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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777966/determinants-of-choice-of-delivery-place-testing-rational-choice-theory-and-habitus-theory
#1
Anja Broda, Juliane Krüger, Stephanie Schinke, Andreas Weber
OBJECTIVE: The current study uses two antipodal social science theories, the rational choice theory and the habitus theory, and applies these to describe how women choose between intraclinical (i.e., hospital-run birth clinics) and extraclinical (i.e., midwife-led birth centres or home births) delivery places. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, MEASUREMENTS: Data were collected in a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among 189 women. A list of 22 determinants, conceptualized to capture the two theoretical concepts, were rated on a 7-point Likert scale with 1 = unimportant to 7 = very important...
May 7, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776841/-medical-simulation-as-a-tool-in-the-training-of-perinatal-professionals
#2
B Tosello, J Blanc, C Kelway, V Pellegrin, E Quarello, F Comte, C Zakarian, C D'Ercole
Though technology plays an increasingly important role in modern health systems, human performance remains a major determinant of safety, effectiveness and efficiency of patient care. This is especially true in the delivery room. Thus, the training of professionals must aim not only for the acquisition of theory and practical skills on an individual basis, but also for the learning of teamwork systematically. Training health professionals with simulation enhances their theoretical knowledge and meets formal requirements in literacy, technical skills and communication...
May 15, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774943/-progress-in-prophylatic-hyperthermic-intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-for-advanced-gastric-carcinoma
#3
Xinhua Chen, Jun Luo, Hao Liu, Yuehong Chen, Yanfeng Hu, Tuanjie Li, Tian Lin, Yu Zhu, Mingli Zhao, Hao Chen, Guoxin Li, Jiang Yu
Advanced gastric cancer (AGC) has a high recurrence rate (especially peritoneal relapse) and a poor prognosis. Systematic chemotherapy or targeted therapy have not been able to significantly reduce the major cause of an unfavorable prognosis, namely the high peritoneal AGC recurrence rate post-surgery. Further studies concerning the application of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) post curative surgery for AGC patients, namely the prophylactic HIPEC (P-HIPEC), have involved a prophylactic approach to prevent peritoneal relapse following curative gastrectomy in high-risk patients...
May 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774765/-staying-safe-a-narrative-review-of-falls-prevention-in-people-with-parkinson-s-pdsafe
#4
Sophia Hulbert, Lynn Rochester, Alice Nieuwboer, Vicki Goodwin, Carolyn Fitton, Kim Chivers-Seymour, Ann Ashburn
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease demonstrates a spectrum of motor and non-motor symptoms. Falling is common and disabling. Current medical management shows minimal impact to reduce falls or fall-related risk factors, such as deficits in gait, strength, and postural instability. Despite evidence supporting rehabilitation in reducing fall risk factors, the most appropriate intervention to reduce overall fall rate remains inconclusive. This article aims to 1) synthesise current evidence and conceptual models of falls rehabilitation in Parkinson's in a narrative review; and based on this evidence, 2) introduce the treatment protocol used in the falls prevention and multi-centre clinical trial "PDSAFE"...
May 18, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774439/surgical-education-simulation-and-simulators-updating-the-concept-of-validity
#5
REVIEW
Mitchell Goldenberg, Jason Y Lee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Competency-based medical education (CBME) is rooted in the use of iterative assessments. We must ensure that the assessments used in CBME are valid, to make acceptable and accurate decisions regarding the competency of a trainee. Until recently, much of the educational and assessment literature in urology have used a now-outdated method of determining validity, based on theory and recommendations from over 50 years ago. We describe a contemporary approach to gathering construct validity evidence for the assessment of urologic trainees, for use in both clinical and simulation environments...
May 17, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773951/the-role-of-neuroinflammation-and-neurovascular-dysfunction-in-major-depressive-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Sang Won Jeon, Yong-Ku Kim
Although depression has generally been explained with monoamine theory, it is far more multifactorial, and therapies that address the disease's pathway have not been developed. In this context, an understanding of neuroinflammation and neurovascular dysfunction would enable a more comprehensive approach to depression. Inflammation is in a sense a type of allostatic load involving the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems. Neuroinflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of depression by increasing proinflammatory cytokines, activating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, increasing glucocorticoid resistance, and affecting serotonin synthesis and metabolism, neuronal apoptosis and neurogenesis, and neuroplasticity...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773688/understanding-patients-perceptions-of-asthma-control-a-qualitative-study
#7
Natalie Bidad, Neil Barnes, Chris Griffiths, Rob Horne
Asthma control is suboptimal for many sufferers despite the existence of effective treatments. Patients' self-management is influenced by their perceptions of asthma and its treatment. This study explored sufferers' perceptions of asthma control and their influence on self-management behaviours.Participants (n=42) recruited from primary and secondary care asthma clinics in London each underwent a qualitative interview exploring perceptions and experiences of asthma control. Purposive sampling ensured variation in disease severity, degree of asthma control, age and socioeconomic status...
May 17, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772460/estrogen-receptor-negative-progesterone-receptor-positive-breast-cancer-nobody-s-land-or-just-an-artifact
#8
REVIEW
Michał Kunc, Wojciech Biernat, Elżbieta Senkus-Konefka
The estrogen receptor α (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PgR) are one of the most important prognostic and predictive immunohistochemical markers in breast cancer. Breast cancers may express various profiles of hormone receptors: ER(+)/PgR(+), ER(-)/PgR(-), ER(+)/PgR(-) and ER(-)/PgR(+). The existence of the latter profile is a matter of controversy since PgR expressions is induced by ER-dependent pathways in breast cancer cells. One of the most extensively propagated hypotheses trying to explain the origin of ER(-)/PgR(+) breast cancers claims that they are technical artifacts dependent on the immunohistochemical procedure...
May 14, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771880/-anti-vegf-therapy-for-diabetic-macular-edema-from-theory-to-clinical-practice
#9
A Zh Fursova, N V Chubar, M S Tarasov, I F Niculich, M A Vasilyeva, O G Gusarevich
PURPOSE: To evaluate clinical effectiveness of aflibercept therapy for patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) - both naïve to the drug and unresponsive to previous anti-VEGF treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 127 patients (127 eyes) divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 100 primary DME patients (100 eyes) with mean age of 68.48±2.56 years and average disease duration of 12.50±7.85 years. The second group comprised 27 patients (27 eyes) with resistant macular edema who had received three or more 0...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771228/clinical-leadership-training-an-evaluation-of-the-welsh-fellowship-programme
#10
Suzanne Phillips, Alison Bullock
Purpose UK fellowship schemes have been set up to address low-level engagement of doctors with leadership roles. Established in 2013, the Welsh Clinical Leadership Fellowship (WCLF) programme aims to recruit aspiring future clinical leaders and equip them with knowledge and skills to lead improvements in healthcare delivery. This paper aims to evaluate the 12-month WCLF programme in its first two years of operation. Design/methodology/approach Focused on the participants ( n = 8), the authors explored expectations of the programme, reactions to academic components (provided by Academi Wales) and learning from workplace projects and other opportunities...
May 8, 2018: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771227/team-development-among-physician-leaders-at-the-cleveland-clinic
#11
Tracy H Porter, James K Stoller, Scott J Allen
Purpose Since 1990, the Cleveland Clinic has trained physicians in team skills through various iterations of a program called Leading in Healthcare (LHC). In the present study, the authors utilize a case study approach to gain insight into the LHC curriculum, and more specifically, the team project. The purpose of this paper is to better understand the Cleveland Clinic's position on the issue and its approach to education - specifically among physicians. Design/methodology/approach The authors utilized a case study approach with four key program architects...
May 8, 2018: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770729/group-sequential-designs-for-negative-binomial-outcomes
#12
Tobias Mütze, Ekkehard Glimm, Heinz Schmidli, Tim Friede
Count data and recurrent events in clinical trials, such as the number of lesions in magnetic resonance imaging in multiple sclerosis, the number of relapses in multiple sclerosis, the number of hospitalizations in heart failure, and the number of exacerbations in asthma or in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often modeled by negative binomial distributions. In this manuscript, we study planning and analyzing clinical trials with group sequential designs for negative binomial outcomes. We propose a group sequential testing procedure for negative binomial outcomes based on Wald statistics using maximum likelihood estimators...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770246/development-of-the-imb-model-and-an-evidence-based-diabetes-self-management-mobile-application
#13
Eunjoo Jeon, Hyeoun-Ae Park
Objectives: This study developed a diabetes self-management mobile application based on the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model, evidence extracted from clinical practice guidelines, and requirements identified through focus group interviews (FGIs) with diabetes patients. Methods: We developed a diabetes self-management (DSM) app in accordance with the following four stages of the system development life cycle. The functional and knowledge requirements of the users were extracted through FGIs with 19 diabetes patients...
April 2018: Healthcare Informatics Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768953/baseline-performance-of-the-ischaemic-button-model-for-induction-of-adhesions-in-laboratory-rats
#14
Elwin Hh Mommers, Liu Hong, Audrey Jongen, Nicole D Bouvy
The ischaemic button model is frequently used for the induction of adhesions in laboratory rats. Male rats are often used because of the common belief that the peritesticular (intra-abdominal) fat in males facilitates adhesion formation, although this theory is not evidence based. Comparing the model's performance in both sexes is an important aspect of refining animal experiments. The aim of this study is to compare baseline performance of the modified ischaemic button model in both male and female rats. Follow-up was 1 week and noted endpoints were intra-abdominal adhesion formation and differences in welfare assessment...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768951/-theory-becoming-alive-the-learning-transition-process-of-newly-graduated-nurses-in-canada
#15
Violet Nour, Anne M Williams
Background Newly graduated nurses often encounter a gap between theory and practice in clinical settings. Although this has been the focus of considerable research, little is known about the learning transition process. Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of newly graduated nurses in acute healthcare settings within Canada. This study was conducted to gain a greater understanding of the experiences and challenges faced by graduates. Methods Grounded theory method was utilized with a sample of 14 registered nurses who were employed in acute-care settings...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche en Sciences Infirmières
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767759/comparing-auditory-only-and-audiovisual-word-learning-for-children-with-hearing-loss
#16
Jena McDaniel, Stephen Camarata, Paul Yoder
Although reducing visual input to emphasize auditory cues is a common practice in pediatric auditory (re)habilitation, the extant literature offers minimal empirical evidence for whether unisensory auditory-only (AO) or multisensory audiovisual (AV) input is more beneficial to children with hearing loss for developing spoken language skills. Using an adapted alternating treatments single case research design, we evaluated the effectiveness and efficiency of a receptive word learning intervention with and without access to visual speechreading cues...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767377/the-effect-of-omitted-covariates-in-marginal-and-partially-conditional-recurrent-event-analyses
#17
Yujie Zhong, Richard J Cook
There have been many advances in statistical methodology for the analysis of recurrent event data in recent years. Multiplicative semiparametric rate-based models are widely used in clinical trials, as are more general partially conditional rate-based models involving event-based stratification. The partially conditional model provides protection against extra-Poisson variation as well as event-dependent censoring, but conditioning on outcomes post-randomization can induce confounding and compromise causal inference...
May 16, 2018: Lifetime Data Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766459/cognitive-functioning-in-chiari-malformation-type-i-without-posterior-fossa-surgery
#18
Maitane García, Esther Lázaro, Juan Francisco López-Paz, Oscar Martínez, Manuel Pérez, Sarah Berrocoso, Mohammad Al-Rashaida, Imanol Amayra
Chiari Malformation type I (CM-I) is a neurological disorder characterized by a displacement of the cerebellar tonsils through the foramen magnum into the spinal canal. Most research has focused on physical symptomatology but few studies include neuropsychological examinations. Moreover, although current research highlights the involvement of the cerebellum on higher cognitive functions, little is known about cognitive consequences associated with CM-I. The aim of this study is to analyze cognitive functioning between 39 CM-I patients and 39 healthy controls, matched by gender, age and years of education...
May 15, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766349/recent-developments-in-the-role-of-coenzyme-q10-for-coronary-heart-disease-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Jessica Ayers, Jamie Cook, Rachel A Koenig, Evan M Sisson, Dave L Dixon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines recent randomized clinical trials evaluating the role of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in the management of coronary heart disease. RECENT FINDINGS: CoQ10 is one of the most commonly used dietary supplements in the USA. Due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, CoQ10 has been studied extensively for possible use in managing coronary heart disease. One of the most common applications of CoQ10 is to mitigate statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) based on the theory that SAMS are caused by statin depletion of CoQ10 in the muscle...
May 16, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765258/psychological-interventions-for-behavioral-adjustments-in-diabetes-care-a-value-based-approach-to-disease-control
#20
REVIEW
Boon-How Chew, Aaron Fernandez, Sazlina Shariff-Ghazali
Psychological aspects of a person, such as the personal value and belief systems, cognition and emotion, form the basis of human health behaviors, which, in turn, influence self-management, self-efficacy, quality of life, disease control and clinical outcomes in people with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus. However, psychological, psychosocial and behavioral interventions aimed at these groups of patients have yielded inconsistent effects in terms of clinical outcomes in clinical trials. This might have been due to differing conceptualization of health behavioral theories and models in the interventions...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
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