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"system theory"

Stephen J Guastello, David E Marra, Anthony F Peressini, Julian Castro, Maribeth Gomez
The synchronization of autonomic arousal levels within dyads and larger teams has become a potentially important variable in the explanation of team performance and group processes. Synchronization research with groups of three or more members has been challenging because of limited means for quantifying relationships that are more extensive than dyads. This article presents an empirical investigation of group performance and participation using a new synchronization coefficient that is grounded in nonlinear dynamical systems theory...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Akira Terui, Nobuo Ishiyama, Hirokazu Urabe, Satoru Ono, Jacques C Finlay, Futoshi Nakamura
Intraspecific population diversity (specifically, spatial asynchrony of population dynamics) is an essential component of metapopulation stability and persistence in nature. In 2D systems, theory predicts that metapopulation stability should increase with ecosystem size (or habitat network size): Larger ecosystems will harbor more diverse subpopulations with more stable aggregate dynamics. However, current theories developed in simplified landscapes may be inadequate to predict emergent properties of branching ecosystems, an overlooked but widespread habitat geometry...
June 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sean Nee
Survival analysis in biology and reliability theory in engineering concern the dynamical functioning of bio/electro/mechanical units. Here we incorporate effects of chaotic dynamics into the classical theory. Dynamical systems theory now distinguishes strong and weak chaos. Strong chaos generates Type II survivorship curves entirely as a result of the internal operation of the system, without any age-independent, external, random forces of mortality. Weak chaos exhibits (a) intermittency and (b) Type III survivorship, defined as a decreasing per capita mortality rate: engineering explicitly defines this pattern of decreasing hazard as 'infant mortality'...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Michael Kimmel, Dayana Hristova, Kerstin Kussmaul
Drawing on a micro-phenomenological paradigm, we discuss Contact Improvisation (CI), where dancers explore potentials of intercorporeal weight sharing, kinesthesia, touch, and momentum. Our aim is to typologically discuss creativity related skills and the rich spectrum of creative resources CI dancers use. This spectrum begins with relatively idea-driven creation and ends with interactivity-centered, fully emergent creation: (1) Ideation internal to the mind, the focus of traditional creativity research, is either restricted to semi-independent dancing or remains schematic and thus open to dynamic specification under the partner’s influence...
May 23, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Sarah Hean, Elisabeth Willumsen, Atle Ødegård
Purpose Effective collaboration between mental health services (MHS) and criminal justice services (CJS) impacts on mental illness and reduces reoffending rates. This paper proposes the change laboratory model (CLM) of workplace transformation as a potential tool to support interagency collaborative practice that has potential to complement current integration tools used in this context. The purpose of this paper is to focus specifically on the theoretical dimension of the model: the cultural historical activity systems theory (CHAT) as a theoretical perspective that offers a framework with which interactions between the MHS and CJS can be better understood...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Prisoner Health
Jacqueline Williams-Reade, Elsie Lobo, Abel Arvizú Whittemore, Laura Parra, Joanne Baerg
INTRODUCTION: Surgical residents often need to break bad news (BBN) to patients and family members. While communication skills are a core competency in residency training, these specific skills are rarely formally taught. We piloted a simulation training to teach pediatric surgical residents how to compassionately BBN of an unexpected, traumatic pediatric death to surviving family members. This training was unique in that it was influenced by family systems theory and was a collaborative effort between our institution's surgery residency and medical family therapy (MedFT) programs...
May 28, 2018: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
Mohammad Rashbari Dibavar
Two-system theory as the dominant approach in the field of infant numerical representation is characterized by three features: precise representation of small sets of objects, approximate representation of large magnitudes and failure to compare small and large sets. Comparison of single- and multimodal numerical abilities suggests that infants' performance in multimodal conditions is consistent with these three features. Nevertheless, the influence of multimodal stimulation on infants' numerical representation is characterized by preventing the formation of perceptual overlaps across different sensory modalities which can lead to an understanding of numerical values of small sets and also by creating a conceptual overlap about numbers that increases infants' accuracy for discriminating quantities when numerical information is presented bimodally and synchronously...
May 25, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Cheng-Wei Li, Tzu-Ying Lai, Bor-Sen Chen
Mutation accumulation and epigenetic alterations in genes are important for carcinogenesis. Because leukemogenesis-related signal pathways have been investigated and microarray sample data have been produced in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and normal cells, systems analysis in coupling pathways becomes possible. Based on system modeling and identification, we could construct the coupling pathways and their associated gene regulatory networks using microarray sample data. By applying system theory to the estimated system model in coupling pathways, we can then obtain transductivity sensitivity, basal sensitivity and error sensitivity of each protein to identify the potential impact of genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations and the coupling of other pathways from the perspective of energy, respectively...
May 4, 2018: Oncotarget
G N Zholtkevych, K V Nosov, Yu G Bespalov, L I Rak, M Abhishek, E V Vysotskaya
The state-of-art research in the field of life's organization confronts the need to investigate a number of interacting components, their properties and conditions of sustainable behaviour within a natural system. In biology, ecology and life sciences, the performance of such stable system is usually related to homeostasis, a property of the system to actively regulate its state within a certain allowable limits. In our previous work, we proposed a deterministic model for systems' homeostasis. The model was based on dynamical system's theory and pairwise relationships of competition, amensalism and antagonism taken from theoretical biology and ecology...
May 24, 2018: Acta Biotheoretica
Karen L Fingerman
The period of young adulthood has transformed dramatically over the past few decades. Today, scholars refer to "emerging adulthood" and "transitions to adulthood" to describe adults in their 20s. Prolonged youth has brought concomitant prolonged parenthood. This article addresses 3 areas of change in parent/child ties, increased (a) contact between generations, (b) support from parents to grown children as well as coresidence and (c) affection between the generations. We apply the Multidimensional Intergenerational Support Model (MISM) to explain these changes, considering societal (e...
November 2017: Innovation in Aging
A Frank, Jonathan Carroll-Nellenback, M Alberti, A Kleidon
We present a framework for studying generic behaviors possible in the interaction between a resource-harvesting technological civilization (an exo-civilization) and the planetary environment in which it evolves. Using methods from dynamical systems theory, we introduce and analyze a suite of simple equations modeling a population which consumes resources for the purpose of running a technological civilization and the feedback those resources drive on the state of the host planet. The feedbacks can drive the planet away from the initial state the civilization originated in and into domains that are detrimental to its sustainability...
May 2018: Astrobiology
Georgios D Sideridis, Panagiotis Simos, Angeliki Mouzaki, Dimitrios Stamovlasis, George K Georgiou
The purpose of the present study was to explain the moderating role of rapid automatized naming (RAN) in word reading with a cusp catastrophe model. We hypothesized that increases in RAN performance speed beyond a critical point would be associated with the disruption in word reading, consistent with a "generic shutdown" hypothesis. Participants were 587 elementary schoolchildren (Grades 2-4), among whom 87 had reading comprehension difficulties per the IQ-achievement discrepancy criterion. Data were analyzed via a cusp catastrophe model derived from the nonlinear dynamics systems theory...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Henna Hasson, Per Nilsen, Hanna Augustsson, Ulrica von Thiele Schwarz
BACKGROUND: A considerable proportion of interventions provided to patients lacks evidence of their effectiveness. This implies that patients may receive ineffective, unnecessary, or even harmful care. Thus, in addition to implementing evidence-based practices, there is also a need to abandon interventions that are not based on best evidence, i.e., low-value care. However, research on de-implementation is limited, and there is a lack of knowledge about how effective de-implementation processes should be carried out...
May 15, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
Muhammad Rizwan Azam, Sahar Fazal, Mukhtar Ullah, Aamer I Bhatti
The authors have proposed a systems theory-based novel drug design approach for the p53 pathway. The pathway is taken as a dynamic system represented by ordinary differential equations-based mathematical model. Using control engineering practices, the system analysis and subsequent controller design is performed for the re-activation of wild-type p53. p53 revival is discussed for both modes of operation, i.e. the sustained and oscillatory. To define the problem in control system paradigm, modification in the existing mathematical model is performed to incorporate the effect of Nutlin...
June 2018: IET Systems Biology
Sara M St George, Dawn K Wilson, M Lee Van Horn
This study examined the effects of a family-based health promotion intervention on the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity, sedentary behavior, and fruit and vegetable intake of African American parents. Eighty-nine African American parents (41.5 ± 8.5 years; 92% females; 74% obese; 64% < $40 K income) and adolescents (12.5 ± 1.4 years; 61% girls; 48% obese) were randomized to a 6-week behavioral skills plus positive parenting and peer monitoring intervention grounded in social cognitive, self-determination, and family systems theories or a general health comparison program...
April 28, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Zhi Gang Yan, Jun Qing Li
The areas of the habitat and bamboo forest, and the size of the giant panda wild population have greatly increased, while habitat fragmentation and local population isolation have also intensified in recent years. Accurate evaluation of ecosystem status of the panda in the giant panda distribution area is important for giant panda conservation. The ecosystems of the distribution area and six mountain ranges were subdivided into habitat and population subsystems based on the hie-rarchical system theory. Using the panda distribution area as the study area and the three national surveys as the time node, the evolution laws of ecosystems were studied using the entropy method, coefficient of variation, and correlation analysis...
December 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Liisa Voutilainen, Pentti Henttonen, Mikko Kahri, Niklas Ravaja, Mikko Sams, Anssi Peräkylä
Two central dimensions in psychotherapeutic work are a therapist's empathy with clients and challenging their judgments. We investigated how they influence psychophysiological responses in the participants. Data were from psychodynamic therapy sessions, 24 sessions from 5 dyads, from which 694 therapist's interventions were coded. Heart rate and electrodermal activity (EDA) of the participants were used to index emotional arousal. Facial muscle activity (electromyography) was used to index positive and negative emotional facial expressions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Lluis L Trulla, Nicola Di Stefano, Alessandro Giuliani
In sixth century BC, Pythagoras discovered the mathematical foundation of musical consonance and dissonance. When auditory frequencies in small-integer ratios are combined, the result is a harmonious perception. In contrast, most frequency combinations result in audible, off-centered by-products labeled "beating" or "roughness;" these are reported by most listeners to sound dissonant. In this paper, we consider second-order beats, a kind of beating recognized as a product of neural processing, and demonstrate that the data-driven approach of Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) allows for the reconstruction of the order in which interval ratios are ranked in music theory and harmony...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jomkwan Yothasamut, Laura Camfield, Michael Pfeil
PURPOSE: Thai government agencies and the business sector have been promoting milk consumption. Considering the robust and continual movements by those actors to promote milk consumption among children in Thailand at the national level, this study aims to investigate milk-consumption practices and values towards milk consumption at pre-school, family and individual levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional qualitative study employs observation and interview methods, along with the Ecological System Theory as a framework...
December 2018: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Christina C Wieczorek, Peter Nowak, Susan B Frampton, Jürgen M Pelikan
OBJECTIVE: Present and discuss the development and basic structure of a multilevel approach to strengthen patient and family engaged care, "The New Haven Recommendations on partnering with patients, families and citizens to enhance performance and quality in health promoting hospitals and health services". METHODS: A generic literature review was conducted followed by a Delphi procedure to prepare the New Haven Recommendations. From systems theory perspective, three conceptual levels are used to map action areas to enhance patient and family engaged care...
April 10, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
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