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"system theory"

Sophie Pask, Cathryn Pinto, Katherine Bristowe, Liesbeth van Vliet, Caroline Nicholson, Catherine J Evans, Rob George, Katharine Bailey, Joanna M Davies, Ping Guo, Barbara A Daveson, Irene J Higginson, Fliss Em Murtagh
BACKGROUND: Palliative care patients are often described as complex but evidence on complexity is limited. We need to understand complexity, including at individual patient-level, to define specialist palliative care, characterise palliative care populations and meaningfully compare interventions/outcomes. AIM: To explore palliative care stakeholders' views on what makes a patient more or less complex and insights on capturing complexity at patient-level. DESIGN: In-depth qualitative interviews, analysed using Framework analysis...
February 1, 2018: Palliative Medicine
Richard A Cangelosi, Elissa J Schwartz, David J Wollkind
Analysis of previously published target-cell limited viral dynamic models for pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis, and influenza generally rely on standard techniques from dynamical systems theory or numerical simulation. We use a quasi-steady-state approximation to derive an analytic solution for the model with a non-cytopathic effect, that is, when the death rates of uninfected and infected cells are equal. The analytic solution provides time evolution values of all three compartments of uninfected cells, infected cells, and virus...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
D M Mateos, R Guevara Erra, R Wennberg, J L Perez Velazquez
Quantification of complexity in neurophysiological signals has been studied using different methods, especially those from information or dynamical system theory. These studies have revealed a dependence on different states of consciousness, and in particular that wakefulness is characterized by a greater complexity of brain signals, perhaps due to the necessity for the brain to handle varied sensorimotor information. Thus, these frameworks are very useful in attempts to quantify cognitive states. We set out to analyze different types of signals obtained from scalp electroencephalography (EEG), intracranial EEG and magnetoencephalography recording in subjects during different states of consciousness: resting wakefulness, different sleep stages and epileptic seizures...
February 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Michelle L Kelley, Adrian J Bravo, Abby L Braitman, Rebecca A Price, Tyler D White
In the present study, we examined associations between fathers' and mothers' mental health symptoms as related to their own and their partner's parenting in couples in which fathers (n = 38 families) or both partners (n = 30 families) had substance use disorder (SUD). Each partner reported on symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hostility; children reported on each parent's parenting behaviors, including acceptance, psychological control, and knowledge of children. Actor-partner interdependence models indicated that when substance-abusing fathers have more symptoms of anxiety and depression, non-substance-abusing mothers report greater knowledge of children, whereas non-substance-abusing mothers' mental health symptoms were related to less paternal knowledge of children...
February 2018: Journal of Family Issues
Lisa Schelbe, Karen A Randolph, Anna Yelick, Leah P Cheatham, Danielle B Groton
Increased attention to former foster youth pursuing post-secondary education has resulted in the creation of college campus based support programs to address their need. However, limited empirical evidence and theoretical knowledge exist about these programs. This study seeks to describe the application of systems theory as a framework for examining a college campus based support program for former foster youth. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 program stakeholders including students, mentors, collaborative members, and independent living program staff...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
Michio Iwata, Atsuko Miyawaki-Kuwakado, Erika Yoshida, Soichiro Komori, Fumihide Shiraishi
In a mathematical model, estimation of parameters from time-series data of metabolic concentrations in cells is a challenging task. However, it seems that a promising approach for such estimation has not yet been established. Biochemical Systems Theory (BST) is a powerful methodology to construct a power-law type model for a given metabolic reaction system and to then characterize it efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the use of an S-system root-finding method (S-system method) to estimate parameters from time-series data of metabolite concentrations...
February 1, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Kadia Petricca, Asfaw Bekele, Whitney Berta, Jennifer Gibson, Clare Pain
Setting priorities for health services is a complex and value laden process. Over the past twenty years, there has been considerable scholarly attention paid to strengthening fairness and legitimacy using the prominent ethical framework, Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R). A variety of case studies applying A4R have advanced our conceptual understanding of procedural fairness, and have highlighted the significance of context through its application. There is a paucity of research, however, that rigorously examines how and to what extent context influences health priority setting processes and the establishment of procedural fairness...
December 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
Aisha Umar Akeel, Darren Mundy
The presence and increase of challenges to eHealth in today's society have begun to generate doubts about the capability of technology in patient empowerment, especially within the frameworks supporting empowerment. Through the review of existing frameworks and articulation of patient demands, weaknesses in the current application of technology to support empowerment are explored, and key constituents of a technology-driven framework for patient empowerment are determined. This article argues that existing usage of technology in the design, development and implementation of patient empowerment in the healthcare system, although well intentioned, is insufficiently constituted, primarily as a result of fragmentation...
January 1, 2018: Health Informatics Journal
Shari P Finner, Mihail I Kotsev, Mark A Miller, Paul van der Schoot
We investigate percolation in mixtures of nanorods in the presence of external fields that align or disalign the particles with the field axis. Such conditions are found in the formulation and processing of nanocomposites, where the field may be electric, magnetic, or due to elongational flow. Our focus is on the effect of length polydispersity, which-in the absence of a field-is known to produce a percolation threshold that scales with the inverse weight average of the particle length. Using a model of non-interacting spherocylinders in conjunction with connectedness percolation theory, we show that a quadrupolar field always increases the percolation threshold and that the universal scaling with the inverse weight average no longer holds if the field couples to the particle length...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Thomas R Clancy
As systems evolve over time, their natural tendency is to become increasingly more complex. Studies in the field of complex systems have generated new perspectives on the application of management strategies in health systems. Much of this research appears as a natural extension of the cross-disciplinary field of systems theory. This article is the 3rd in a series of articles that focus on why technological complexity is increasing and strategies nurse administrators can use to successfully implement change in the face of it...
February 2018: Journal of Nursing Administration
Jordan Lock, Chris Bearman
Objective The objective of this paper is to examine quotation error in human factors. Background Science progresses through building on the work of previous research. This requires accurate quotation. Quotation error has a number of adverse consequences: loss of credibility, loss of confidence in the journal, and a flawed basis for academic debate and scientific progress. Quotation error has been observed in a number of domains, including marine biology and medicine, but there has been little or no previous study of this form of error in human factors, a domain that specializes in the causes and management of error...
January 1, 2018: Human Factors
Rong Su, Matthew Thomas, Richard Leach, Jeremy Coupland
Coherence scanning interferometry (CSI) offers three-dimensional (3D) measurement of surface topography with high precision and accuracy. Defocus within the interferometric objective lens, however, is commonly present in CSI measurements and reduces both the resolving power of the imaging system and the ability to measure tilted surfaces. This Letter extends the linear theory of CSI to consider the effects of defocus on the 3D transfer function and the point spread function in an otherwise ideal CSI instrument...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Marc A Lindberg, Dana Zeid
The Attachment and Developmental Dynamic Systems Theory of Crime was tested on 206 male inmates. They completed measures tapping attachments, clinical issues, adverse childhood events, peer crime, and crime addictions. A significant path model was found, going from insecure parental attachments to adverse childhood events, and then on to the behavioral crime addiction and criminal peers scales. Peer crime was also predicted by insecure parent attachments and the crime addiction scale. Finally, the crime addiction, peer crime, and insecure parental attachment scales predicted frequencies of criminal behavior...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
A Zgonnikov, A Aleni, P T Piiroinen, D O'Hora, M di Bernardo
Computerized paradigms have enabled gathering rich data on human behaviour, including information on motor execution of a decision, e.g. by tracking mouse cursor trajectories. These trajectories can reveal novel information about ongoing decision processes. As the number and complexity of mouse-tracking studies increase, more sophisticated methods are needed to analyse the decision trajectories. Here, we present a new computational approach to generating decision landscape visualizations based on mouse-tracking data...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Andrija S Grustam, Hubertus Vrijhoef, Antonio Cordella, Ron Koymans, Johan L Severens
Introduction: For telemonitoring to support care coordination, a sound business model is conditional. The aim of this study is to explore the systemic and economic differences in care coordination via business-to-business and business-to-consumer models for telemonitoring patients with chronic diseases. Methods: We performed a literature search in order to design the business-to-business and business-to-consumer telemonitoring models, and to assess the design elements and themes by applying the activity system theory, and describe the transaction costs in each model...
December 2017: International Journal of Care Coordination
S Kathleen Worton, Julian Hasford, Eric Macnaughton, Geoffrey Nelson, Timothy MacLeod, Sam Tsemberis, Vicky Stergiopoulos, Paula Goering, Tim Aubry, Jino Distastio, Tim Richter
We present interim findings of a cross-site case study of an initiative to expand Housing First (HF) in Canada through training and technical assistance (TTA). HF is an evidence-based practice designed to end chronic homelessness for consumers of mental health services. We draw upon concepts from implementation science and systems change theory to examine how early implementation occurs within a system. Case studies examining HF early implementation were conducted in six Canadian communities receiving HF TTA...
December 18, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
Indrani Bose, Mainak Pal
Cell differentiation is an important process in living organisms. Differentiation is mostly based on binary decisions with the progenitor cells choosing between two specific lineages. The differentiation dynamics have both deterministic and stochastic components. Several theoretical studies suggest that cell differentiation is a bifurcation phenomenon, well-known in dynamical systems theory. The bifurcation point has the character of a critical point with the system dynamics exhibiting specific features in its vicinity...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
Daniel Ayllón, Volker Grimm, Sabine Attinger, Michael Hauhs, Clemens Simmer, Harry Vereecken, Gunnar Lischeid
Terrestrial environmental systems are characterised by numerous feedback links between their different compartments. However, scientific research is organized into disciplines that focus on processes within the respective compartments rather than on interdisciplinary links. Major feedback mechanisms between compartments might therefore have been systematically overlooked so far. Without identifying these gaps, initiatives on future comprehensive environmental monitoring schemes and experimental platforms might fail...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Dawn S Carlson, Merideth J Thompson, Wayne S Crawford, Wendy R Boswell, Dwayne Whitten
The use of mobile technology for work purposes during family time has been found to affect employees' work and family lives. Using a matched sample of 344 job incumbents and their spouses, we examined the role of mobile device (MD) use for work during family time in the job incumbent-spouse relationship and how this MD use crosses over to affect the spouse's work life. Integrating the work-home resources model with family systems theory, we found that as job incumbents engage in MD use for work during family time, work-to-family conflict increases, as does the combined experience of relationship tension between job incumbents and spouses...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
Ismail Belgacem, Stefano Casagranda, Edith Grac, Delphine Ropers, Jean-Luc Gouzé
The aim of this paper is to analyze the dynamical behavior of biological models of gene transcription and translation. We focus on a particular positive feedback loop governing the synthesis of RNA polymerase, needed for transcribing its own gene. We write a high-dimension model based on mass action laws and reduce it to a two-variable model (RNA polymerase and its mRNA) by means of monotone system theory and timescale arguments. We show that the reduced model has either a single globally stable trivial equilibrium in (0, 0), or an unstable zero equilibrium and a globally stable positive one...
December 6, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
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