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Goiter in children

Eliot Gómez López, Ana P Nso-Roca, Mercedes Juste Ruiz, Ernesto Cortés Castell
Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common cause of goiter and hypothyroidism among children and adolescents. Its clinical manifestations and course vary. The objective of this study was to review the clinical and evolutionary characteristics of Hashimoto's disease in the pediatric population. Clinical, analytical, ultrasound, epidemiological, and evolutionary data of patients with autoimmune thyroiditis seen at Hospital Universitario San Juan de Alicante between January 2010 and January 2016 were analyzed...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Fereidoun Azizi, Atieh Amouzegar
BACKGROUND: Diffuse toxic goiter accounts for about 15% of all childhood thyroid diseases. There is great controversy over the management of Graves' disease in children and adolescents. This article reports our experience in 304 children and juvenile patients with Graves' disease. METHODS: Between 1981 and 2015, 304 patients aged 5-19 years with diffuse toxic goiter were studied, of whom 296 patients were treated with antithyroid drugs (ATD) for 18 months. Patients with persistent or relapsed hyperthyroidism who refused ablative therapy with surgery or radioiodine were managed with continuous methimazole (MMI) treatment...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Andre Couto Carvalho, Ana Machado, Adulai Robalo Embalo, Adriano A Bordalo
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect 25% of all school-age children around the world. Current policies concerning iodine deficiency disorders in many countries are not based on robust or recent national data. Our objective was to evaluate the current status of iodine nutrition in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa). SUBJECT/METHODS: A cross-sectional survey including 299 school-age children, aged 6-14 years old, from four distinct regions of Guinea-Bissau across a coast-hinterland gradient (Bolama, Bissau, Cambaju-Bafatá, and Gabú) was performed...
December 28, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Michaela Plamper, Felix Schreiner, Bettina Gohlke, Janina Kionke, Eckard Korsch, James Kirkpatrick, Mark Born, Stefan Aretz, Joachim Woelfle
Patients with PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) are at increased risk of developing benign and malignant tumors, including thyroid carcinoma. Benign thyroid lesions and single cases of thyroid carcinoma have been reported in children with PHTS. We conducted a retrospective, single-centered study including children and adolescents with a molecularly proven diagnosis of PTEN. Our cohort consists of 16 patients, with a mean age at diagnosis PHTS of 5.7 years. Twelve of 16 cases exhibited thyroid abnormalities (75%)...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
Mohammad Athar Ansari, Zulfia Khan
The goiter prevalence reflects the iodine deficiency in past while urinary iodine excretion levels (UIEL) gives the current status of iodine nutrition. The study was conducted to assess the status of biochemical iodine deficiency in school children of 1st-5th standard (6-12 years). A total of 907 students of seven schools were included using probability proportional to size method. About 10% of urine samples from total children were tested for UIEL. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 20 (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
Emebet Tigabu, Kindie Bantie Bekele, Berihun Assefa Dachew
OBJECTIVES: Goiter is a major public health problem, especially in developing countries such as Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of goiter among children in Waghimra Zone, northeast Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 8 to 25, 2015 in northeast Ethiopia. A multistage sampling method was used to select 454 schoolchildren. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire...
2017: Epidemiology and Health
Djibril Boiro, Demba Diédhiou, Babacar Niang, Djiby Sow, Mandiaye Mbodj, Anna Sarr, Aliou Abdoulaye Ndongo, Aliou Thiongane, Modou Guèye, Lamine Thiam, Ndiogou Seck, Yaay Joor Dieng, Abou Ba, Idrissa Demba Ba, Ibrahima Mané Diallo, Ousmane Ndiaye, Said Nourou Diop
Introduction: Hyperthyroidism in children is rare and constitutes a problem because of its psychosomatic impact. This study aimed to present an overview of the state of knowledge on these aspects in children from Dakar. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, descriptive study over a period of 15 years. We evaluated the epidemiological, clinical and etiologic aspects of hyperthyroidism in children. Results: 239 patients were included in the study with a prevalence of 2...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Deepa Patel, Ping Li, Andrew J Bauer, Leslie Castelo-Soccio
Importance: The incidence of thyroid disease in children with alopecia areata (AA) has been widely studied with no consensus on whether a true association with AA exists. In addition, screening practices for thyroid dysfunction in children with AA vary widely among clinicians. Objective: To reduce health care costs, eliminate unnecessary testing, and standardize clinical practices, we sought to characterize thyroid function in children with AA to establish guidelines for screening...
December 1, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
Emilio García-García, Mercedes López-González, Rosa Cabello-Laureano, Elena Navarro-González
BACKGROUND: Multinodular goiter (MG) is very common in adults. MG may occur in children in some exceptional circumstances. The objective of this study was to examine two cases of MG in children who relapsed soon after surgery and to discuss the treatment options in pediatric ages. METHODS: Two girls consulted for euthyroid colloid goiter, uninodular goiter and bilateral MG. They were intervened by hemithyroidectomy and total thyroidectomy, respectively, due to the existence of local symptoms...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Sihui Li, Siyu Cai, Xisi Wang, Dawei Zhang, Libing Fu, Qi Zeng, Xiaoxia Peng, Xiaoli Ma
Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is the most common primary malignant neoplasm of the lung in children that is associated with a germline mutation in DICER1. In this report, we share an interesting case of a pair of monozygotic twins: one of them developed PPB when she was 4-year old, while the other developed acute transient hepatitis when she was 5-year old. Next-Gen sequencing for DICER1 mutations of their family revealed that both twins and their mother had c.C3675A mutation. The mother also had a history of multinodular goiter...
December 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Elizaveta V Popova, Alexey A Tinkov, Olga P Ajsuvakova, Margarita G Skalnaya, Anatoly V Skalny
The iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) include a variety of disturbances such as decreased fertility, increased perinatal and infant mortality, impaired physical and intellectual development, mental retardation, cretinism, hypothyroidism, and endemic goiter (EG). The occurrence of the latter is determined by interplay between genetic and environmental factors. The major environmental factor is iodine status that is required for normal thyroid hormone synthesis. However, other factors like intake of micronutrients and goiterogens also have a significant impact...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
Kris Ann P Schultz, Surya P Rednam, Junne Kamihara, Leslie Doros, Maria Isabel Achatz, Jonathan D Wasserman, Lisa R Diller, Laurence Brugières, Harriet Druker, Katherine A Schneider, Rose B McGee, William D Foulkes
PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS), DICER1 syndrome, and hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) syndrome are pleiotropic tumor predisposition syndromes that include benign and malignant neoplasms affecting adults and children. PHTS includes several disorders with shared and distinct clinical features. These are associated with elevated lifetime risk of breast, thyroid, endometrial, colorectal, and renal cancers as well as melanoma. Thyroid cancer represents the predominant cancer risk under age 20 years...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Michael M Krausz, Itamar Ashkenazi, Ricardo Alfici
The indications and methods of parathyroid autotransplantation in children and adults are reviewed, with special emphasis on the methods of immediate transplantation and delayed autotransplantation after cryopreservation. Parathyroid autotransplantation is performed during surgery when all four parathyroid glands have been intentionally resected in parathyroid hyperplasia, or when all four glands were inadvertently damaged during total thyroidectomy, or recurrent neck surgery. When parathyroid damage is suspected during thyroid or extensive neck surgery, cryopreservation of a parathyroid gland is performed...
March 2017: Harefuah
K Kudabayeva, G Batyrova, Y Bazargaliyev, R Agzamova, A Nuftieva
Aim of research - analysis of content of microelements in hair of children with thyromegaly living in the West Kazakhstan region. 159 school children of 6-12 years constantly living in this region were studied. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography using an ultrasound scanner and evaluated according to body surface area and the gender in accordance with the WHO recommendations (2007). Microelements were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on NexION 300D (PerkinElmer Inc., USA)...
February 2017: Georgian Medical News
Emre Divarcı, Ülgen Çeltik, Zafer Dökümcü, Orkan Ergün, Geylani Özok, Samim Özen, Damla Gökşen Şimşek, Şükran Darcan, Nazan Çetingül, Aylin Oral, Yeşim Ertan, Bengü Demirağ, Ahmet Çelik
OBJECTIVE: The management of childhood thyroid nodules is still a big challenge for clinicians. In this study, we aimed to present our surgical and endocrinological experience in more than one hundred pediatric cases. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients admitted with a thyroid nodule between 2006 and 2014 was performed. Detailed ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) were the cornerstones of the diagnostic approach. RESULTS: One hundred-three children (72 female, 31 male) with a mean age of 13...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Juliane Léger, Jean-Claude Carel
Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder. It is the leading cause of hyperthyroidism, but is rare in children. Patients are initially managed with antithyroid drugs (ATDs), such as methimazole/carbimazole. A major disadvantage of treatment with ATD is the high risk of relapse, exceeding 70% of children treated for duration of 2 years, and the potential major side effects of the drug reported in exceptional cases. The major advantage of ATD treatment is that normal homeostasis of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis may be restored, with periods of drug treatment followed by freedom from medical intervention achieved in approximately 40-50% of cases after prolonged treatment with ATD, for several years, in recent studies...
August 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
Rajiv Kumar Gupta, Bhavna Langer, Sunil Kumar Raina, Rashmi Kumari, Reyaz Jan, Renu Rani
INTRODUCTION: Iodine deficiency disorder remains one of the major public health problems, despite it being easily preventable. Initially thought as the disorder of Himalayan goiter belt, the disorder has been found to have a pan-India presence. The study was planned with the aim to assess the prevalence of goiter among 6-12 years school-going children and to identify levels of iodine in salt consumed at the household level in the study area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted among 3955 school-going (2162 children from Rajouri and 1793 children from Poonch) children age 6-12 years in Rajouri and Poonch districts of Jammu Province...
October 2016: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Zhen Liang, Chen Xu, Yong-Jun Luo
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) refer to diseases that are caused by insufficient iodine intake, and the best strategy to prevent IDD is the addition of iodine to dietary salt. Because iodine deficiency is a common cause of goiter, the prevalence as effectively controlled after the implementation of universal salt iodization (USI) in China. However, there is substantial controversy as to whether the incidence of thyroid disorders is related to iodized salt intake. Therefore, we aimed to clarify whether the risk of goiter can be promoted by USI...
2017: Military Medical Research
Linlin Xiu, Gansheng Zhong, Xueman Ma
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether urinary iodine concentration (UIC) can predict goiter among school-age children, and to assess the association between UIC and goiter prevalence. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), Web of Science, CNKI, VIP, and Wan Fang databases for relevant reports in both English and Chinese up to August 25, 2016. The mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for the UIC and goiter prevalence assessments...
2017: PloS One
Malgorzata Trofimiuk-Mudlner, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk
BACKGROUND: Physiological changes in pregnancy result in increased iodine demand, which may not be met in areas of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency or borderline sufficiency. As a pregnant woman is the only source of thyroid hormones for her child during early gestation, iodine deficiencyinduced hypothyroxinemia may have deleterious effects on fetal development. OBJECTIVE: To present the current approach to iodine deficiency and its prophylaxis during pregnancy...
2017: Recent Patents on Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Drug Discovery
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