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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227946/cross-disciplinary-links-in-environmental-systems-science-current-state-and-claimed-needs-identified-in-a-meta-review-of-process-models
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Ayllón, Volker Grimm, Sabine Attinger, Michael Hauhs, Clemens Simmer, Harry Vereecken, Gunnar Lischeid
Terrestrial environmental systems are characterised by numerous feedback links between their different compartments. However, scientific research is organized into disciplines that focus on processes within the respective compartments rather than on interdisciplinary links. Major feedback mechanisms between compartments might therefore have been systematically overlooked so far. Without identifying these gaps, initiatives on future comprehensive environmental monitoring schemes and experimental platforms might fail...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215910/your-job-is-messing-with-mine-the-impact-of-mobile-device-use-for-work-during-family-time-on-the-spouse-s-work-life
#2
Dawn S Carlson, Merideth J Thompson, Wayne S Crawford, Wendy R Boswell, Dwayne Whitten
The use of mobile technology for work purposes during family time has been found to affect employees' work and family lives. Using a matched sample of 344 job incumbents and their spouses, we examined the role of mobile device (MD) use for work during family time in the job incumbent-spouse relationship and how this MD use crosses over to affect the spouse's work life. Integrating the work-home resources model with family systems theory, we found that as job incumbents engage in MD use for work during family time, work-to-family conflict increases, as does the combined experience of relationship tension between job incumbents and spouses...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214429/reduction-and-stability-analysis-of-a-transcription-translation-model-of-rna-polymerase
#3
Ismail Belgacem, Stefano Casagranda, Edith Grac, Delphine Ropers, Jean-Luc Gouzé
The aim of this paper is to analyze the dynamical behavior of biological models of gene transcription and translation. We focus on a particular positive feedback loop governing the synthesis of RNA polymerase, needed for transcribing its own gene. We write a high-dimension model based on mass action laws and reduce it to a two-variable model (RNA polymerase and its mRNA) by means of monotone system theory and timescale arguments. We show that the reduced model has either a single globally stable trivial equilibrium in (0, 0), or an unstable zero equilibrium and a globally stable positive one...
December 6, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208976/dynamical-system-with-plastic-self-organized-velocity-field-as-an-alternative-conceptual-model-of-a-cognitive-system
#4
Natalia B Janson, Christopher J Marsden
It is well known that architecturally the brain is a neural network, i.e. a collection of many relatively simple units coupled flexibly. However, it has been unclear how the possession of this architecture enables higher-level cognitive functions, which are unique to the brain. Here, we consider the brain from the viewpoint of dynamical systems theory and hypothesize that the unique feature of the brain, the self-organized plasticity of its architecture, could represent the means of enabling the self-organized plasticity of its velocity vector field...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202312/bernstein-s-levels-of-movement-construction-a-contemporary-perspective
#5
Vitor L S Profeta, Michael T Turvey
Explanation of how goal-directed movements are made manifest is the ultimate aim of the field classically referred to as "motor control". Essential to the sought-after explanation is comprehension of the supporting functional architecture. Seven decades ago, the Russian physiologist and movement scientist Nikolai A. Bernstein proposed a hierarchical model to explain the construction of movements. In his model, the levels of the hierarchy share a common language (i.e., they are commensurate) and perform complementing functions to bring about dexterous movements...
December 1, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200511/what-is-the-extension-of-the-extended-mind
#6
Hajo Greif
Two aspects of cognitive coupling, as brought forward in the Extended Mind Hypothesis, are discussed in this paper: (1) how shall the functional coupling between the organism and some entity in his environment be spelled out in detail? (2) What are the paradigmatic external entities to enter into that coupling? These two related questions are best answered in the light of an aetiological variety of functionalist argument that adds historical depth to the "active externalism" promoted by Clark and Chalmers and helps to counter some of the core criticisms levelled against this view...
2017: Synthese
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197501/intuitive-physics-ability-in-systemizers-relies-on-differential-use-of-the-internalizing-system-and-long-term-spatial-representations
#7
Tapani Riekki, Juha Salmi, Annika M Svedholm-Häkkinen, Marjaana Lindeman
According to the Empathizing-Systemizing theory (E-S Theory), individual differences in how people understand the physical world (systemizing) and the social world (empathizing), are two continuums in the general population with several implications, from vocational interests to skills in the social and physical domains. The underlying mechanisms of intuitive physics performance among individuals with a strong systemizing and weak empathizing (systemizers) are, however, unknown. Our results affirm higher intuitive physics skills in healthy adult systemizers (N=36), and further reveal the brain mechanisms that are characteristic for those individuals in carrying out such tasks...
November 29, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194328/the-power-of-the-frame-systems-transformation-framework-for-health-care-leaders
#8
Kathy A Scott, Janice Pringle
Health care leaders are responsible for oversight of multiple and competing change interventions. These interventions regularly fail to achieve the desired outcomes and/or sustainable results. This often occurs because of the mental models and approaches that are used to plan, design, implement, and evaluate the system. These do not account for inherent characteristics that determine the system's likely ability to innovate while maintaining operational effectiveness. Theories exist on how to assess a system's readiness to change, but the definitions, constructs, and assessments are diverse and often look at facets of systems in isolation...
January 2018: Nursing Administration Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192171/a-strategy-for-effective-latent-hiv-reactivation-using-subtherapeutic-drug-doses
#9
James Cotterell, Greg Neely
Cell state switches underlie a plethora of biological phenomena and disease treatment strategies. Hence the ability to efficiently switch states in a chosen direction is of central importance in a number of scenarios. Increasing the concentration of an effector that results in a given switch is often limited by side effects. Approaches are thus increasingly sought to bypass these constraints, increasing the frequency of state switching without increasing the frequency of the side effect. Here, we employ dynamical systems theory to uncover a simple strategy as to how to maximize the probability of reactivating latent Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) whilst maintaining minimal side effects...
November 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163324/practice-and-preparation-time-facilitate-system-switching-in-perceptual-categorization
#10
Sébastien Hélie
Mounting evidence suggests that category learning is achieved using different psychological and biological systems. While existing multiple-system theories and models of categorization may disagree about the number or nature of the different systems, all assume that people can switch between systems seamlessly. However, little empirical data has been collected to test this assumption, and recent available data suggest that system-switching is difficult. The main goal of this article is to identify factors influencing the proportion of participants who successfully learn to switch between procedural and declarative systems on a trial-by-trial basis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161824/special-issue-on-erice-mathcompepi-2015-proceedings
#11
Alberto d'Onofrio, Paola Cerrai, Piero Manfredi
The mathematical and computational modelling of the spread of infectious diseases is a research field in applied mathematics that in the same time was both able to give an impetum to various areas of the dynamical systems theory and mathematical analysis, and to give an important contribution to the biological and epidemiological understanding of the spread of these diseases. National as well as Inter-National health authorities adopt routinely in the practice methodologies and concept that were born in the field of Mathematical and Computational Epidemiology (MCE) for assisting public Health decisions and policies...
February 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161758/young-athletes-health-knowledge-system-qualitative-analysis-of-health-learning-processes-in-adolescent-sportspersons
#12
Laura I Rodríguez-Serrano, Toomas Timpka, Joakim Ekberg, Örjan Dahlström, Jenny Jacobsson
Recognized side effects on health associated with sports participation in youth include overtraining, doping, and exposure to harassment and violence. Many of these effects originate in contexts where young athletes are beginning to make decisions about their sports practices on their own. This study set out to explore knowledge and reasoning about health among adolescent athletes and to describe how health knowledge management structures are associated with different social systems. Qualitative data were collected from focus groups involving 65 young Swedish athletes aged 16 to 17 years...
November 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154007/public-responses-to-water-reuse-understanding-the-evidence
#13
REVIEW
H M Smith, S Brouwer, P Jeffrey, J Frijns
Over the years, much research has attempted to unpack what drives public responses to water reuse, using a variety of approaches. A large amount of this work was captured by an initial review that covered research undertaken up to the early 2000s (Hartley, 2006). This paper showcases post-millennium evidence and thinking around public responses to water reuse, and highlights the novel insights and shifts in emphasis that have occurred in the field. Our analysis is structured around four broad, and highly interrelated, strands of thinking: 1) work focused on identifying the range of factors that influence public reactions to the concept of water reuse, and broadly looking for associations between different factors; 2) more specific approaches rooted in the socio-psychological modelling techniques; 3) work with a particular focus on understanding the influences of trust, risk perceptions and affective (emotional) reactions; and 4) work utilising social constructivist perspectives and socio-technical systems theory to frame responses to water reuse...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144882/adult-children-of-gay-fathers-parent-child-relationship-quality-and-mental-health
#14
Samantha L Tornello, Charlotte J Patterson
According to family systems theory, parent-child relationships are an important aspect of individual well-being. This study explored associations among parental disclosure, parent-child relationships, and well-being among 84 adult children with gay fathers. We explored associations between the adult children's well-being and the children's ages at sexual orientation disclosure, geographic distance, relationship quality and closeness with their fathers. We found that when parental disclosure had occurred earlier in the adult child's life, participants reported feeling closer to fathers in adulthood...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144848/watching-the-evolution-of-the-american-family-amazon-s-transparent-ecological-systems-theory-and-the-changing-dynamics-of-public-opinion
#15
Amy B Becker, Maureen E Todd
Using Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological systems theory as an organizing framework, the research closely examines the text of the Amazon Studios hit show, Transparent, and by extension the evolution of public opinion towards transgender individuals. By examining the Pfefferman family in detail and their related microsystem and macrosystem, we are able to closely unpack the transition of Jeffrey Tambor's character from Mort to Maura and the show's connections with broader developments in the Los Angeles LGBT community and the Jewish diaspora in postwar and contemporary Los Angeles...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124777/coherence-in-the-visual-imagination
#16
Michael O Vertolli, Matthew A Kelly, Jim Davies
An incoherent visualization is when aspects of different senses of a word (e.g., the biological "mouse" vs. the computer "mouse") are present in the same visualization (e.g., a visualization of a biological mouse in the same image with a computer tower). We describe and implement a new model of creating contextual coherence in the visual imagination called Coherencer, based on the SOILIE model of imagination. We show that Coherencer is able to generate scene descriptions that are more coherent than SOILIE's original approach as well as a parallel connectionist algorithm that is considered competitive in the literature on general coherence...
November 10, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121506/what-factors-determine-the-preferred-gait-transition-speed-in-humans-a-review-of-the-triggering-mechanisms
#17
Stacey M Kung, Philip W Fink, Stephen J Legg, Ajmol Ali, Sarah P Shultz
Human locomotion is a fundamental skill that is required for daily living, yet it is not completely known how human gait is regulated in a manner that seems so effortless. Gait transitions have been analyzed to gain insight into the control mechanisms of human locomotion since there is a known change that occurs as the speed of locomotion changes. Specifically, as gait speed changes, there is a spontaneous transition between walking and running that occurs at a particular speed. Despite the growing body of research on the determinants of this preferred transition speed and thus the triggering mechanisms of human gait transitions, a clear consensus regarding the control mechanisms of gait is still lacking...
November 6, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117560/timed-synaptic-inhibition-shapes-nmda-spikes-influencing-local-dendritic-processing-and-global-i-o-properties-of-cortical-neurons
#18
Michael Doron, Giuseppe Chindemi, Eilif Muller, Henry Markram, Idan Segev
The NMDA spike is a long-lasting nonlinear phenomenon initiated locally in the dendritic branches of a variety of cortical neurons. It plays a key role in synaptic plasticity and in single-neuron computations. Combining dynamic system theory and computational approaches, we now explore how the timing of synaptic inhibition affects the NMDA spike and its associated membrane current. When impinging on its early phase, individual inhibitory synapses strongly, but transiently, dampen the NMDA spike; later inhibition prematurely terminates it...
November 7, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083233/the-measurement-and-role-of-ecological-resilience-systems-theory-across-domain-specific-outcomes-the-domain-specific-resilient-systems-scales
#19
John Maltby, Liz Day, Sophie S Hall, Sally Chivers
Research suggests that trait resilience may be best understood within an ecological resilient systems theory, comprising engineering, ecological, and adaptive capacity resilience. However, there is no evidence as to how this theory translates to specific life domains. Data from two samples (the United States, n = 1,278; the United Kingdom, n = 211) facilitated five studies that introduce the Domain-Specific Resilient Systems Scales for assessing ecological resilient systems theory within work, health, marriage, friendships, and education...
October 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058221/systems-health-a-transition-from-disease-management-toward-health-promotion
#20
Li Shen, Benchen Ye, Huimin Sun, Yuxin Lin, Herman van Wietmarschen, Bairong Shen
To date, most of the chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, are the leading cause of death. Current strategies toward disease treatment, e.g., risk prediction and target therapy, still have limitations for precision medicine due to the dynamic and complex nature of health. Interactions among genetics, lifestyle, and surrounding environments have nonnegligible effects on disease evolution. Thus a transition in health-care area is urgently needed to address the hysteresis of diagnosis and stabilize the increasing health-care costs...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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