...
June 2016: Pediatrics
Hossein Gharib, Enrico Papini, Jeffrey R Garber, Daniel S Duick, R Mack Harrell, Laszlo Hegedüs, Ralf Paschke, Roberto Valcavi, Paolo Vitti
Thyroid nodules are detected in up to 50 to 60% of healthy subjects. Most nodules do not cause clinically significant symptoms, and as a result, the main challenge in their management is to rule out malignancy, with ultrasonography (US) and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy serving as diagnostic cornerstones. The key issues discussed in these guidelines are as follows: (1) US-based categorization of the malignancy risk and indications for US-guided FNA (henceforth, FNA), (2) cytologic classification of FNA samples, (3) the roles of immunocytochemistry and molecular testing applied to thyroid FNA, (4) therapeutic options, and (5) follow-up strategy...
May 2016: Endocrine Practice
Khatima I Kudabayeva, Gulbakit K Koshmaganbetova, Narseta Mickuviene, Margarita G Skalnaya, Alexey A Tinkov, Anatoly V Skalny
The objective of the study was analysis of hair trace elements content in children with goiter living in Aktubinsk region. Children with goiter and age- and sex-adjusted controls were involved in the current study. Hair trace elements content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Thyroid volume was measured using an ultrasound scanner and compared to the previously calculated normal values. The obtained data indicate that children with goiter were characterized by 20 and 15 % lower values of hair Cr and Zn, and 66, 42, 16, and 42 % higher hair levels of I, Mn, Si, and V as compared to the control values, respectively...
April 22, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Tamas Solymosi, Gyula Lukacs Toth, Laszlo Budai, Istvan Gal
The clinical and pathological presentation of thyroid nodules among younger and adult patients was compared in an iodine-deficient (ID) region. Data of 3,010 consecutive patients younger than 20 years and 3,010 patients older than 20 years were compared. The proportion of nodular goiters (22.8% versus 39.3%), the ratio of surgically treated nodules (33.2% versus 15.2%), and the proportion of malignant nodules (4.3% versus 2.1%) among diseased patients differed significantly between the two groups (younger versus adult)...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Amitabh Singh, Charul Purani, Anirban Mandal, Kishor M Mehariya, Rashmi Ranjan Das
INTRODUCTION: Thyroid hormone abnormalities are the commonest endocrine disorder in India and also the commonest preventable cause of mental retardation. In the absence of neonatal screening, thyroid disorders remain largely unrecognized in Indian children. AIM: To determine the prevalence, clinical profile, aetiology and associated co-morbidities of thyroid dysfunction in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, hospital based, observational study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Western India...
February 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Neha Sareen, Umesh Kapil, Vanisha Nambiar, Ravindra Mohan Pandey, Preetika Khenduja
INTRODUCTION: Uttarakhand (UK) state is a known endemic region to iodine deficiency (ID). OBJECTIVE: To assess the current status of iodine nutrition in a population of UK. METHODOLOGY: Three districts, namely Udham Singh Nagar (USN), Nainital (N), and Pauri Garhwal (PG) were selected. In each district, 30 clusters were identified by utilizing the population proportional to size cluster sampling methodology. Total of 6143 school age children (SAC) (USN; 1807, N; 2269, PG: 2067), 5430 adolescent girls (AGs) (USN; 1823, N; 1811, PG: 1796), 1727 pregnant mothers (PMs) (USN; 632, N; 614, PG: 481), and 2013 Neonates (USN; 649, N; 670, PG: 694), were included in the study...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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